Citation Styles

Chicago Author-Date

Chicago Guides

Chicago Author-Date Citation Examples

There are two different systems within the Chicago style: Notes and Bibliography, and Author-Date.
The examples below are for Chicago's Author-Date system.
Please check with your faculty advisor to see which system is preferred in your department. 

The citation format is different when sources are cited in-text as compared to listed in the Reference List. In the table below:

  • stands for in-text citations
  • stands for Reference List entries

If you don't see a citation example that meets your needs, try one of the guides on the left. 


  • If you don't see a citation example that meets your needs, try one of the guides on the left.
Source Type Citation Example
Bill or Resolution

“Almost all legal works use notes for documentation and few use bibliographies. Any work using the author-date style that needs to do more than mention the occasional source in the text should therefore use supplementary footnotes or endnotes.” (CMS, 15.54)

Weave occasional mention of legal works into the text: It has been a dozen years since Congress passed the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which organized 22 different agencies as the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

Use footnotes (preferred) or endnotes for substantial citation of legal works or if more formal citations are desired.

Reference format:
1. Title, bill or resolution number, xxx Cong. (year).

1. Homeland Security Act of 2002. H.R. 5005, 107th Cong. (2002).

Blog Post or Comment

Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to The Stephen Dubner Blog on June 25, 2014, . . .”) and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. 

T: (Dubner 2014) 

R: Dubner, Stephen J. 2014. “The Quality-Quantity Tradeoff Dilemma.” Freakonomics Blog. http://freakonomics.com/2014/06/25/the-quality-quantity-tradeoff-dilemma/.

Book Chapter
(in edited book)

T: (Trinkunas 2009, 77)

R: Trinkunas, Harold A. 2009. “Energy Security: The Case of Venezuela.” In Energy Security and Global Politics, edited by Daniel Moran and James Russell, 175–187. New York: Routledge.

Book (electronic)

T: (Krishnan 2008)

R: Krishnan, Armin. 2008. War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. Aldershot, England: Ashgate. Ebrary Reader e-book. http://www.ebrary.com/corp/.

Book (print)

T: (Cordesman, Mausner, and Kasten 2009, 50)

R: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. 2009. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies.

“For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the reference list entry”; in the text, list only the first author, followed by et al. (The Chicago Manual of Style [hereafter referred to as CMS],16th ed., Citation Quick Guide [CQG])

(Smith et al. 2002)

Code of Federal Regulations

“Works using the author-date style and citing only a handful of legal and public documents may limit those citations to the text, using citation sentences and clauses that include the same information as footnotes, as suggested in The Bluebook; those with more than a very few legal-style citations, however, may need to supplement the author-date system with footnotes or endnotes.” (CMS, 14.283)

For substantial citation of legal works, or if more formal citations are desired, include full citations in footnotes (preferred) or endnotes:

1. Title/Number, Volume Source § xxx (year).

1: Renewable Energy Production Incentives. 10  C.F.R. § 451. (2006).
2: FEC Sunshine Regulations. 11 C.F.R. § 2 (2003).

Conference Proceedings

Paper presented at conference (unpublished):

Adelman, Rachel. 2009. “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24.

(Adelman 2009)


Paper published in a conference proceeding (published in book form):

T: (Katz, Gabayan, and Aghajan 2007)

R: Katz, Itai, Kevin Gabayan, and Hamid Aghajan. 2007. “A Multi-Touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras.” In Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 4678, Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems, edited by Jacques Blanc-Talon, Wilfried Philips, Dan Popescu, and Paul Scheunders, 55–107. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Examples from CMS CQG

Congressional Hearing

Try to incorporate the attribution to testimony into the body text. For example: When J. Michael Gilmore testified before the House Committee on the Budget on June 2, 2010, he stated that things needed to change.

For substantial citation of legal works, or if more formal citations are desired, use footnotes (preferred) or endnotes:
1. Long-term sustainability of current defense plans: Hearing before the Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives, 111th Cong., 1 (2009).

Congressional Report or Document

T: (Select Comm. on Homeland Security 2000)

R: Select Comm. on Homeland Security. (2000). Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. Report 106-661. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Court Cases – U.S. Supreme Court

“Works with only a handful of citations to legal and public documents may be able to limit these to the text. ... Note that in legal style, parentheses within parentheses are used.” (CMS, 15.55)

Examples of weaving citation into text:
In At&T Corp. v. Iowa Utils. Bd. (525 U.S. 366 (1999)), the court ruled that ...

In the Congressional Record for that day (147 Cong. Rec. 19,000 (2001)), Senator Conrad Burns was reported as saying that …

Footnote:
1. Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date)

1. AT&T Corp. v. Iowa Utils. Bd., 525 U.S. 366 (1999).

(Examples from CMS 15.55 and 14.289)

Directive and Instruction

 

T: (Under Secretary of Defense [AT&L] 2003)

R: Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L). 2003. The Defense Acquisition System. DoD Directive 5000.1. Washington, DC: Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L), May 12. http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/500001p.pdf.

Executive Order

Try to incorporate the citation into the body text, for example:

President Obama signed Executive Order No. 13653 on November 1, 2013, which guides the federal government in preparing for climate change.

If a more formal citation is desired, use the following format.
T: (Executive Order No. 13653, 2013)
R: Executive Order No. 13653. 2013. 3 C.F.R. 330.

Executive orders are published in title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations; the executive order in our example appears on page 330.

Field Manual

T: (Department of the Army 1995)

R: Department of the Army. 1995. Sniper Training (FM 23-10). Washington, DC: Department of the Army.

Government Report:

Congressional Research Service (CRS) or Government Accountability Office (GAO)

An official report should have publisher and/or copyright information. If no publisher or copyright information is shown, then format as a webpage.

T: (Best 2011, 44–78)

R: Best, Richard A. 2011. Intelligence Issues for Congress. CRS Report No. RL33539. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf.


T: (Berrick 2011, 7)

R: Berrick, Cathleen A. 2011. Homeland Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity. GAO-10-106. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office.

Journal Article (online)

Access dates are not required by Chicago in citations of formally published electronic sources.

T: (Liu 2015, 312)

R: Liu, Jui-Ch’i. 2015. “Beholding the Feminine Sublime: Lee Miller’s War Photography.” Signs 40, no. 2 (Winter): 308–19. doi.org/10.1086/678242.


T: (Pfenninger 2017)

R: Pfenninger, Stefan. 2017. "Energy Scientists Must Show Their Workings." Nature 542, no. 393 (February 23). https://www.nature.com/news/energy-scientists-must-show-their-workings-1.21517.

Journal Article (print)

T: (Griffin 2009, 325)

R: Griffin, Geb. 2009. “Managing Peacekeeping Communications.” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3(4): 317–327.

Lecture

Lectures can be referred to in running text and omitted from the List of References.

Jane Smith gave a lecture titled “How to Write a Thesis” on March 29, 2013, at California State University, Monterey Bay. In her presentation, she described five steps to help streamline the writing process.

Map (online)

T: (Google Maps 2014).

R: Google Maps. 2014. “Monterey Bay.” Accessed January 4. https://www.google.com/maps/place/Monterey,+CA/@36.5943789,-121.8674989,14z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x808de45270b5fb91:0xee484909d84a3d5e.

Newspaper Article (print and online)

“Newspaper and magazine articles are more commonly cited in running text (‘As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear noted in a New York Times article on February 27, 2010, . . .’). The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If you consulted the article online, include a URL. If no author is identified, the name of the newspaper stands in place of the author.” (CMS, 14.207)

T: (Stolberg and Pear 2010)

R: Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, and Robert Pear. 2010. “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.” New York Times, February 27.


T: (Meikle 2015)

R: Meikle, James. 2015. “Nearly 75% of Men and 65% of Women in UK to Be Overweight by 2030—Study.” Guardian (UK edition), May 5. http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/may/05/obesity-crisis-projections-uk-2030-men-women.


If a newspaper article is unsigned, the title of the newspaper stands in place of the author.

T: (New York Times 2002)

R: New York Times. 2002. “In Texas, Ad Heats Up Race for Governor.” July 30, 2002.

Examples from CMS CQG

 

Personal Communication or Interview

Cite in text only; do not include in reference list. Finally, fully identify each person cited elsewhere in the text, as in place of work, expertise, or relevance to subject matter.

T: (Joe Brown, personal communication)

T: (Jane Smith, unpublished data)

Examples adapted from CMS, 15.48

 

Public Law:
U.S. Statutes at Large/U.S. Code

“Any work using the author-date style that needs to do more than mention the occasional source in the text should therefore use supplementary footnotes or endnotes.” (CMS, 15.54)

Weave occasional mention of legal works into the text: The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires employers to provide reasonable accommodations to disabled workers.

For substantial citation of legal works, or if more formal citations are desired, include full citations in footnotes (preferred) or endnotes using this format:

1. Name of Act, Volume Source § section number (year).


1: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Pub. L. No. 101-336, § 2, 104 Stat. 328 (1991).
2. Seal of the United States. 4 U.S.C. § 41 (1947).

Scientific Database

T: (NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database 2009)

R: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. 2009. Object name IRAS F00400+4059. Accessed October 6. http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/.

Example adapted from CMS, 14.272

Secondary Source

“If an original source is unavailable, and ‘quoted in’ must be resorted to, mention the original author and date in the text, and cite the secondary source in the reference list entry. The text citation would include the words ‘quoted in.’” (CMS, 15.52). 

In text: In Louis Zukofsky’s “Sincerity and Objectification,” from the February 1931 issue of Poetry magazine (quoted in Costello 1981) . . .

Cite secondary source in reference list: Costello, Bonnie. 1981. Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Examples from CMS 15.52

Speech

T: (King 1963)

R: King, Martin Luther. 1963. “I Have a Dream.” Speech. Civil Rights March in Washington, DC, August 28.

Technical Report

See examples under Government Report (CRS or GAO)

Thesis

T: (Moon 2009)

R: Moon, Thomas D. 2009. “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam.” Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School. http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4694.


T: (Moon 2009)

R: Moon, Thomas D. 2009. “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam.” Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School.

Website, Webpage

To cite a dated web article:

T: (Ladislaw 2009)

R:  Ladislaw, Sarah O. 2009. “The Day after Copenhagen.” Center for Strategic & International Studies. http://csis.org/publication/day-after-copenhagen.


Only include access date if no other date appears on the webpage.

To cite an undated article, use the last modified date (often found at the bottom of the webpage). If a last modified date is unavailable, use an access date—do not use “n.d.” (no date).

Last modified and accessed dates are split into two, with the year first, and the month and day appearing in the last half of the entry.

T: (Central Intelligence Agency 2016)

R: Central Intelligence Agency. 2016. “The World Factbook: Iran.” Last modified September 6. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html.

T: (Google 2016)

R: Google. 2016. “Google Privacy Policy.” Accessed August 29. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.


Jane's example

T: (Jane’s IHS Markit 2016)

R: Jane’s IHS Markit. 2016. “Executive Summary: Mali, Sentinel Security Assessment—North Africa.” Last modified September 19. https://janes.ihs.com.libproxy.nps.edu/NorthAfrica/Display/1303746.

Wikipedia

*Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your advisor if it is an acceptable choice for your topic in his or her judgment.

Best cited in text, however, if a more formal citation is needed:

T: (Wikipedia 2008)

R: Wikipedia. 2008. S.v. “Stevie Nicks.” Last modified July 19. http//en.Wikipedeia.org/wiki/Stevie_Nicks.

YouTube (or any kind of streaming video)

T: (CBS 1968)

R: CBS. 1968. “Horowitz at Carnegie Hall 2-Chopin Nocturne in Fm Op.55.” YouTube video. 5:53. From a performance televised by CBS on September 22. Posted by “hubanj.” January 9, 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cDVBtuWkMS8.

Example adapted from CMS, 14.280

 

General Rules

Based on the 16th ed. of the Chicago Manual of Style.


 

Author-Date System

  • Single space within and between citations. [NPS thesis:  Single space within, double space between.]
  • Repeated-author entries in the List of References are ordered by year of publication.
  • Repeated-author, repeated-year entries in the List of References are differentiated by small letters: (Doe 2000a), (Doe 2000b), (Doe 2000c).
     
  • Capitalize all title words except articles and prepositions.
     
  • Italicize book, journal, and public document titles, NOT article titles.
     
  • For more information, see the Chicago Manual of Style Online > Author-Date system

 


URLs
 

  • If no publication or last modified date is available, include an access date.
     
  • Access dates are NOT recommended unless the source is likely to have substantive updates or is in time-sensitive fields such as medicine or law or if required by the publisher. Place any access dates in front of the URL: Accessed March 1, 2015. www.website.com.
  • Last modified dates should not be provided in addition to, or in lieu of, the access date.
  • End all List of References entries with a period, even those ending in a URL.
  • Do not underline URLs.

 


Sources within a Library or Other Commercial Databases

  • Provide a DOI (preferred) or stable URL for the item. If not available, include the name of the database along with identification number.