|Chicago Notes & Bibliography / Turabian Rules|
When citing more than one source in a single sentence, there are two options:
Never place more than one footnote at the end of a sentence. See CMS 14.28.
In the paragraph below, the reference numbers are highlighted in yellow and the signal phrases are highlighted in blue. Note that the second sentence is common knowledge, whereas the final sentence is clearly the opinion of the author.
For more information, see the TPO's Citing Responsibly in Chicago Notes & Bibliography.
For papers, check with your professors for their preference. Thesis Processing prefers a List of References for the following:
(Turabian sample list is forthcoming.)
Chicago prefers shorter citations, but ibid. is still allowed when the footnote is identical to the one right before it. See CMS 14.034. Be consistent. Use either ibid. or shorter citations.
Do not include acronyms with organizations listed as authors in the List of References and footnotes.
N: Department of Defense, Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, DOD Instruction 1000.01 (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012), 36.
S: Department of Defense, Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, 4.
B: Department of Defense. Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention. DOD Instruction 1000.01. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012.
N: Department of Defense (DOD), Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, DOD Instruction 1000.01 (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012), 36.
S: Department of Defense (DOD), Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, 4.
B: Department of Defense (DOD). Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention. DOD Instruction 1000.01. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012.
Always include page numbers in notes when available.
N: Michael Pollan and Daisy Potatohead, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.
S: Pollan and Potatohead, The Omnivore’s Dilemma, 100.
For book chapters, include page-number range in List of References/Bibliography.
B: Haynes, Peter. “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy.” In Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, edited by Daniel Moran and James A. Russell, 62–74. New York: Routledge, 2009.
A secondary source is a source that cites some other work that you discuss in your text.
Whenever possible, consult primary sources and your sources’ sources yourself. Upon investigation of the primary source, you may find you disagree with the secondary source author’s analysis or methods. Only use secondary sources when the primary source is unavailable.
The following passage incorporates a properly credited secondary source. The secondary source information is highlighted in yellow; the primary source information is highlighted in blue.
Walker describes data collected in 1999 by Miguel Roig that correlates students’ inadequate paraphrasing to poor reading comprehension. Citing Roig’s data, Walker explains that “students do in fact possess skills necessary for paraphrasing but … may be impeded from applying those skills when dealing with rigorous text”1
Note: Footnotes for secondary sources must cite both the primary and the secondary source; in the references list, include only the secondary source (the source you consulted—see example).
Warning: Do not replace author names with 3-em dashes until List of References is properly alphabetized.
For successive entries by the same author, editor, translator, or compiler, a 3-em dash (followed by a period or comma, depending on the presence of an abbreviation such as ed.) replaces the name after the first appearance (but see 14.67). Alphabetization is by title of work (abbreviations such as ed. or trans., which must always be included, do not influence the order of entries). See also 14.71.
Title Case: To Capitalize or Not: A Brief Tutorial
Sentence case: To capitalize or not: A brief tutorial
Note: Always format the information in your citations (titles, author names, etc.) according to the requirements of the citation style you are using, regardless of how it appears in the original source.