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Citation Styles

Chicago Style

Chicago Guides

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Chicago Manual of Style Full Guide

Quick Guide

The official, fully searchable, online version of CMoS
Available to NPS authenticated users


imageU.S. Naval War College Pocket Writing and Style Guide
Lots of examples of DOD specific documents


Purdue Online Writing Lab
Comprehensive guide with many general examples

 

Citation Examples

 

 

There are two different systems within the Chicago style: Notes and Bibliography, and Author-Date. The examples below are for Chicago's Notes and Bibliography system.
Please check with your faculty advisor to see which system is preferred in your department.

In the table below, N stands for footnotes. B stands for Bibliography. The citation format is slightly different when sources are cited in footnotes as compared to listed in a bibliography.

Source Type Citation Example
Bills or Resolutions (Federal unenacted)

N: Justice Act of 2009, H.R. 4005, 11th Cong.

B: No bibliography entries are needed.
Book Chapters
(in edited books)

N: 1. Harold A. Trinkunas, “Energy Security: The Case of Venezuela,” in Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, ed. Daniel Moran and James A. Russell (New York: Routledge, 2009), 177.

    2. Anthony H. Cordesman, Adam Mausner, and David Kasten, “Introduction,” in Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, ed. John Smith (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies, 2009), 50.

B: 1. Trinkunas, Harold A. “Energy Security: The Case of Venezuela.” In Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, edited by Daniel Moran and James A. Russell, 175–187. New York: Routledge, 2009.

    2. Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. “Introduction.” In Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, edited by John Smith, 1–12. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies, 2009.

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL; include an access date only of no other date available. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number (Chicago Manual of Style [CMS] Citation Quick Guide [CQG] )

Books (electronic) N: 1. Armin Krishnan, War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting (Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2008), http://www.ebrary.com/corp/.

    2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), accessed February 28, 2010, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

B: 1. Krishnan, Armin. War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2008. http://www.ebrary.com/corp/.

    2. Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Books (print)

N: 1. Anthony H. Cordesman, Adam Mausner, and David Kasten, Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies, 2009), 50.

    2 Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

B: 1. Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies, 2009.

    2. Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by et al.:

Anthony H. Cordesman et al., Winning in Afghanistan, 138

Code of Federal Regulations

N: Renewable Energy Production Incentives, 10 C.F.R. § 451 (2006).

B: No bibliography entries are needed.

Conference Proceedings

Paper presented at conference (unpublished):

N: Linda A. Teplin et al., “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005.

B: Teplin, Linda A., Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, and Jason J. Washburn. “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005.


Paper published in conference proceeding or symposium (published in book form):

N: Itai Katz, Kevin Gabayan, and Hamid Aghajan, “A Multi-Touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras,” in Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 4678. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems, ed. Jacques Blanc-Talon et al. (Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2007).

B: Katz, Itai, Kevin Gabayan, and Hamid Aghajan. “A Multi-Touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras. In in Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 4678. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems, edited by Jacques Blanc-Talon, Wilfried Philips, Dan Popescu, and Paul Scheunders, Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2007.

Congressional Hearings

N: Long-term Sustainability of Current Defense Plans: Hearing before the Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives, 111th Cong., 1 (2009) (statement of Bob Smith, Comptroller of the United States).

B: No bibliography entries are needed.

Congressional Reports and Documents (different than CRS reports)

“In Bluebook style, numbered reports and documents are cited by the number of Congress, which is joined to the document number by a hyphen. House and Senate reports are abbreviated ‘H.R. Rep.’ or ‘S. Rep.’; documents are cited to ‘H.R. Doc.’ or ‘S. Doc.’ A specific page reference, if needed, is added following at. The year of the report or document is placed in parentheses.” (Chicago Manual of Style [CMS] 14.297)

N: 1. Select Comm. on Homeland Security, Homeland Security Act of 2002, H.R. Rep.  No. 107-609 pt. 1 (2002).

     2. H.R. Rep. No. 106-661, at 9 (2000) (Conf. Rep.).

B: No bibliography entries are needed.

(Examples from CMS 14.297)

Court Cases – U.S. Supreme Court

“All Supreme Court decisions are published in the United States Supreme Court Reports (abbreviated U.S.) and are preferably cited to that reporter. Cases not yet published therein may be cited to the Supreme Court Reporter (S. Ct.), which publishes decisions more quickly. Because the court’s name is identified by the reporter, it is not repeated before the date.” (CMS 14.289)

N: 1. AT&T Corp. v. Iowa Utils. Bd., 525 U.S. 366 (1999).

     2. Brendlin v. California, 127 S. Ct. 2400 (2007).

     3. AT&T, 525 U.S. at 366–67. (Examples from CMS 14.289)

B: “Almost all legal works use notes for documentation, and few use bibliographies.” (CSM 15.54)

Directives and instructions

Directive:

N: Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L), The Defense Acquisition System, DOD Directive 5000.1, Washington, DC: Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L), 2003.

B: Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L). The Defense Acquisition System. DOD Directive 5000.1. Washington, DC: Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L), 2003.


Instruction:

N: Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L), Operation of the Defense Acquisition System. DoD Instruction 5000.2. Washington, DC: Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L), May 12, 2003.

B: Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L). Operation of the Defense Acquisition System. DoD Instruction 5000.2. Washington, DC: Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L), May 12, 2003.

Executive Orders

N: Exec .Order No. 11,609, 3 C.F.R. 586 (1971–75). (Example from CMS 14.301.)

B: "Almost all legal works use notes for documentation and few use bibliographies.” (CMS 15.54)

Field manuals

N: Department of the Army, Sniper Training (FM 23-10) (Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 1995), 7.

B: Department of the Army. Sniper Training (FM 23-10). Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 1995.

Foreign Relations of the United States Series

N: United States Department of State, Eastern Europe; The Soviet Union, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1948, ed. the Historical Office, vol. IV.  Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1948, 36, http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/FRUS.FRUS1948v04.

B: United States Department of State. Eastern Europe; The Soviet Union. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1948, edited by the Historical Office, vol. IV. Washington, DC:  U.S. Government Printing Office, 1948. http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/FRUS.FRUS1948v04.

Government Reports:

Congressional Research Service (CRS) and Government Accountability Office (GAO) reports

N: Marshall C. Erwin, Intelligence Issues for Congress (CRS Report No. RL33539) (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2013), 19–20, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf.

B. Erwin, Marshall C. Intelligence Issues for Congress (CRS Report No. RL33539). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2013. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf.

N. Cathleen A. Berrick, Homeland Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity (GAO-10-106) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2009), 7, http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-106.

B: Berrick, Cathleen A. Homeland Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity. (GAO-10-106). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2009. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-106

Journal Articles (in electronic databases) 

Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to http://dx.doi.org.libproxy.nps.edu/ in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. If no DOI is available, use a stable URL. Otherwise, include the name of the database and any identification number. CMS 14.184)

N: 1. Grace F. Sanico and Makoto Kakinaka, “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support,” Defence and Peace Economics 19, no. 2 (April 2008): 156, doi: 10.1080/10242690701505419.

    2. Sanico and Kakinaka, “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy,” 166.

B: Sanico, Grace F., and Makoto Kakinaka. “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support.” Defence and Peace Economics 19, no. 2 (April 2008): 153–67. doi: 10.1080/10242690701505419.

Journal Articles (print)

N: Geb Griffin, “Managing Peacekeeping Communications,” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3, no. 4 (August 2009): 325.

B: Griffin, Geb. “Managing Peacekeeping Communications.” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3, no. 4 (August 2009): 317–327.

Lectures

The sponsorship, location, and date of the meeting at which a speech was given or a paper presented follow the title. This information, like that following a thesis title, is put in parentheses in a note but not in a bibliography. (CMS 14.226)

N: Bob Smith, “Writing a Thesis” (lecture, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, April 4, 2014).

Newspaper and Magazine Articles (print and online)

“Newspaper and magazine articles may be cited in running text (‘As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear noted in a New York Times article on February 27, 2010, ...’) instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If you consulted the article online, include a URL; include an access date only if your publisher or discipline requires one. If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.” (CMS CQG)

Unsigned newspaper articles or features are best dealt within text or notes. But if a bibliography entry should be needed, the name of the newspaper stands in place of the author. (CMS 14.207)

N: 1. Daniel Mendelsohn, “But Enough about Me,” New Yorker, January 25, 2010, 68.

     2. Sheryl Gay Stolberg and Robert Pear, “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote,” New York Times, February 27, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.

B: Mendelsohn, Daniel. “But Enough about Me.” New Yorker, January 25, 2010.

B: Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, and Robert Pear. “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.” New York Times, February 27, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.

(Examples from CMS CQG)

 

Personal Communications
and Interviews

May be cited in running text and are commonly omitted from notes, bibliographies and reference lists. Published interviews should contain the name of the interviewer and the person interviewed.

N: Jane Smith (president of Corporate Stuff Inc.), in discussion with the author, March 3, 2014.


For interviews that are recorded and available in an archive:

N: Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J.E. Senn, November 20, 1974, interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. (Example from CMS 14.219)

 

Public Laws: U.S. Statutes at Large/U.S. Code

N: 1.  Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT Act) Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56, 115 Stat. 272 (2001).

    2. Homeland Security Act of 2002, 6 U.S.C. § 101 (2002).

B: "Almost all legal works use notes for documentation and few use bibliographies.” (CMS 15.54)

Scientific Databases

N: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (object name IRAS F00400+4059; accessed October 6, 2009), http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/.

B: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (object name IRAS F00400+4059; accessed October 6, 2009). http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/.

(Examples from CMS 14.272).

Secondary Sources

“To cite a source from a secondary source (‘quoted in . . .’) is generally to be discouraged, since authors are expected to have examined the works they cite. If an original source is unavailable, however, both the original and the secondary source must be listed.” (CMS 14.273).

N: Louis Zukofsky, “Sincerity and Objectification,” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

B: Costello, Bonnie. Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

(Example from CMS 14.273)

Speeches

N: Martin Luther King, “I Have a Dream” (speech, Civil Rights March in Washington, DC, August 28, 1963).

R: King, Martin Luther. “I Have a Dream.” Speech. Civil Rights March in Washington, DC, August 28, 1963.

Technical Reports

Please see examples under government reports.

Theses

N: Thomas D. Moon, “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam” (master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2009).

B: Moon, Thomas D. “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam.” Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2009.

If it is a dissertation, just substitute “PhD diss.” for “master’s thesis.”

Web Sources:
Web Page Information

“Citations of site content are best relegated to notes; in works with no notes, they may be included in the reference list or bibliography” (CMS 14.245). If no author, the owner of the site may stand in for the author. If page numbers are not available, supply a descriptive locator, such as a subheading, following the word “under.” When no other date is available on a web document, provide an access date or a last modified date.

*Personal Author

N: Sarah O. Ladislaw, “The Day after Copenhagen,” Center for Strategic & International Studies, December 4, 2009, http://csis.org/publication/day-after-copenhagen.

B: Ladislaw, Sarah O. “The Day after Copenhagen.” Center for Strategic & International Studies. December 4, 2009. http://csis.org/publication/day-after-copenhagen.


Corporate author and name of website are the same

N: “The World Factbook: Iran,” Central Intelligence Agency, May 27, 2010, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html.

B: Central Intelligence Agency. “The World Factbook: Iran.” May 27, 2010. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html.

No date: To cite an undated online document in a reference list, use an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified rather than n.d. (no date).

N: “Google Privacy Policy,” last modified March 11, 2009, http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

B: Google. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11, 2009.

Web Sources:
Wikipedia

“Well-known online reference works, such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited, like their printed counterparts, in notes rather than in bibliographies.” (CMS 14.248) S.v. means sub verbo, or “under the word.”

N: Wikipedia, s.v. “Stevie Nicks,” last modified July 19, 2008. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stevie_Nicks. (Example from CMS, 14.248.)

Web Sources:
YouTube

N: “HOROWITZ AT CARNEGIE HALL 2-Chopin Nocturne in Fm Op.55,” YouTube video, 5:53, from a performance televised by CBS on September 22, 1968, posted by “hubanj,” January 9, 2009, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cDVBtuWkMS8. (Example from CMS 14.280)

B: “HOROWITZ AT CARNEGIE HALL 2-Chopin Nocturne in Fm Op.55.” YouTube video. 5:53 From a performance televised by CBS on September 22, 1968. Posted by “hubanj.” January 9, 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cDVBtuWkMS8. (Example from CMS 14.280)

Web Sources:
Blogs

“Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text (‘In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 23, 2010, …’) instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.” (CMS CQG)

N: 1. Jack, February 25, 2010 (7:03 p.m.), comment on Richard Posner, “Double Exports in Five Years?,” The Becker-Posner Blog, February 21, 2010, http://uchicagolaw.typepad.com/beckerposner/2010/02/double-exports-in-five-years-posner.html.

    2. Jack, comment on Posner, “Double Exports.

B: Becker-Posner Blog, The. http://uchicagolaw.typepad.com/beckerposner/.

(Examples from CMS CQG.)

Web Sources:
Maps

“Monterey Bay Map,” Google Maps, accessed January 4, 2014, https://www.google.com/maps/place/Monterey,+CA/@36.5943789,-121.8674989,14z/data=
!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x808de45270b5fb91:0xee484909d84
.

Google Maps. “Monterey Bay Map.” Accessed January 4, 2014. https://www.google.com/maps/place/Monterey,+CA/@36.5943789,-121.8674989,14z/data=
!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x808de45270b5fb91:0xee484909d84
.

General Rules

Based on the 16th ed. of the Chicago Manual of Style.


Notes and Bibliography System (N) (B)

  • Chicago recommends providing a full bibliography that includes all the works cited in the notes.
  • Repeated-author entries in the bibliography are alphabetized by title.
  • N = Note (footnote). 10 pt. font is acceptable. Indent first line as you would a paragraph and set subsequent lines flush left. Single space within and between citations.
  • Insert a superscript number at the end of the text you are citing.  Chicago prefers using a full sized, non-raised number for the note followed by a period, but using a superscript number for the note is acceptable. 
  • B = Bibliography. Set the first line flush left and indent subsequent lines (called a hanging indent). Single space within and between citations. [NPS: Single space within, double space between.]
  • For book, journal, article, and public document titles, capitalize the first and last words of the title and subtitle and all other major words and proper nouns.
  • Italicize book and journal titles, NOT article titles.
  • A FULL footnote citation appears the FIRST time a source is cited in the paper.
  • A SHORTENED footnote citation appears the SECOND and each subsequent time a sources is cited.
  • Use Ibid. for a single work cited in the note immediately preceding. Include page numbers if different than the first note. "Ibid." is capitalized  and is NOT in italics. There is always a period after Ibid. If page numbers follow, use comma and space before the page numbers, as in "Ibid., xx–xx." or "Ibid., 10."
    NOTE: The first footnote on a page may start with an Ibid.
  • For more information, see the Chicago Manual of Style Online > Notes and Bibliography system

 


URLs

  • Preferably provide a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or a stable URL for every online source cited.
  • Access dates are NOT recommended unless the source is likely to have substantive updates or is in time-sensitive fields such as medicine or law or if required by the publisher. Include it parenthetically before the URL: (accessed March 1, 2010). Include it if there is no other date on web page.
  • Revision dates should not be provided in addition to or in lieu of the access date.
  • Punctuation marks are allowed after the URL.
  • Do not underline URLs.

Sources within a Library or Other Commercial Databases

  • Provide a DOI (preferred) or stable URL for the item. If not available, include the name of the database along with identification number.
  • If no publication or revision date available, include an access date.

 

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