Citation Backup

Original Rules Boxes Common to All Styles

These boxes are mapped, so any changes here will change all the other boxes!

How often do I cite?

  • Remember: one citation at the end of a string of sentences or a paragraph cannot “cover” the entire section.
  • Cite a source the first time it is used in each paragraph.
  • Every sentence thereafter in the paragraph that uses information from this same source must contain either a signal phrase or a citation clearly indicating where the information came from.
    • Note: always use a citation (even if you also use a signal phrase) every time you quote material.

BACKUP Difference between List of References and a Bibliography

  • A List of References includes all works cited in a text
  • A Bibliography lists all works cited and consulted

For papers, check with your professors for their preference. Thesis Processing prefers a List of References for the following: 

  • Thesis
  • Capstone project report
  • MBA report
  • Dissertation

BACKUP Capitalization

Title Case: To Capitalize or Not: A Brief Tutorial

Sentence case: To capitalize or not: A brief tutorial

Note: Always format the information in your citations (titles, author names, etc.) according to the requirements of the citation style you are using, regardless of how it appears in the original source.

Missing Info

If any information is missing from a source (a journal with no volume number, for example), simply omit that information. For sources consulted in hardcopy, omit the URL and any additional verbiage that introduces it. Anything retrieved online, however, MUST have a link. The only exception is journals retrieved from a subscription database such as ProQuest.