Citation Styles

Chicago Author-Date
Chicago Author-Date Citation Style

 

Source Type Generic Example with Rules Actual Example

BLOG

  • If the title does not contain the word "blog," add "(blog)" after the title.
  Blog Post

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year of post. “Title of Entry in Title Case.” Title of Blog in Title Case and Italics (blog), Month day, year. URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Dubner, Stephen J. 2014. “The Quality-Quantity Tradeoff Dilemma.” Freakonomics (blog), June 25, 2014. http://freakonomics.com/2014/06/25/the-quality-quantity-tradeoff-dilemma/.

T: (Dubner 2014).

BOOK

Print Book

  • If the city of publication may be unknown to readers or may be confused with another city of the same name, the abbreviation of the state, province, or (sometimes) country is usually added. Washington is traditionally followed by DC, but other major cities, such as Los Angeles and Baltimore, need no state abbreviation.

 

Book (print)

One author

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. City, State: Publisher.

T: (Author, year, page)

R: Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.

T: (Pollan 2006, 99–100)

Book (print)

Two authors with edition number

R: Last1, First1, and First2 Last2. Year. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Edition. City, State: Publisher.

T: (Last1 and Last2 year, page)

R: Strindberg, Anders, and Mats Wärn. 2011. Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

T: (Strindberg and Wärn 2011, 14)

Book (print)

Three authors

R: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3. Year. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. City, State: Publisher.

T: (Last1, Last2, and Last3 year, page)

R: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. 2009. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

T: (Cordesman, Mausner, and Kasten 2009, 50)

Book (print)

Four or more authors

R: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, First3 Last3, and First4 Last4. Year. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. City, State: Publisher.

T: (Last1 et al. year, page)

R: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, Eleanor Bermudashorts, and David Kasten. 2009. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

T: (Cordesman et al. 2009, 50)

Book Chapter

  • No quotation marks needed for book sections with generic names, such as Introduction, Foreword, Preface, etc.
 

Book Chapter (in edited book)

One author, two editors

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. “Title of Chapter in Title Case.” In Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edited by Editor1 and Editor2, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. City, State: Publisher.

T: (Author Last Name year, page[s] cited)

R: Haynes, Peter. 2009. “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy.” In Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, edited by Daniel Moran and James A. Russell, 62–74. New York: Routledge.

T: (Haynes 2009, 70)

Book Chapter (in edited book)

Three authors, one editor

R: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3. Year published. “Title of Chapter in Title Case.” In Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edited by Editor, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. City, State: Publisher.

T: (Last1, Last2, and Last3 year, page[s] cited)

R: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. 2009. Introduction. In Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, edited by John Smith, 1–12. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

T: (Cordesman, Mausner, and Kasten 2009, 4–5)

Electronic Book

  • When citing a direct quotation from an electronic book without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. The citation might include a chapter number, section heading, location number, or paragraph number within the section.
 

Electronic Book

With URL

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. City, State: Publisher. DOI or URL or Book Provider.

T: (Author Last Name year)

or

T: (Author Last Name year, loc. xxx)

R: Crabtree, John, and Ann Chaplin. 2013. Bolivia: Processes of Change. London: Zed Books. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ebook-nps/detail.action?docID=1183073.

T: (Crabtree and Chaplin 2013)

or

T: (Crabtree and Chaplin 2013, chap. 2)

Electronic Book

With book provider

R: Krishnan, Armin. 2008. War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. New York: Routledge. Kindle.

T: (Krishnan 2008, loc. 666)

CLASS NOTES, LECTURE, PRESENTATION, WORKSHOP

  • Class notes include lecture notes, slides, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.

  • If class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's/lecturer's name and "class notes."
     
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
 

Class Notes

Published

R: Instructor Last Name, Instructor First Name. Year. “Title of Notes in Title Case.” Class notes for Class, Institution, City, State, Month and day, year. URL or DOI.

T: (Instructor Last Name year)

R: Johnson, Justin. 2017. "Python NumPy Tutorial." Class notes for CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA. http://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/.

T: (Johnson 2017)

 

Lecture

Unpublished

Class notes/unpublished lectures can be referred to in running text and omitted from the List of References.

In your text: See example.

In your text: Emily Potatohead, president of Happy Writers, Inc., gave a lecture titled “How to Write a Thesis” on March 29, 2013, at California State University, Monterey Bay. In her presentation, she described five steps to help streamline the writing process.

Lecture (online)

Published

R: Speaker Last Name, Speaker First Name. Year. “Title of Lecture in Title Case.” Lecture at Venue, City, State. DOI or URL.

T: (Speaker Last Name year)

R: Horse, Belmont B. “Horseshoes and Hand Grenades: On the Joys of Approximation.” 2017. Lecture at Barnes Event Center, Derby, KY. http://horse.com/.

T: (Horse 2017)

Presentation or Workshop

R: Presenter Last Name, Presenter First Name. Year of presentation. “Title of Presentation in Title Case.” Type of presentation at Venue, City, State, Month day, year. DOI or URL.

T: (Presenter Last Name year)

R: Randall, Lisa. 2002. “Unification in Warped Extra Dimensions and Bulk Holography.” Presentation at Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, July 19, 2002. http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/
events/strings02/avt/randall/.

T: (Randall 2002)

COMPUTER PROGRAM / SOFTWARE

  • Citation is required only if the software is not well known.
  Computer Program / Software (online)

R: Company or Creator Last Name, Creator First Name. Year published. Title of Software in Title Case, version number. City of Publication, State. Accessed month, day. DOI or URL.

T: (Company or Creator Last Name year)

B: Borenstein, Matthew, Lion Hedges, Jonah Higgins, and Hy Rothstein. 2005. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2. Englewood, NJ. Accessed February 3, 2016. http://www.meta-analysis.com.

T: (Borenstein et al. 2005)

CONFERENCE PAPER / PROCEEDINGS

  Conference Proceedings (online)

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. “Title of Article in Title Case.” In Title in Title Case and Italics volume number (issue): starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name year, page[s] cited)

R: Herculano-Houzel, Suzana, Christine E. Collins, Peiyan Wong, Jon H. Kass, and Roberto Lent. 2008. “The Basic Nonuniformity of the Cerebral Cortex.” In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (34): 12593–12596. http://www.pnas.org/content/105/34/12593.

T: (Herculano-Houzel et al. 2008)

Conference Proceedings (print)

R: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, First3 Last3, and First4 Last4. Year. “Title of Chapter in Title Case.” In Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Edited by Editor1, Editor2, Editor3, and Editor4, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Last1 et al. Year)

R: Katz, Itai, Kevin Gabayan, Hamid Aghajan, and Daisy Germanshepherdhighness. 2007. “A Multi-touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras.” In Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 9th International Conference, edited by Jacques Blanc-Talon, Wilfried Philips, Dan Popescu, and Paul Scheunders, 97–108. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.

T: (Katz et al. 2007, 97–100)

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

R: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, First3 Last3, and First4 Last4. Year of presentation. “Title of Paper in Title Case.” Paper presented at Name of Conference in Title Case, City, State of Conference.

T: (Last1 et al. Year)

R: Teplin, Linda A., Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, and Jason J. Washburn. 2005. “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA.

T: (Teplin et al. 2005)

DATA SET / DATABASE

  • Since an unpublished data set is irretrievable, it is treated as a personal communication and therefore not cited in references.
 

Data Set

Published

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. “Title of Data Set in Title Case.” Organization. DOI or URL.

R: Suro, Roberto. 2004. “Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture: A Survey of Latinos on News Media.” Pew Hispanic Center. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/.

T: (Suro 2004)

Data Set

Unpublished

R: None

T: (Author First and Last Name, unpublished data, Month day, year data received)

R: None

T: (Rebecca Kanteen, unpublished data, May 23, 1955)

Database

R: Database Name (record locator; Month day, year accessed). DOI or URL.

T: (Database Name year)

R: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (object name IRAS F00400+4059; accessed October 6, 2009). http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/.

T: (NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database 2009)

R: GenBank (for RP11-322N14 BAC [accession number AC017046]; accessed October 6, 2009). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank/.

T: (GenBank 2009)

DICTIONARY / ENCYCLOPEDIA

  • Repeat the year with the month and day to avoid any confusion.
  Dictionary / Encyclopedia

R: Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Year. S.v. “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun.” Accessed or modified Month day, year. URL.

T: (Reference Work year)

R: Merriam-Webster. 2017. S.v. “metamorphosis.” Accessed July 6, 2017. https://www.merriam-webster.com/
dictionary/metamorphosis.

T: (Merriam-Webster 2017)

DIRECTIVE / INSTRUCTION

  Directive

R: Department. Year. Title of Directive in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. City of Publication, State: Publisher = Department. DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Department of Defense. 2005. Information Assurance Training, Certification, and Workforce Management. DOD Directive 8570.01-M. Washington, DC: Department of Defense. http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/
Documents/DD/issuances/dodm/857001m.pdf.

T (first citation): (Department of Defense [DOD] 2005)

T (subsequent citations): (DOD 2005)

Instruction

R: Department. Year. Title of Instruction in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. City, State: Publisher = Department.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Department of Defense. 2012. Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention. DOD Instruction 1000.01. Washington, DC: Department of Defense.

T (first citation): (Department of Defense [DOD] 2012)

T (subsequent citations): (DOD 2012)

DOCTRINE

 

Joint Doctrine

R: Department. Year published. Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. City of Publication, State: Publisher = Department. DOI or URL.

T: (Department year)

R: Joint Chiefs of Staff. 2017. Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States. JP-1. Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff. https://fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp1.pdf.

T: (Joint Chiefs of Staff 2017)

FACT SHEET

  Fact Sheet

R: Department. Year published. “Title of Fact Sheet in Title Case.” DOI or URL.

T: (Department year)

R: Department of Labor. 2008. “The Construction Industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).” https://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs1.htm.

T: (Department of Labor 2008)

FIELD MANUAL

  Field Manual

R: Department. Year. Title of Field Manual in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. City of Publication, State: Publisher = Department. DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Department of the Army. 1995. Sniper Training. FM 23-10. Washington, DC: Department of the Army. http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/
others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf.

T (first citation): (Department of the Army [DA] 1995)

T (subsequent citations): (DA 1995)

HANDBOOK

  Handbook (online)

R: Name of Company. Year. Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics. City of Company, State. DOI or URL.

T: (Name of Company year)

R: Western Spud. 1972. Transmission Systems for Potatoes, 168th ed. Kinston-Slalom, ID. http://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html.

T: (Western Spud 1972)
Handbook (print)

R: Western Electric. 1985. Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed. Winston-Salem, NC.

T: (Western Electric 1985)

JOURNAL ARTICLE

 

Journal Article (online)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 

DOI preferred

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month or Season): starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name year, page[s])

R: Sanico, Grace F., and Makoto Kakinaka. 2008. “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support.” Defence and Peace Economics 19, no. 2 (April): 153–67. doi: 10.1080/10242690701505419.

T: (Sanico and Kakinaka 2008, 159)

Journal Article (online)

From a subscription database

R: Newmann, William W. 2002. “Reorganizing for National Security and Homeland Security.” Public Administration Review 62, no. 1 (September): 126–37. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/
doi/10.1111/1540-6210.62.s1.22/abstract.

T: (Newmann 2002, 128–30)

Journal Article (online)

From an online journal

R: Catrantzos, Nick. 2010. “No Dark Corners: A Different Answer to Insider Threats.” Homeland Security Affairs 6 (2): https://www.hsaj.org/articles/83.

T: (Catrantzos 2010)

 

Journal Article (print)

With volume, issue, and month (or season)

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month or Season): starting page of article–ending page of article.

T: (Author Last Name year, page[s])

R: Liu, Jui-Ch’i. 2015. “Beholding the Feminine Sublime: Lee Miller’s War Photography.” Signs 40, no. 2 (Winter): 308–19.

T: (Liu 2015, 312)

Journal Article (print)

With volume and issue, no season or month

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number (issue number): starting page of article–ending page of article.

T: (Author Last Name year, page[s])

R: Glass, Jennifer, and Philip Levchak. 2014. “Red States, Blue States, and Divorce: Understanding the Impact of Conservative Protestantism on Regional Variation in Divorce Rates.” American Journal of Sociology 119 (4): 1002–46.

T: (Glass and Levchak 2014)

Journal Article (print)

With issue only—no volume, season, or month

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, no. xxx, starting page of article–ending page of article.

T: (Author Last Name year, page[s])

R: Meyerovitch, Eva. 1959. “The Gnostic Manuscripts of Upper Egypt.” Diogenes, no. 25, 84–117.

T: (Meyerovitch 1959)

LEGAL

  • Legal publications use notes for documentation and few include bibliographies. Any work using the author-date style that needs to do more than mention the occasional source in the text should therefore use supplementary Chicago Notes & Bibliography footnotes; see 15.31. This advice does not extend to documents that are collected in secondary sources or published as freestanding works (see 14.291), since these are readily adaptable to the author-date system (see 15.3). For a full discussion of legal and public documents, including examples, see 14.269–305.
Bill / Resolution
 

Bill/Resolution (print)

Federal unenacted, untitled

R: None

In your text: (Abbreviated bill or resolution source and number, xxx Cong. (Year published))

R: None

T: (H.R. 5936, 102nd Cong. (1992))

In your text: The Managed Competition Act (H.R. 5936, 102nd Cong. (1992)) noted that potatoes are smarter than E. coli–laden cats …

Code of Federal Regulations
  Code of Federal Regulations

R: None

T: (Name of Act, title number and Source § section number (Year published))

R: None

T: (Renewable Energy Production Incentives, 10 C.F.R. § 451 (2006))

In your text: In 2006, the Department of Energy introduced the Renewable Energy Production Incentives (10 C.F.R. § 451), which ...

In your text: In 10 C.F.R. § 451 (2006), the Department of Energy establishes guidelines on Renewable Energy Production Incentives, which ...

Congressional Hearing / Testimony within a Hearing
 

Congressional Hearing (online)

Full hearing

R: None

T: None

Footnote: Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, xxx Cong. (year of hearing), DOI or URL.

R: None

T: None

Footnote: Long-term Sustainability of Current Defense Plans: Hearing before the Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives, 111th Cong. 1 (2009). Retrieved from https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/
pkg/CHRG-111hhrg47035/pdf/CHRG-111hhrg47035.pdf.

 

Testimony within a Hearing (print)

R: None

T: None

Footnote: Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, xxx Cong. (year of hearing) (testimony of Testifier, title).

R: None

T: None

Footnote: NASA Infrastructure–Enabling Discovery, Enabling Durability: Testimony before the Subcommittee on Space Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, 113th Cong. 25 (2013) (statement of Paul K. Martin, NASA lead scientist).

Court Case Decision
 

Court Case Decision (online)

Lower court

R: None

In your text: Name of Court Case (volume Source (Court Abbreviation and year of decision))

Footnote: Use supplementary Chicago Notes & Bibliography footnotes; see 15.31.

R: None

In your text: In the case Lessard v. Schmidt (349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972)), the court ruled that ...

Footnote: Use supplementary Chicago Notes & Bibliography footnotes; see 15.31.

Court Case Decision (print)

Supreme Court

R: None

In your text: Name of Court Case (Volume Source Page (year of decision))

Footnote: Use supplementary Chicago Notes & Bibliography footnotes; see 15.31.

R: None

In your text: In the case Winter v. NRDC, Inc. (129 S. Ct. 365 (2008)), the court ruled that ...

Footnote: Use supplementary Chicago Notes & Bibliography footnotes; see 15.31.

Executive Order
 

Executive Order (online)

R: None

T: (Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. section (year published))

R: None

T: (Exec. Order No. 13655, 3 C.F.R. 80451 (2013))

Public Law
 

Public Law 

Published in the U.S. Statutes at Large

R: None

T: (Title of Act, Public Law No., Stat. section (year published))

Footnote: Use supplementary Chicago Notes & Bibliography footnotes; see 15.31.

R: None

T: (Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–336 § 2, 104 Stat. 328 (1991))

Footnote: Use supplementary Chicago Notes & Bibliography footnotes; see 15.31.

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Code

R: None

Footnote: See header for this section.

T: Title of Act (year published)

or

In your text: (Title of Act, year published)

R: None

Footnote: See header for this section.

T: (Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101 (1990))

or

In your text: The 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (42 U.S.C. § 12101) established …

MAGAZINE ARTICLE

 

Magazine Article (online)

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics. Month and day, year. DOI or URL.

T: (Last Name year)

R: Preposterous, Geronimo. 2017. "Mai Tais and Milkshakes: A Fast Ride to the ER." Libation Incidents Monthly, February 1, 2017. http://pollock.trashcan.com/2017/02/22/mtmer.

T: (Preposterous 2017)

Magazine Article (print)

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics. Month and day, year.

T: (Last Name year)

R: Preposterous, Geronimo. 2017. "Martinis and Mackerel: From Seafood to See Food." Libation Incidents Monthly, March 1, 2017.

T: (Preposterous 2017)

MAP
  Google Map

R: Google Maps. Year accessed. “Title of Map in Title Case.” Accessed Month day, year. URL.

T: (Google Maps year)

R: Google Maps. 2017. “Monterey Bay.” Accessed January 4, 2017.
 https://www.google.com/maps/place/Monterey+Bay/
@36.7896106,-122.0843052,11z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:
0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311.

T: (Google Maps 2017)

Map (online)

Cartographer given

R: Map Source or Maker in Title Case. Year published. “Title of Map in Title Case.” Accessed Month day, year. DOI or URL.

T: (Map Source or Maker in Title Case year)

R: Lewis County Geographic Information Services. 2014. “Population Density, 2000 U.S. Census.” Accessed January 4, 2017. http://maps.lewiscountywa.gov/maps/Demographics/census-popdens_2000.pdf.

T: (Lewis County Geographic Information Services 2014)

MEMORANDUM, OFFICIAL
  Memorandum, Official

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. “Title of Memo in Title Case.” Official memorandum. Place: Department. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Takai, Teresa M. 2013. “Adoption of the National Information Exchange Model within the Department of Defense.” Official memorandum. Washington, DC: Department of Defense.
http://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28%20Adoption%
20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20the%20DoD.pdf.

T: (Takai 2013)

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE

 

Newspaper Article (online)

Author given 

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Month day, year. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Brody, Jane E. 2007. “Mental Reserves Keep Brains Agile.” New York Times, December 11, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11brod.html.

T: (Brody 2007)

Newspaper Article (online)

No author given

R: Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics. Year published. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Month day, year. DOI or URL.

T: (Title of Newspaper year)

R: Monterey Herald. 2017. “Toxic Algae in San Luis Reservoir Prompts Warning from State,” June 30, 2017. http://www.montereyherald.com/environment-and-nature/20170630/toxic-algae-in-san-luis-reservoir-prompts-warning-from-state.

T: (Monterey Herald 2017)

Newspaper Article (print)

Author given

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Month day, year.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Gordon, Michael R. 2001. “Shifting Fronts, Rising Danger: The Afghanistan War Evolves.” New York Times, December 9, 2001.

T: (Gordon 2001)

Newspaper Article (print)

No author given

R: Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics. Year published. “Title of Article in Title Case,” Month day, year.

T: (“Title of Article” year)

R: Monterey Herald. 2014. “2 Tunnels Found under the Border,” April 5, 2014.

T: (“2 Tunnels Found under the Border” 2014)

PATENT 

  • If more than one date, use the year of issuance.
  Patent

R: Rightsholder Last Name, Rightsholder First Name. Year issued. Title of patent in sentence case. U.S. Patent xxxxxxx, filed Month day, year, and issued Month day, year. DOI or URL.

T: (Rightsholder Last Name year issued)

R: Bell, Alexander Graham. 1876. Improvement in telegraphy. U.S. Patent 174465, filed February 14, 1876, and issued March 7, 1876. https://www.google.com/patents/US174465.

T: (Bell 1876)

PERSONAL COMMUNICATION, INTERVIEW, EMAIL

  • Cite in-text only.
     
  • Personal communication is material obtained directly from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.
     
  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email, internal documents, documents posted to a listserv or internal server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access.
  Personal Communication

R: None

T: (Interlocutor Name, type of communication, Month day, year)

R: None

T: (Sandi Lopez, personal communication, September 8, 2009)

Interview

R: None

In your text: Interviewee Name (interviewee title), in discussion with the author, Month and day, year of interview.

R: None

In your text: ... as claimed by Osiris Jones (professor of octopus kinesiology, University of Headfoot), in discussion with the author, June 1, 2012.

Email

Including attachments such as presentation slides, data sets, internal documents

R: None

T: (Sender, email message to author, Month day, year of email)

or

In your text: (email message to author, Month day, year of email)

R: None

T: (Q. Grumbupple, email to author, October 22, 1994)

or

In your text: According to Quentin Grumbupple (email to author, October 22, 1994) 

REPORT

Government Report / Document

 

CRS Report

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Erwin, Marshall C. 2013. Intelligence Issues for Congress. CRS Report No. RL33539. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf.

T: (Erwin 2013)

GAO Report

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author Last Name year, page[s])

R: Berrick, Cathleen A. 2009. Homeland Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity. GAO-10-106. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office.

T: (Berrick 2009, 7–9)

Other Government Report

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name or Department. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. City, State: Publisher, year. DOI or URL. 

T: (Last Name or Department year)

R: Obama, Barack. 2015. National Security Strategy. Washington, DC: White House. http://nssarchive.us/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/2015.pdf.

T: (Obama 2015)

 

R: Department of State. Year published. Title of Document in Title Case and Italics. Edited by Editor. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. DOI or URL.

T: (Department of State year)

R: Department of State. 1948. Eastern Europe; The Soviet Union. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1948, vol. IV. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/FRUS.FRUS1948v04.

T: (Department of State 1948)

Technical Report
 

Technical Report/Working Paper (online)

Author given

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics. Report No. xxxxxxx. DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Tang, Karim Lasagna, and Deodore Risotto Eignor. 2001. A Study in the Use of Collateral Statistical Information in Attempting to Reduce TOEFL IRT Item Parameter Estimation Sample Sizes. Report Numbers RR-01-11, TOEFL-TR-17. https://www.ets.org/research/policy_research_reports/publications/report/2001/hsfb.

T: (Tang and Eignor 2001)

Technical Report or Working Paper (online)

Agency as publisher

R: Agency Name. Year published. Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics. Report No. xxxxxxx. DOI or URL.

T: (Agency year)

R: National Toxicology Program. 2012. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate (CASRN 15625-89-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice (Topical Application Studies). Report No. TR-576. https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm/reports/
longterm/tr500580/listedreports/tr576/index.html.

T: (National Toxicology Program 2012)

Technical Report or Working Paper (print)

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics. Report No. xxxxxxx. City of publisher, State: Publisher.

T: (Author year)

R: Jones, Larry, and Florence Johnson. 2015. The Absorption Rate of E. coli in Cats. Report No. 17-59. Madison, WI: Veterinary Studies.

T: (Jones and Johnson 2015)

Think Tank Report / White Paper
 

Think Tank Report / White Paper (online)

List of Think Tanks, U.S. and Globally 

R: Author 1 Last Name, Author 1 First Name, Author 2 First and Last Name, ... Author 7 First and Last Name et al. Year published. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher. DOI or URL.

T: (Author 1 Last Name et al. Year)

R: Dixon, Lloyd, Noreen Clancy, Benjamin M. Miller, Sue Hoegberg, Michael M. Lewis, Bruce Bender, Samara Ebinger et al. 2017. The Cost and Affordability of Flood Insurance in New York City. Santa Monica, CA: RAND. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/
RR1700/RR1776/RAND_RR1776.pdf.

T: (Dixon et al. 2017)

SECONDARY SOURCE

  • Only use secondary sources when the primary source is unavailable.
  Secondary Source

R: List the secondary source that quotes or discusses the material you are referring to (cite using the appropriate format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: Mention primary source, then cite secondary source using the appropriate in-text format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.

R: Nicholson, Ian A. M. 2003. Inventing Personality: Gordon Allport and the Science of Selfhood. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

In your text: We can see this principle at work in the following passage from Allport’s diary, quoted in Nicholson: “ ...” (2003, 59).

SPEECH

  Speech

R: List the source that quotes or reprints the speech you are referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)


In your text: Include name of speaker.

R: Smith, Jacob, ed. 2009. Well Said! Great Speeches in American History. Washington, DC: E & K Publishing.

In your text: Martin Luther King, Jr. declared, “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed” (Smith 2009, 18).

THESIS / DISSERTATION

 

Thesis or Dissertation

From an institutional archive such as the NPS Archive: Calhoun

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case.” Type of document, Institution. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Moon, Thomas D. 2009. “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam.” Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/4694.

T: (Moon 2009)


R: Rivera, Joey. 2010. “Software System Architecture Modeling Methodology for Naval Gun Weapon Systems.” PhD diss., Naval Postgraduate School. http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10504.

T: (Rivera 2010)

Thesis or Dissertation

From a commercial database

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case.” Type of document, Institution. Database (document identification number).

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago. ProQuest (AAT 3300426).

T: (Choi 2008)

UNPUBLISHED / INFORMALLY PUBLISHED WORKS

  Unpublished Work (print)

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year viewed. “Title of Work in Title Case.” Unpublished [type of work], Month day, year.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Horse, Belmont B. 1995. “Back in the Saddle.” Unpublished manuscript, May 3, 1995.

T: (Horse 1995)

Work Submitted for Publication (online)

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year modified. “Title of Work in Title Case.” Unpublished, last modified Month day, year. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Horse, Belmont B. 1996. “Back in the Saddle 2: Backward in the Saddle.” Unpublished, last modified December 24, 1996. http://horse.com/bits2bits.

T: (Horse 1996)

Works Accepted for Publication (online)

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Forthcoming. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name, forthcoming)

R: Briscoe, Robert. Forthcoming. “Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf.

T: (Briscoe, forthcoming)

 

VISUAL MEDIA
  Motion Picture

R: Director Last Name, Director First Name, dir. Year originally released. Title of Film in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year published of the copy you are using. Medium or DOI or URL.

T: (Director Last Name, year originally released)

R: Hitchcock, Alfred, dir. 1959. North by Northwest. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000. DVD. 

T: (Hitchcock 1959)

 

Video

CNN, YouTube, or any kind of streaming video

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name or Organization or Screen Name. Year. “Title of Video in Title Case.” Media type, length of video. Month day, year of posting. URL.

T: (Author or Organization or Screen Name year)

R: BellaFolletti. 2009. “Possible Ghost Caught on Surveillance Camera.” YouTube video, 1:19. April 8, 2009. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dq1ms2JhYBI.

T: (BellaFolletti 2009)


R: CNN. 2017. “US Military Sends Warships, Aircraft to Texas.” Video, 1:31. August 31, 2017. http://www.cnn.com/2017/08/30/politics/texas-harvey-flooding-military-response/iid=ob_lockedrail_topeditorial.

T: (CNN 2017)

WEBSITE / WEBPAGE

  • Title of website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
     
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, New York Times, not Reuters or CNN.
 

Webpage

Author and publication date given

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Organization. Publication Month and day, year. URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Roth, Richard. 2017. “75 Years Ago, the Doolittle Raid Changed History.” CNN, Last modified April 18, 2017. http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html.

T: (Roth 2017)

Webpage

No author given

Organization as author

R: Organization. Year. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Publication Month and day, year. URL.

T: (Organization year)

R: Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2017. “Forging Papers to Sell Fake Art.” April 6, 2017. https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art.

T (first citation): (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI] 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (FBI 2017) 

Webpage

No date given

R: Organization. n.d. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Accessed Month and day, year. URL.

T: (Organization n.d.)

R: Department of Defense. n.d. “About the Department of Defense (DOD).” Accessed April 18, 2017. https://www.defense.gov/About/.

T (first citation): (Department of Defense [DOD] n.d.) 

T (subsequent citations): (DOD n.d.) 

Webpage

Jane's example

R: Jane’s by IHS Markit. Year. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Publication Month and day, year. URL.

T: (Jane’s by IHS Markit 2017)

R: Jane’s by IHS Markit. 2017. “Mali: Executive Summary.” May 31, 2017. https://janes.ihs.com.libproxy.nps.edu/NorthAfrica/Display/1303746.

T: (Jane’s by IHS Markit 2017)

WIKIPEDIA

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
  Wikipedia

R: Wikipedia. Year. S.v. “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun.” Accessed or modified Month day, year. URL.

T: (Wikipedia year)

R: Wikipedia. 2017. S.v. “Kurt Vonnegut.” Last modified July 8, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Vonnegut.

T: (Wikipedia 2017)

WORKING PAPER / OCCASIONAL PAPER
  Working Paper / Occasional Paper
R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title of Working Paper in Title Case.” Working paper, Institution or Company. DOI or URL.
 
T: (Last Name year)
 
R: Linguine, Lila. 2014. “Anteaters and Aardvarks: Power Critters.” Working paper, Animal Rights Institute. www.aanda.power/careers.html.
 
T: (Linguine 2014)

Adapted from Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed.