Citation Backup

How often to cite? (mapped to BACKUP Rules All Styles)

  • Remember: one citation at the end of a string of sentences or a paragraph cannot “cover” the entire section.
     
  • Cite a source the first time it is used in each paragraph.
     
  • Every sentence thereafter in the paragraph that uses information from this same source must contain either a signal phrase or a citation clearly indicating where the information came from.
     
    • Note: always use a citation (even if you also use a signal phrase) every time you quote material.

Footnote Placement in Sentence

Where in the sentence does my footnote go?
 

  • Single footnotes go at the end of a sentence, after the punctuation, like this.1
  • “If the sentence ends with a quotation, the quotation marks go outside the punctuation, then the footnote is placed after the quotation marks, like this.”2
  • Please do not insert any spaces before a footnote; please do put a space between a footnote and the beginning of the next sentence.

 

Multiple Citations in a Single Sentence
 

When citing more than one source in a single sentence, there are two options:

  • Place a single footnote at the end of the sentence, outside the punctuation, and include all citations in this footnote, separated by semicolons. See CMS 14.57.
    Place each footnote at the end of the clause containing the information it cites. See CMS 14.26.

Never place more than one footnote at the end of a sentence. See CMS 14.28.


In the paragraph below, the reference numbers are highlighted in yellow and the signal phrases are highlighted in blue. Note that the second sentence is common knowledge, whereas the final sentence is clearly the opinion of the author. 

Red and yellow are the best colors with which to decorate your restaurant because they induce feelings of hunger.1 Consider popular fast-food chains, which often use red and yellow in their advertising and décor. According to Smith and Jones’ study,2 restaurant customers felt more energized in red and yellow environments, which encouraged them to order more food. The same study indicated that patrons felt relaxed in blue and purple environments, which encouraged them to “spend more time considering the the menu options and eat at a slower pace.”1 Although blue décor can give your restaurant a more casual, laid-back feel, Smith and Jones believe it encourages patrons to linger at their tables without ordering additional food or beverages.2 Accordingly, it is difficult to identify a popular chain restaurant that decorates with calmer hues.

 

For more information, see the TPO's Citing Responsibly in Chicago Notes & Bibliography (PDF).

Difference between List of References and a Bibliography

  • A List of References includes all works cited in a text
  • A Bibliography lists all works cited and consulted

For papers, check with your professors for their preference. Thesis Processing prefers a List of References for the following: 

  • Thesis
  • Capstone project report
  • MBA report
  • Dissertation

Formatted List of References / Bibliography

Acronyms: Organization as Author

Do not include acronyms with organizations listed as authors in the List of References and footnotes.

 

Like this:

N: Department of Defense, Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, DoD Instruction 1000.01 (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012), 36.

S: Department of Defense, Identification (ID) Cards Required, 4.

B: Department of Defense. Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention. DoD Instruction 1000.01. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012.

 

Not this:

N: Department of Defense (DoD), Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, DoD Instruction 1000.01 (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012), 36.

S: Department of Defense (DoD), Identification (ID) Cards Required, 4.

B: Department of Defense (DoD). Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention. DoD Instruction 1000.01. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012.

Translations and Works Not in English

For works with a translator, follow the format for edited books but substitute "trans." for "ed." in the notes and "translated" for "edited" in the references:
 

N: Maxence Manqué, Old and Rejected Poems, trans. Pemily Hickinson (Scituate, MA: Narrow Fellow Press, 1989), 472.

S: Manqué, Old and Rejected Poems, 889.

B: Manqué, Maxence. Old and Rejected Poems. Translated by Pemily Hickinson. Scituate, MA: Narrow Fellow Press, 1989.
 

For works in languages other than English, format the title in sentence case, then give the translation, also in sentence case, in square brackets immediately following:
 

N: Maxence Manqué, "L'esthétique de l'échec" [The aesthetics of failure], in Éviter les clichés et des autres clichés [Avoiding clichés and other clichés], ed. Hamish Sweeney (New Brunswick: Stew & Offspring, 1992), 5.

S: Manqué, "L'esthétique de l'échec," 11.

B: Manqué, Maxence. "L'esthétique de l'échec" [The aesthetics of failure]. In Éviter les clichés et des autres clichés [Avoiding clichés and other clichés], edited by Hamish Sweeney, 3–44. New Brunswick: Stew & Offspring, 1992.

3-em Dash for Repeating Authors in the Reference List

Warning: Do not replace author names with 3-em dashes until List of References is properly alphabetized.

For successive entries by the same author, editor, translator, or compiler, a 3-em dash (followed by a period or comma, depending on the presence of an abbreviation such as ed.) replaces the name after the first appearance (but see 14.67). Alphabetization is by title of work (abbreviations such as ed. or trans., which must always be included, do not influence the order of entries). See also 14.71.

Capitalization (mapped to BACKUP Rules All Styles)

Title Case: To Capitalize or Not: A Brief Tutorial

 

Sentence case: To capitalize or not: A brief tutorial


Note: Always format the information in your citations (titles, author names, etc.) according to the requirements of the citation style you are using, regardless of how it appears in the original source.

Missing Info (mapped to BACKUP Rules All Styles)

If any information is missing from a source (a journal with no volume number, for example), simply omit that information. For sources consulted in hardcopy, omit the URL and any additional verbiage that introduces it. Anything retrieved online, however, MUST have a link. The only exception is journals retrieved from a subscription database such as ProQuest. 

Ibid. and Shortened Citations

Chicago prefers shorter citations, but ibid. is still allowed when the footnote is identical to the one right before it. See CMS 14.034Be consistent. Use either ibid. or shorter citations.


There are four forms of notes:
 

  • Full citation for first appearance
     
  • Short citations for subsequent appearances: Author or Organization name, Title, page number.
     
  • Shorter citations contain only author or organization name and page number and appear directly after full or short citations until you change to another source. Use instead of ibid.
     
  • Ibid. (not preferred)

Example Footnotes List:

 

Note Explanation
11 Toni Morrison, Beloved (New York: Vintage, 2004), 3. full citation on first appearance
12 Morrison, 18. shorter citation indicating continued use of Beloved
13 Morrison, 18. shorter citation indicating continued use of Beloved
14 Toni Morrison, Song of Solomon (New York: Vintage, 2004), 45. full citation on first appearance
15 Morrison, 47. shorter citation indicating continued use of Song of Solomon
16 Morrison, Beloved, 52. short citation reintroducing Beloved, a source already cited in full
17 Morrison, 55. shorter citation indicating continued use of Beloved
18 Morrison, Song of Solomon, 324–25. short citation reintroducing Song of Solomon, a source already cited in full
19 Morrison, 238. shorter citation indicating continued use of Song of Solomon
20 Morrison, 239. shorter citation indicating continued use of Song of Solomon
21 Morrison, Song of Solomon, 240; Beloved, 32. short citation indicating that the information comes from two sources already cited in full (a shorter citation, which leaves out the title(s), would be ambiguous and therefore insufficient)
22 Morrison, Beloved, 33. short citation indicating which of the two Morrison sources the information is from
23 Morrison, 34. shorter citation continuing to refer only to Beloved
24 FBI, “Stolen Memories.” short citation reintroducing an online source already cited in full (not shown here)
25 FBI. shorter citation indicating continued use of the FBI source
26 Hawthorne and Nekeip, "A Shortening of Citations," 23. short citation reintroducing a source already cited in full (not shown here)
27 Hawthorne and Nekeip, 564. shorter citation indicating continued use of Hawthorne and Nekeip

 

Page Numbers

Always include page numbers in notes when available.

N: Michael Pollan and Daisy Potatohead, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

S: Pollan and Potatohead, The Omnivore’s Dilemma, 100.


For book chapters, include page-number range in List of References/Bibliography.

B: Haynes, Peter. “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy.” In Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, edited by Daniel Moran and James A. Russell, 62–74. New York: Routledge, 2009.

URLs

  • Include a retrieval date if the source material has no date.
     
  • Always include a period at the end of the URL.

Et al.

  • Up to three authors:
    • In the Bibliography / List of References, include all of them
    • In the footnote, include all of them
    • In the text, include all of them
       
  • Four to ten authors:
    • In the Bibliography / List of References, include all of them
    • In the footnote, list only the first author, followed by et al.
    • In the text, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”)
       
  • More than ten authors:
    • In the Bibliography / List of References, include only the first seven, followed by et al.
    • In the footnote, list only the first author, followed by et al.
    • In the text, list only the first author, followed by et al.

Secondary Sources

A secondary source is a source that cites some other work that you discuss in your text.

Whenever possible, consult primary sources and your sources’ sources yourself. Upon investigation of the primary source, you may find you disagree with the secondary source author’s analysis or methods. Only use secondary sources when the primary source is unavailable.


How to Incorporate Secondary Sources

The following passage incorporates a properly credited secondary source. The secondary source information is highlighted in yellow; the primary source information is highlighted in blue.

Walker describes data collected in 1999 by Miguel Roig that correlates students’ inadequate paraphrasing to poor reading comprehension. Citing Roig’s data, Walker explains that “students do in fact possess skills necessary for paraphrasing but … may be impeded from applying those skills when dealing with rigorous text”1

Note: Footnotes for secondary sources must cite both the primary and the secondary source; in the references list, include only the secondary source (the source you consulted—see example).