Citation Backup

Original Rules Boxes Common to All Styles

These boxes are mapped, so any changes here will change all the other boxes!

How often to cite?

  • Remember: one citation at the end of a string of sentences or a paragraph cannot “cover” the entire section.
  • Cite a source the first time it is used in each paragraph.
  • Every sentence thereafter in the paragraph that uses information from this same source must contain either a signal phrase or a citation clearly indicating where the information came from.
    • Note: always use a citation (even if you also use a signal phrase) every time you quote material.

Note: I removed the box for Bibliography / List of References

I made a separate box for each style so that I could attach the PDF for each.

As a result I removed the "Formatted Bib / List of Refs" box from all the Rules.

Print vs. Online

When citing a source retrieved online, use the "online" format even when you or someone else printed out the material. For example, if you print out a thesis or your advisor provides you with a printed thesis, it is still categorized as an online document.

Only cite as a print source when the material has been produced by a publisher in hard copy. For example, if you obtain a print journal or book from the library stacks, it is categorized as a printed source.

Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Title Case: To Capitalize or Not: A Brief Tutorial


Sentence case: To capitalize or not: A brief tutorial

Note: Always format the information in your citations (titles, author names, etc.) according to the requirements of the citation style you are using, regardless of how it appears in the original source.

Missing Info

If any information is missing from a source (a journal with no volume number, for example), simply omit that information. For sources consulted in hardcopy, omit the URL and any additional verbiage that introduces it. Anything retrieved online, however, MUST have a link. The only exception is journals retrieved from a subscription database such as ProQuest.