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Citation Styles

Chicago Style

Chicago Guides

Chicago Manual of Style Full Guide

Quick Guide

The official, fully searchable, online version of CMoS
Available to NPS authenticated users

imageU.S. Naval War College Pocket Writing and Style Guide
Lots of examples of DoD specific documents

Purdue Online Writing Lab
Comprehensive guide with many general examples

imageResearch and Documentation Online
Especially good examples of specific Web based references

Shows how to create a citation from a "picture" of a source

Citation Examples



There are two different systems within the Chicago style: Notes and Bibliography, and Author-Date. The examples below are for Chicago's Author-Date system.
Please check with your faculty advisor to see which system is preferred in your department.

In the table below, "T" stands for in-text citations. "R" stands for Reference List entries. The citation format is different when sources are cited in-text as compared to listed in the Reference List. 

Source Type Citation Example
Bills or Resolutions

“Almost all legal works use notes for documentation and few use bibliographies. Any work using the author-date style that needs to do more than mention the occasional source in the text should therefore use supplementary footnotes or endnotes.” (CMS, 15.54)

Weave occasional mention of legal works into the text: It has been a dozen years since Congress passed the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which organized 22 different agencies as the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

Use footnotes (preferred) or endnotes for substantial citation of legal works or if more formal citations are desired.

Reference format:
1. Title, bill or resolution number, xxx Cong. (year).

1. Homeland Security Act of 2002. H.R. 5005, 107th Cong. (2002).

Book Chapters
(in edited books)

T: (Trinkunas 2009, 77)

R: Trinkunas, Harold A. 2009. “Energy Security: The Case of Venezuela.” In Energy Security and Global Politics, edited by Daniel Moran and James Russell, 175–187. New York: Routledge.

Books (electronic)

T: (Krishnan 2008)

R: Krishnan, Armin. 2008. War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. Aldershot, England: Ashgate. Ebrary Reader e-book.

Books (print)

(T): (Cordesman, Mausner, and Kasten 2009, 50)

(R): Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. 2009. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies.

“For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the reference list entry”; in the text, list only the first author, followed by et al. (The Chicago Manual of Style [hereafter referred to as CMS],16th ed., Citation Quick Guide [CQG])

(Smith et al. 2002)

Code of Federal Regulations

“Works using the author-date style and citing only a handful of legal and public documents may limit those citations to the text, using citation sentences and clauses that include the same information as footnotes, as suggested in The Bluebook; those with more than a very few legal-style citations, however, may need to supplement the author-date system with footnotes or endnotes.” (CMS, 14.283)

For substantial citation of legal works, or if more formal citations are desired, include full citations in footnotes (preferred) or endnotes:

Reference format:
1. Title/Number, Volume Source § xxx (year).

1: Renewable Energy Production Incentives. 10  C.F.R. § 451. (2006).
2: FEC Sunshine Regulations. 11 C.F.R. § 2 (2003).

Conference Proceedings

Paper presented at conference (unpublished):

Adelman, Rachel. 2009. “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24.

(Adelman 2009)

Examples taken from CMS CQG.

Paper published in a conference proceeding (published in book form):

T: (Katz, Gabayan, and Aghajan 2007)

R: Katz, Itai, Kevin Gabayan, and Hamid Aghajan. 2007. “A Multi-Touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras.” In Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 4678, Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems, edited by Jacques Blanc-Talon, Wilfried Philips, Dan Popescu, and Paul Scheunders, 55–107. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Congressional Hearings

Try to incorporate the attribution to testimony into the body text. For example: When J. Michael Gilmore testified before the House Committee on the Budget on June 2, 2010, he stated that things needed to change.

For substantial citation of legal works, or if more formal citations are desired, use footnotes (preferred) or endnotes:
1. Long-term sustainability of current defense plans: Hearing before the Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives, 111th Cong., 1 (2009).

Congressional Reports and Documents

T: (Select Comm. on Homeland Security 2000)

R: Select Comm. on Homeland Security. (2000). Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. Report 106-661. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Congressional Research Service (CRS) and Government Accountability Office (GAO) Reports

T: (Best 2011, 44–78)

R: Best, Richard A. 2011. Intelligence Issues for Congress. CRS Report No. RL33539. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.

T: (Berrick 2011, 7)

R: Berrick, Cathleen A. 2011. Homeland Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity. GAO-10-106. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office.

Court Cases – U.S. Supreme Court

“Works with only a handful of citations to legal and public documents may be able to limit these to the text. ... Note that in legal style, parentheses within parentheses are used.” (CMS, 15.55)

Examples of weaving citation into text:
In At&T Corp. v. Iowa Utils. Bd. (525 U.S. 366 (1999)), the court ruled that ...

In the Congressional Record for that day (147 Cong. Rec. 19,000 (2001)), Senator Conrad Burns was reported as saying that …

To footnote instead, use this reference format:
1. Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date)

1. AT&T Corp. v. Iowa Utils. Bd., 525 U.S. 366 (1999).

(Examples from CMS 15.55 and 14.289)

Directives and Instructions

T: (Under Secretary of Defense [AT&L] 2003)

R: Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L). 2003. The Defense Acquisition System. DoD Directive 5000.1. Washington, DC: Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L), May 12.

Executive Orders

Try to incorporate the citation into the body text, for example:

President Obama signed Executive Order No. 13653 on November 1, 2013, which guides the federal government in preparing for climate change.

If a more formal citation is desired, use the following format.
T: (Executive Order No. 13653, 2013)
R: Executive Order No. 13653. 2013. 3 C.F.R. 330.

Executive orders are published in title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations; the executive order in our example appears on page 330.

Field Manuals 

T: (Department of the Army 1995)

R: Department of the Army. 1995. Sniper Training (FM 23-10). Boulder, CO: Paladin Press.

Journal Articles (in electronic databases) 

“For citations of journals consulted online, Chicago recommends the inclusion of a DOI or a URL; the DOI is preferred to a URL (see 14.5, 14.6). Note that DOI, so capitalized when mentioned in running text, is lowercased and followed by a colon (with no space after) in source citations.” Additionally, “if a journal is paginated consecutively across a volume or if the month or season is included in the reference list entry, however, the issue number (or month or season) may be omitted.” (CMS, 15.9)

T: (Novak 2008, 758)

N  R: Novak, William J. 2008. “The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State.” American Historical Review 113:752–72. doi:10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.

(Examples from CMS  15.9)

Journal Articles (print)

T: (Griffin 2009, 325)

R: Griffin, Geb. 2009. “Managing Peacekeeping Communications.” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3(4): 317–327.


Lectures can be referred to in running text and omitted from the List of References.

Jane Smith gave a lecture titled “How to Write a Thesis” on March 29, 2013, at California State University, Monterey Bay. In her presentation, she described five steps to help streamline the writing process.

Newspaper Articles (print and online)

“Newspaper and magazine articles may be cited in running text (‘As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear noted in a New York Times article on February 27, 2010, . . .’). The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If you consulted the article online, include a URL. If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.” (CMS, 14.207)

T: (Stolberg and Pear 2010)

R: Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, and Robert Pear. 2010. “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.” New York Times, February 27.

(Examples from CMS CQG)


Personal Communications & Interviews

Cite in text only; do not include in reference list. Finally, fully identify each person cited elsewhere in the text, as in place of work, expertise, or relevance to subject matter.

T: (Joe Brown, personal communication)

T: (Jane Smith, unpublished data)

(Examples and guidance adapted from CMS, 15.48)


Laws: U.S. Statutes at Large/U.S. Code

“Any work using the author-date style that needs to do more than mention the occasional source in the text should therefore use supplementary footnotes or endnotes.” (CMS, 15.54)

Weave occasional mention of legal works into the text: The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires employers to provide reasonable accommodations to disabled workers.

For substantial citation of legal works, or if more formal citations are desired, include full citations in footnotes (preferred) or endnotes using this format:
1. Name of Act, Volume Source § section number (year).

1: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Pub. L. No. 101-336, § 2, 104 Stat. 328 (1991).
2. Seal of the United States. 4 U.S.C. § 41 (1947).

Scientific Databases

T: (NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database 2009)

R: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. 2009. Object name IRAS F00400+4059. Accessed October 6.

(Adapted from CMS, 14.272)

Secondary Sources

“If an original source is unavailable, and ‘quoted in’ must be resorted to, mention the original author and date in the text, and cite the secondary source in the reference list entry. The text citation would include the words ‘quoted in.’” (CMS, 15.52). 

In text: In Louis Zukofsky’s “Sincerity and Objectification,” from the February 1931 issue of Poetry magazine (quoted in Costello 1981) . . .

Cite secondary source in reference list: Costello, Bonnie. 1981. Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

(Examples from CMS 15.52)


T: (King 1963)

R: King, Martin Luther. 1963. “I Have a Dream.” Speech. Civil Rights March in Washington, DC, August 28.

Technical Reports

Please see examples under Congressional Research Service (CRS) and Government Accountability Office (GAO) reports.


T: (Moon 2009)

R: Moon, Thomas D. 2009. “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam.” Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School.

Web Sources: Web Page Information

To cite a dated web article:

T: (Ladislaw 2009)

R:  Ladislaw, Sarah O. 2009. “The Day after Copenhagen.” Center for Strategic & International Studies.

To cite an undated article, use the last modified date (often found at the bottom of the webpage). If a last modified date is unavailable, use an access date—do not use “n.d.” (no date).

Last modified and accessed dates are split into two, with the year first, and the month and day appearing in the last half of the entry.

T: (Central Intelligence Agency 2016)

R: Central Intelligence Agency. 2016. “The World Factbook: Iran.” Last modified September 6.

T: (Google 2016)

R: Google. 2016. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified August 29.

Web Sources:

Best cited in text, however, if a more formal citation is needed:

T: (Wikipedia, 2008)

R: Wikipedia. 2008. S.v. “Stevie Nicks.” Last modified July 19. http//

Web Sources:

T: (CBS 1968)

R: CBS. 1968. “Horowitz at Carnegie Hall 2-Chopin Nocturne in Fm Op.55.” YouTube video. 5:53. From a performance televised by CBS on September 22. Posted by “hubanj.” January 9, 2009.

(Adapted from CMS, 14.280)

Web Sources:

“Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text (‘In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 23, 2010, …’).” (CMS, 16th ed., Citation Quick Guide) The following shows a more formal version.

T: (Dubner 2014).

R: Dubner, Stephen J. 2014. “The Quality-Quantity Tradeoff Dilemma.” Freakonomics

Web Sources:

T: (Google Maps 2014).

R: Google Maps. 2014. “Monterey Bay.” Accessed January 4.,+CA/@36.5943789,-121.8674989,14z/data=


General Rules

Based on the 16th ed. of the Chicago Manual of Style.

Author-Date System

  • Single space within and between citations. [NPS thesis:  Single space within, double space between.]
  • Repeated-author entries in the List of References are ordered by year of publication.
  • Repeated-author, repeated-year entries in the List of References are differentiated by small letters: (Doe, 2000a), (Doe, 2000b), (Doe, 2000c).
  • For journal and public document titles, capitalize the first and last words of the title and subtitle and all other major words and proper nouns.
  • For book and article titles and subtitles, capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns.


  • If no publication or last modified date is available, include an access date.

  • Access dates are NOT recommended unless the source is likely to have substantive updates or is in time-sensitive fields such as medicine or law or if required by the publisher. Place any access dates in front of the URL: Accessed March 1, 2015.
  • Last modified dates should not be provided in addition to, or in lieu of, the access date.
  • End all List of References entries with a period, even those ending in a URL.
  • Do not underline URLs.

Sources within a Library or Other Commercial Databases

  • Provide a DOI (preferred) or stable URL for the item. If not available, include the name of the database along with identification number.



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