Citation Styles

Chicago Notes & Bibliography / Turabian
Chicago Notes & Bibliography / Turabian Citation Styles

 

Source Type Style Generic Example with Rules Actual Example

BLOG

  • Citations of blog entries are generally relegated to the notes; a frequently cited blog, however, may be included in the bibliography.
     
  • If the title does not contain the word "blog," add "(blog)" after the title.
Blog Post Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Post in Title Case,” Title of Blog in Title Case and Italics (blog), Month and day, year, URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Post in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Post in Title Case.” Title of Blog in Title Case and Italics (blog), Month and day, year. URL.

N: Stephen J. Dubner, “The Quality-Quantity Tradeoff Dilemma,” Freakonomics (blog), June 25, 2014, http://freakonomics.com/2014/06/25/the-quality-quantity-tradeoff-dilemma/.

S: Dubner, “The Quality-Quantity Tradeoff Dilemma.”

B: Dubner, Stephen J. “The Quality-Quantity Tradeoff Dilemma.” Freakonomics (blog), June 25, 2014. http://freakonomics.com/2014/06/25/the-quality-quantity-tradeoff-dilemma/.

Blog Comment Chi

N: Screen Name or Author First and Last Name, Month and day, year, comment on [full blog citation].

S: Screen Name or Author Last Name, comment on blog author last name.

B: None

N: MiddleKid, January 22, 2007, comment on P. Z. Myers, “The Unfortunate Prerequisites and Consequences of Partitioning Your Mind,” ScienceBlogs, January 22, 2007, http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/22/the-unfortunate-prerequisites/.

S: MiddleKid, comment on Myers.

B: None

Tur

N: Screen Name or Author First and Last Name, comment, Month and day, year (time of comment), on [full blog citation].

S: Screen Name or Author Last Name, comment on blog author last name.

B: None

N: MiddleKid, comment, January 22, 2007 (11:06:14 a.m. ET), on P. Z. Myers, “The Unfortunate Prerequisites and Consequences of Partitioning Your Mind,” ScienceBlogs, January 22, 2007, http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/22/the-unfortunate-prerequisites/.

S: MiddleKid, comment on Myers.

B: None

BOOK

  • Always include page numbers in notes when available.
     
  • If the city of publication is not a major city or may be confused with another city of the same name, the abbreviation of the state, province, or (sometimes) country is usually added. Washington is traditionally followed by DC, but other major cities, such as Los Angeles and Baltimore, need no state abbreviation.
Print Book

Book (print)

One author

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Place: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

S: Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma, 100.

B: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

Book (print)

Two authors, with edition number

Chi/Tur

N: First1 Last1 and First2 Last2, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edition (Place: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Names, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Last1, First1, and First2 Last2. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Edition. Place: Publisher, year.

N: Anders Strindberg and Mats Wärn, Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2011), 14.

S: Strindberg and Wärn, Islamism, 10.

B: Strindberg, Anders, and Mats Wärn. Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.

Book (print)

Three authors

Chi/Tur

N: First1 Last1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Place: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Names, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place: Publisher, year.

N: Anthony H. Cordesman, Adam Mausner, and David Kasten, Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009), 50.

S: Cordesman, Mausner, and Kasten, Winning in Afghanistan, 76.

B: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009.

Book Chapter

  • No quotation marks needed for book sections with generic names, such as Introduction, Foreword, Preface, etc.

Book Chapter (in edited book)

One author, two editors

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, ed. Editor1 and Editor2 (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Name, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Chapter in Title Case.” In Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edited by Editor1 and Editor2, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Peter Haynes, “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy,” in Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, ed. Daniel Moran and James A. Russell (New York: Routledge, 2009), 70.

S: Haynes, “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy,” 70.

B: Haynes, Peter. “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy.” In Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, edited by Daniel Moran and James A. Russell, 62–74. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Book Chapter (in edited book)

Three authors, one editor

Chi/Tur

N: First1 Last1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, ed. Editor (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Names, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3. “Title of Chapter.” In Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edited by Editor, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Anthony H. Cordesman, Adam Mausner, and David Kasten, introduction to Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, ed. John Smith (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009), 4–5.

S: Cordesman, Mausner, and Kasten, Introduction, 7.

B: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. Introduction to Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, edited by John Smith, 1–12. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009.

Electronic Book

  • When citing a direct quotation from an electronic book without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. The citation might include a chapter number, section heading, location number, or paragraph number within the section.

Electronic Book

With URL

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s] or location or chapter number, DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year published. DOI or URL.

N: John Crabtree and Ann Chaplin, Bolivia: Processes of Change (London: Zed Books, 2013), 225, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ebook-nps/detail.action?docID=1183073.

S: Crabtree and Chaplin, Bolivia, 225.

B: Crabtree, John, and Ann Chaplin. Bolivia: Processes of Change. London: Zed Books, 2013. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ebook-nps/detail.action?docID=1183073.

Electronic Book

With book provider

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s] or location or chapter number, Book Provider.

S: Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. Book Provider.

N: Armin Krishnan, War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting (New York: Routledge, 2008), loc. 666 of 1492, Kindle.

S: Krishnan, War as Business, loc. 584.

B: Krishnan, Armin. War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. New York: Routledge, 2008. Kindle.

CLASS NOTES, LECTURE, PRESENTATION, WORKSHOP

Class Notes

Published

Chi/Tur

N: Instructor First and Last Name, “Title of Notes in Title Case” (class notes, Class, Institution, City, State, Month and day, year), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Notes in Title Case.”

B: Instructor Last Name, Instructor First Name. “Title of Notes in Title Case.” Class notes for Class, Institution, City, State, Month and day, year. DOI or URL.

N: Justin Johnson, "Python NumPy Tutorial" (class notes, CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2017), http://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/.

S: Johnson, "Python NumPy Tutorial."

B: Johnson, Justin. "Python NumPy Tutorial." Class notes for CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2017. http://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/.

Lecture

Unpublished

Chi/Tur

N: Instructor First and Last Name, “Title of Lecture in Title Case” (lecture, Venue, City, State, Month and day, year).

S: Last Name, “Title of Lecture in Title Case.”

B: None

N: Don K. Bray, “Formatting a Thesis” (lecture, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, March 26, 2017).

S: Bray, “Formatting a Thesis.”

B: None

Lecture (online)

Published

 

Chi

N: Speaker First and Last Name, “Title of Lecture in Title Case” (lecture, Venue, City, State, Month and day, year), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Lecture in Title Case.”

B: Speaker Last Name, Speaker First Name. “Title of Lecture in Title Case.” Lecture at Venue, City, State, Month and day, year. DOI or URL.

N: Belmont B. Horse, “Horseshoes and Hand Grenades: On the Joys of Approximation” (lecture, Barnes Event Center, Derby, KY, May 5, 2017), http://horse.com/.

S: Horse, “Horseshoes and Hand Grenades.”

B: Horse, Belmont B. “Horseshoes and Hand Grenades: On the Joys of Approximation.” Lecture at Barnes Event Center, Derby, KY, May 5, 2017. http://horse.com/.

Lecture (online)

Published

Tur

N: Speaker First and Last Name, “Title of Lecture in Title Case” (lecture, Venue, City, State, Month and day, year), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Lecture in Title Case.”

B: Speaker Last Name, Speaker First Name. “Title of Lecture in Title Case.” Lecture, Venue, City, State, Month and day, year. DOI or URL.

N: Belmont B. Horse, “Horseshoes and Hand Grenades: On the Joys of Approximation” (lecture, Barnes Event Center, Derby, KY, May 5, 2017), http://horse.com/.

S: Horse, “Horseshoes and Hand Grenades.”

B: Horse, Belmont B. “Horseshoes and Hand Grenades: On the Joys of Approximation.” Lecture, Barnes Event Center, Derby, KY, May 5, 2017. http://horse.com/.

Presentation or Workshop

Chi

N: Presenter First and Last Name, “Title of Presentation in Title Case” (type of presentation, Venue, City, State, Month and day, year), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Presentation in Title Case.”

B: Presenter Last Name, Presenter First Name. “Title of Presentation in Title Case.” Type of presentation at Venue, City, State, Month and day, year. DOI or URL.

N: Lisa Randall, “Unification in Warped Extra Dimensions and Bulk Holography” (presentation, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, July 19, 2002), http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/events/strings02/avt/randall/.

S: Randall, “Unification in Warped Extra Dimensions and Bulk Holography.”

B: Randall, Lisa. “Unification in Warped Extra Dimensions and Bulk Holography.” Presentation at Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, July 19, 2002. http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/events/strings02/avt/randall/.

Presentation or Workshop Tur

N: Presenter First and Last Name, “Title of Presentation in Title Case” (type of presentation, Venue, City, State, Month and day, year), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Presentation in Title Case.”

B: Presenter Last Name, Presenter First Name. “Title of Presentation in Title Case.” Type of presentation, Venue, City, State, Month and day, year. DOI or URL.

N: Lisa Randall, “Unification in Warped Extra Dimensions and Bulk Holography” (presentation, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, July 19, 2002), http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/events/strings02/avt/randall/.

S: Randall, “Unification in Warped Extra Dimensions and Bulk Holography.”

B: Randall, Lisa. “Unification in Warped Extra Dimensions and Bulk Holography.” Presentation, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, July 19, 2002. http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/events/strings02/avt/randall/.

COMPUTER PROGRAM / SOFTWARE

  • Citation is required only if the software is not well known.
Computer Program / Software Chi/Tur

N: Company or Creator First and Last Name, Title of Software in Title Case, version number. City, State, year, accessed Month and day, year. DOI or URL.

S: Creator Last Name, Title of Software in Title Case.

B: Company or Creator Last Name, Creator First Name. Title of Software in Title Case, version number. City of Publication, State, year published. Accessed Month and day, year. DOI or URL.

N: Matthew Borenstein et al., Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2, Englewood, NJ, 2005, accessed February 3, 2016, http://www.meta-analysis.com.

S: Borenstein, Hedges, Higgins, and Rothstein, Comprehensive Meta-Analysis.

B: Borenstein, Matthew, Lion Hedges, Jonah Higgins, and Hy Rothstein. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2. Englewood, NJ, 2005. Accessed February 3, 2016. http://www.meta-analysis.com.

CONFERENCE PAPER / PROCEEDINGS

Conference Proceedings (online)

Chi/Tur

N: Author 1 First and Last Name, Author 2 First and Last Name, ... and Author N First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” in Title in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month or Season year): page[s], DOI or URL.

S: Author 1 Last Name et al., “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Author 1 Last Name, Author 1 First Name, Author 2 First and Last Name, ... and Author N First and Last Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” In Title in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month or Season year published): starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL.

N: Suzana Herculano-Houzel, Christine E. Collins, Peiyan Wong, Jon H. Kass, and Roberto Lent, “The Basic Nonuniformity of the Cerebral Cortex,” in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, no. 34 (August 2008): 12593–12596, http://www.pnas.org/content/105/34/12593.

S: Herculano-Houzel et al., “The Basic Nonuniformity of the Cerebral Cortex.”

B: Herculano-Houzel, Suzana, Christine E. Collins, Peiyan Wong, Jon H. Kass, and Roberto Lent. “The Basic Nonuniformity of the Cerebral Cortex.” In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, no. 34 (August 2008): 12593–12598. http://www.pnas.org/content/105/34/12593.

Conference Proceedings (print)

Chi/Tur

N: First1 Last1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, ed. Editor1 et al., Series Name in Title Case, vol. xxx (Place: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Names, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3. “Title of Chapter in Title Case.” In Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edited by Editor1, Editor2, Editor3, and Editor4, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. Series Name in Title Case, vol. xxx. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Itai Katz, Kevin Gabayan, and Hamid Aghajan, “A Multi-touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras,” in Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 9th International Conference, ed. Jacques Blanc-Talon et al., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4678 (Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2007), 98.

S: Katz, Gabayan, and Aghajan, “A Multi-touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras,” 106.

B: Katz, Itai, Kevin Gabayan, and Hamid Aghajan. “A Multi-touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras.” In Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 9th International Conference, edited by Jacques Blanc-Talon, Wilfried Philips, Dan Popescu, and Paul Scheunders, 97–108. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4678. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2007.

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

Chi/Tur

N: First1 Last1, First2 Last2, First3 Last3, and First4 Last4, “Title of Paper in Title Case” (paper presented at Name of Conference, City, State, Month and day, year).

S: Last Names, “Title of Paper in Title Case.”

B: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, First3 Last3, and First4 Last4. “Title of Paper in Title Case.” Paper presented at Name of Conference, City, State, Month and day, year.

N: Linda A. Teplin et al., “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study” (paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005).

S: Teplin, McClelland, Abram, and Washburn, “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth.”

B: Teplin, Linda A., Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, and Jason J. Washburn. “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005.

DATA SET / DATABASE

  • Include the date in a short citation of unpublished data only if multiple data sets have been received from the same source.
     
  • Since an unpublished data set is irretrievable, it is treated as a personal communication and therefore not cited in references.

Data Set

Published

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Data Set in Title Case,” Organization, Month and day, year, DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Data Set in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Data Set in Title Case.” Organization, Month and day published, year. DOI or URL.

N: Roberto Suro, “Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture: A Survey of Latinos on News Media,” Pew Hispanic Center, April 19, 2004, http://www.pewhispanic.org/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/.

S: Suro, “Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture.”

B: Suro, Roberto. “Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture: A Survey of Latinos on News Media.” Pew Hispanic Center, April 19, 2004. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/.

Data Set

Unpublished

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, unpublished data, Month and day of correspondence, year.

S: Last Name, unpublished data, Month and day, year.

B: None

N: Rebecca Kanteen, unpublished data, May 11, 1993.

S: Kanteen, unpublished data, May 11, 1993. 

B: None

Database

Chi/Tur

N: Title of Database in Title Case (record locator; accessed Month and day, year), DOI or URL.

S: Title of Database in Title Case.

B: Title of Database in Title Case (record locator; accessed Month and day, year). DOI or URL.

N: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (object name IRAS F00400+4059; accessed October 6, 2009), http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/.

S: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database.

B: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (object name IRAS F00400+4059; accessed October 6, 2009). http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/.

DICTIONARY / ENCYCLOPEDIA

  • If the source is an online version of a print reference work, italicize the title; do not italicize the titles of online-only sources.

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Chi/Tur

N: Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics, s.v. “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun,” accessed or modified date, URL.

S: Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics, “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun.”

B: Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. S.v. “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun.” Accessed or modified date. URL.

N: Merriam-Webster, s.v. “metamorphosis,” accessed July 6, 2017, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis.

S: Merriam-Webster, “metamorphosis.”

B: Merriam-Webster. S.v. “metamorphosis.” Accessed July 6, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis.

DIRECTIVE / INSTRUCTION

Directive Chi/Tur

N: Department, Title of Directive in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (City, State: Publisher = Department, year), DOI or URL.

S: Department, Title of Directive in Title Case and Italics.

B: Department. Title of Directive in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. City of Publication, State: Publisher = Department, year published. DOI or URL.

N: Department of Defense, Information Assurance Training, Certification, and Workforce Management, DOD Directive 8570.01-M (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2005), http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/
issuances/dodm/857001m.pdf.

S: Department of Defense, Information Assurance Training, Certification, and Workforce Management.

B: Department of Defense. Information Assurance Training, Certification, and Workforce Management. DOD Directive 8570.01-M. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2005. http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/
issuances/dodm/857001m.pdf.

Instruction Chi/Tur

N: Department, Title of Instruction in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number (City, State: Publisher = Department, year), page[s].

S: Department, Title of Instruction in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Department. Title of Instruction in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. City, State: Publisher = Department, year.

N: Department of Defense, Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, DOD Instruction 1000.01 (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012), 36.

S: Department of Defense, Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, 4.

B: Department of Defense. Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention. DOD Instruction 1000.01. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012.

DOCTRINE

Joint Doctrine Chi/Tur

N: Department, Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Publisher = Department, year), DOI or URL.

S: Department, Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics.

B: Department. Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Publisher = Department, year published. DOI or URL.

N: Joint Chiefs of Staff, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, JP-1 (Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2017), https://fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp1.pdf.

S: Joint Chiefs of Staff, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States.

B: Joint Chiefs of Staff. Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States. JP-1. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2017. https://fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp1.pdf.

FACT SHEET

Fact Sheet Chi/Tur

N: “Title of Fact Sheet in Title Case,” Department, year, DOI or URL.

S: Department, “Title of Fact Sheet in Title Case.”

B: Department. “Title of Fact Sheet in Title Case,” year. DOI or URL.

N: “The Construction Industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA),” Department of Labor, 2008, https://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs1.htm.

S: Department of Labor, “The Construction Industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act.”

B: Department of Labor. “The Construction Industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA),” 2008. https://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs1.htm.

FIELD MANUAL

Field Manual Chi/Tur

N: Department, Title of Field Manual in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Washington, DC: Publisher = Department, year), DOI or URL.

S: Department, Title of Field Manual in Title Case and Italics.

B: Department. Title of Field Manual in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. City of Publication, State: Publisher = Department, year of issuance. DOI or URL.

N: Department of the Army, Sniper Training, FM 23-10 (Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1995), http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf.

S: Department of the Army, Sniper Training.

B: Department of the Army. Sniper Training. FM 23-10. Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1995. http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf.

HANDBOOK

Handbook (online) Chi/Tur

N: Name of Company, Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics (City of Company, State, year), DOI or URL.

S: Name of Company, Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics.

B: Name of Company. Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics. City of Company, State, year. DOI or URL.

N: Western Spud, Transmission Systems for Potatoes, 168th ed. (Kinston-Slalom, ID, 1972), http://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html.

S: Western Spud, Transmission Systems for Potatoes.

B: Western Spud. Transmission Systems for Potatoes, 168th ed. Kinston-Slalom, ID, 1972. http://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html.

Handbook (print)

Chi/Tur

N: Name of Company, Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics (City of Company, State, year), page[s].

S: Name of Company, Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Name of Company. Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics. City of Company, State, year.

N: Western Electric, Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed. (Winston-Salem, NC, 1985), 77.

S: Western Electric, Transmission Systems for Communications, 77.

B: Western Electric. Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed. Winston-Salem, NC, 1985.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Journal Article (online)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

DOI preferred

Chi/Tur

N: Author 1 First and Last Name and Author 2 First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year): page[s], DOI.

S: Last Names, “Title of Article in Title Case," page[s].

B: Author 1 Last Name, Author 1 First Name, Author 2 First and Last Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year published): starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI.

N: Grace F. Sanico and Makoto Kakinaka, “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support,” Defence and Peace Economics 19, no. 2 (April 2008): 156, https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419.

S: Sanico and Kakinaka, “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support," 158.

B: Sanico, Grace F., and Makoto Kakinaka. “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support.” Defence and Peace Economics 19, no. 2 (April 2008): 153–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419.

Journal Article (online)

From a subscription database

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year): page[s], DOI or URL.

S: Last Names, “Title of Article in Title Case," page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year): starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL.

N: William W. Newmann, “Reorganizing for National Security and Homeland Security,” Public Administration Review 62, no. 1 (September 2002): 128, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1540-6210.62.s1.22/abstract.

S: Newmann, “Reorganizing for National Security and Homeland Security," 130.

B: Newmann, William W. “Reorganizing for National Security and Homeland Security.” Public Administration Review 62, no. 1 (September 2002): 126–37. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1540-6210.62.s1.22/abstract.

Journal Article (online)

From an online journal

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year), DOI or URL.

S: Last Names, “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author 1 First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year). DOI or URL.

N: Nick Catrantzos, “No Dark Corners: A Different Answer to Insider Threats,” Homeland Security Affairs 6, no. 2 (May 2010), https://www.hsaj.org/articles/83.

S: Catrantzos, “No Dark Corners.”

B: Catrantzos, Nick. “No Dark Corners: A Different Answer to Insider Threats.” Homeland Security Affairs 6, no. 2 (May 2010). https://www.hsaj.org/articles/83.

Journal Article (print)

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year): page[s].

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year published): starting page of article–ending page of article.

N: Geb Griffin, “Managing Peacekeeping Communications,” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3, no. 4 (August 2009): 325.

S: Griffin, “Managing Peacekeeping Communications.”

B: Griffin, Geb. “Managing Peacekeeping Communications.” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3, no. 4 (August 2009): 317–27.

LEGAL

  • Legal publications use notes for documentation and few include bibliographies. For a full discussion of legal and public documents, including examples, see 14.269–305.
Bill / Resolution

Bill / Resolution (online)

Federal unenacted, untitled

Chi

N: Abbreviated bill or resolution source and number, xxx Cong. (year published), DOI or URL.

S: Abbreviated bill or resolution source and number.

B: None

N: H.R. 5936, 102nd Cong. (1992), https://www.congress.gov/bill/102nd-congress/house-bill/5936/cosponsors?r=254&overview=closed.

S: H.R. 5936.

B: None

Bill / Resolution (online)

Federal unenacted, untitled

Tur

N: Abbreviated Source, xxx Cong., xxx sess. (year), DOI or URL.

S: Abbreviated bill or resolution source and number.

B: U.S. Congress. Chamber. Abbreviated Source, xxx Cong., xxx sess. (year). DOI or URL.

N: H.R. 5936, 102nd Cong., 2nd sess. (1992), https://www.congress.gov/bill/102nd-congress/house-bill/5936/cosponsors?r=254&overview=closed.

S: H.R. 5936.

B: U.S. Congress. House. H.R. 5936, 102nd Cong., 2nd sess. (1992). https://www.congress.gov/bill/102nd-congress/house-bill/5936/cosponsors?r=254&overview=closed.

Bill / Resolution (print)

Federal unenacted, titled

Chi

N: Title of Bill or Resolution in Title Case, abbreviated bill or resolution source and number, xxx Cong. (year).

S: Title of Bill or Resolution in Title Case.

B: None

N: Every Vote Counts Amendment, H.J. Res. 4, 110th Cong. (2007).

S: Every Vote Counts Amendment.

B: None

Bill / Resolution (print)

Federal unenacted, titled

Tur

N: Title of Bill or Resolution in Title Case. Abbreviated Source, xxx Cong., xxx sess. Congressional Record, vol. xxx, daily ed. (Month and day, year): page[s].

S: Title of Bill or Resolution in Title Case.

B: U.S. Congress. Chamber. Title of Bill or Resolution in Title Case. Abbreviated Source, xxx Cong., xxx sess. Congressional Record, vol. xxx, daily ed. (Month and day, year): page[s].

N: No Taxpayer Funding for Abortion Act, H. Res. 237, 112th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record, vol. 157, daily ed. (May 4, 2011): H3014.

S: No Taxpayer Funding for Abortion Act.

B: U.S. Congress. House. No Taxpayer Funding for Abortion Act. H. Res. 237. 112th Cong., 1st sess. Congressional Record, vol. 157, daily ed. (May 4, 2011): H3014.

Code of Federal Regulations
Code of Federal Regulations Chi

N: Title of Act in Title Case, title number and Source § section number (year), DOI or URL (if retrieved online).

S: Title of Act in Title Case.

B: None

N: Renewable Energy Production Incentives, 10 C.F.R. § 451 (2006), https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title10-vol3/xml/CFR-2006-title10-vol3-part451.xml.

S: Renewable Energy Production Incentives.

B: None

Code of Federal Regulations Tur

N: “Title of Act in Title Case.” Department. Code of Federal Regulations, title xxx (year comp.): section, URL.

S: Department, “Title of Act in Title Case.”

B: Department. “Title of Act in Title Case.” Code of Federal Regulations, title xxx (year comp.): section. URL.

N: “Renewable Energy Production Incentives,” Department of Energy, Code of Federal Regulations, title 10 (2006 comp.): 451, https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title10-vol3/xml/CFR-2006-title10-vol3-part451.xml.

S: Department of Energy, “Renewable Energy Production Incentives.”

B: Department of Energy. “Renewable Energy Production Incentives.” Code of Federal Regulations, title 10 (2006 comp.): 451. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title10-vol3/xml/CFR-2006-title10-vol3-part451.xml.

Congressional Hearing / Testimony within a Hearing

Congressional Hearing (online)

Full hearing

Chi

N: Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, xxx Cong. (year of hearing), DOI or URL.

S: Chamber, Abbrev. Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics.

B: None

 

N: Long-term Sustainability of Current Defense Plans: Hearing before the Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives, 111th Cong. 1 (2009), https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg47035/pdf/CHRG-111hhrg47035.pdf.

S: H.R., Long-term Sustainability.

B: None

Congressional Hearing (print)

Full hearing

Tur

N: Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, Chamber, xxx Cong., xxx sess., Month and day, year.

S: Chamber, Abbrev. Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics.

B: U.S. Congress. Chamber. Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics. xxx Cong., xxx sess., Month and day, year.

N: Famine in Africa: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, Senate, 99th Cong., 1st sess., January 17, 1985.

S: S., Famine in Africa.

B: U.S. Congress. Senate. Famine in Africa: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations. 99th Cong., 1st sess., January 17, 1985.

Testimony within a Hearing (print) Chi

N: Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, xxx Cong. (year of hearing) (testimony of Testifier, title).

S: Testifier, testimony on Abbrev. Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics.

B: None

N: NASA Infrastructure: Enabling Discovery, Enabling Durability: Testimony before the Subcommittee on Space Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, 113th Cong. 25 (2013) (statement of Paul K. Martin, NASA lead scientist).

S: Martin, testimony on NASA Infrastructure.

B: None

Testimony within a Hearing (print) Tur

N: Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, Chamber, xxx Cong., xxx sess. (Month and day, year) (statement of Testifier, title).

S: Testifier, testimony on Abbrev. Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics.

B: U.S. Congress. Chamber. Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics. xxx Cong., xxx sess. Statement of Testifier, title. Month and day, year.

N: Dangers of Yodeling: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, Senate, 99th Cong., 1st sess. (January 17, 1985) (statement of Takeo Ischi, chief chicken yodeler).

S: Ischi, testimony on Dangers of Yodeling.

B: U.S. Congress. Senate. Dangers of Yodeling: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations. 99th Cong., 1st sess. Statement of Takeo Ischi, chief chicken yodeler. January 17, 1985.

Court Case Decision

Court Case Decision (online)

Lower court

Chi/Tur

N: Plaintiff v. Defendant, volume Source (Court Abbreviation and year of decision), DOI or URL.

S: Plaintiff v. Defendant in italics.

B: None

N: Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972), https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=16374362071956566586&q=Lessard+v.+Schmidt&hl=
en&as_sdt=2006&as_vis=1.

S: Lessard v. Schmidt.

B: None

Court Case Decision (print)

Supreme Court

Chi/Tur

N: Plaintiff v. Defendant, volume Source page (year of decision).

S: Plaintiff v. Defendant in italics.

B: None

N: Winter v. NRDC, Inc., 129 S. Ct. 365 (2008).

S: Winter v. NRDC.

B: None

Executive Order

Executive Order (online)

Basic format

Chi

N: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. # (year published), DOI or URL.

S: Exec. Order No. xxxxx.

B: None

N: Exec. Order No. 13655, 3 C.F.R. 80451 (2013), https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-31/pdf/2013-31445.pdf.

S: Exec. Order No. 13655.

B: None

Executive Order (print)

Extended format

Chi

N: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. # (year), reprinted in title number U.S.C. section app. at starting page of order–ending page of order (year).

S: Exec. Order No. xxxxx.

B: None

N: Exec. Order No. 11609, 3 C.F.R. 586 (1971–1975), reprinted as amended in 3 U.S.C. 301 app. at 404–407 (1994).

S: Exec. Order No. 11609.

B: None

Executive Order (print) Tur

N: President First and Last Name, Executive Order xxxxx, “Title of Executive Order in Title Case,” Code of Federal Regulations, title 3 (year comp.): page.

S: Last Name, Executive Order xxxxx.

B: President Last Name, First Name. Executive Order xxxxx. “Title of Executive Order in Title Case.” Code of Federal Regulations, title 3 (year comp.): page.

N: William J. Clinton, Executive Order 13067, “Blocking Sudanese Government Property and Prohibiting Transactions with Sudan,” Code of Federal Regulations, title 3 (1997 comp.): 230.

S: Clinton, Executive Order 13067.

B: Clinton, William J. Executive Order 13067. “Blocking Sudanese Government Property and Prohibiting Transactions with Sudan.” Code of Federal Regulations, title 3 (1997 comp.): 230.

Public Law

Public Law (online)

Published in the U.S. Statutes at Large

Chi

N: Title of Act, Pub. L. number, Stat. section (year published). DOI or URL.

S: Title of Act.

B: None

N: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–336 § 2, 104 Stat. 328 (1991). http://library.clerk.house.gov/reference-files/PPL_101_336_AmericansWithDisabilities.pdf.

S: Americans with Disabilities Act.

B: None

Public Law (online)

Published in the U.S. Statutes at Large

Tur

N: Title of Act, Public Law number, U.S. Statutes at Large section (year published): pages. DOI or URL.

S: Title of Act.

B: None

 

N: Homeland Security Act of 2002, Public Law 107-296, U.S. Statutes at Large 116 (2002): 2163–64. https://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/
assets/hr_5005_enr.pdf.

S: Homeland Security Act.

B: None

Public Law (print)

Published in the U.S. Code

Chi

N: Title of Act, U.S.C. section (year published).

S: Title of Act.

B: None

N: National Environmental Policy Act, 42 U.S.C. § 4331 (1969).

S: National Environmental Policy Act.

B: None

Public Law (print)

Published in the U.S. Code

Tur

N: Title of Act, Public Law number, U.S. Statutes at Large section (year published): pages, codified at U.S. Code xxx (year) §§ xx et seq.

S: Title of Act.

B: None

N: Homeland Security Act of 2002, Public Law 107-296, U.S. Statutes at Large 116 (2002): 2163–64, codified at U.S. Code 6 (2002) §§ 101 et seq.

S: Homeland Security Act.

B: None

MAGAZINE ARTICLE

Magazine Article (online) Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, Month and day, year, DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case.” 

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics. Month and day, year. DOI or URL.

N: Geronimo Preposterous, "Mai Tais and Milkshakes: A Fast Ride to the ER," Libation Incidents Monthly, February 1, 2017, http://pollock.trashcan.com/2017/02/22/mtmer.

S: Preposterous, "Mai Tais and Milkshakes."

B: Preposterous, Geronimo. "Mai Tais and Milkshakes: A Fast Ride to the ER." Libation Incidents Monthly, February 1, 2017. http://pollock.trashcan.com/2017/02/22/mtmer.

 

Magazine Article (print) Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case," Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, Month and day, year, page[s].

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case.” 

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics. Month and day, year.

N: Geronimo Preposterous, "Martinis and Mackerel: From Seafood to See Food," Libation Incidents Monthly, March 1, 2017.

S: Preposterous, "Martinis and Mackerel."

B: Preposterous, Geronimo. "Martinis and Mackerel: From Seafood to See Food." Libation Incidents Monthly, March 1, 2017.

MAP
Google Map Chi/Tur

N: “Title of Page/Search in Title Case,” Google Maps, accessed Month and day, year, URL.

S: “Title of Page/Search in Title Case.”

B: Google Maps. “Title of Map in Title Case.” Accessed Month and day, year. URL.

N: “Monterey Bay Map,” Google Maps, accessed January 4, 2014, https://www.google.com/maps/place/Monterey+Bay/
@36.7896106,-122.0843052,11z/data=
!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.
8007413!4d-121.947311.

S: “Monterey Bay Map.”

B: Google Maps. “Monterey Bay Map.” Accessed January 4, 2014. https://www.google.com/maps/place/
Monterey+Bay/@36.7896106,-122.0843052,11z/data=
!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.
8007413!4d-121.947311.

Map (online)

Cartographer given

Chi/Tur

N: “Title of Map,” Map Source or Maker in Title Case, accessed Month and day, year, DOI or URL.

S: Map Source or Maker in Title Case, “Title of Map.”

B: Map Source or Maker in Title Case. “Title of Map in Title Case.” Accessed Month and day, year. DOI or URL.

N: “Population Density, 2000 U.S. Census,” Lewis County Geographic Information Services, accessed January 4, 2014, http://maps.lewiscountywa.gov/maps/Demographics/census-popdens_2000.pdf.

S: Lewis County Geographic Information Services, “Population Density, 2000 U.S. Census.”

B: Lewis County Geographic Information Services. “Population Density, 2000 U.S. Census.” Accessed January 4, 2014. http://maps.lewiscountywa.gov/maps/Demographics/census-popdens_2000.pdf.

MEMORANDUM, OFFICIAL

Memorandum (official)

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Memo in Title Case” (official memorandum, Place of Issuance: Department, year), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Memo in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Memo in Title Case.” Official memorandum. Place of Issuance: Department, year. DOI or URL.

N: Teresa M. Takai, “Adoption of the National Information Exchange Model within the Department of Defense” (official memorandum, Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2013), http://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20the%20DoD.pdf.

S: Takai, “Adoption of the National Information Exchange Model."

B: Takai, Teresa M. “Adoption of the National Information Exchange Model within the Department of Defense.” Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2013. http://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/
2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20
the%20DoD.pdf.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE

Newspaper Article (online)

Author given

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Month and day, year, DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Month and day, year. DOI or URL.

N: Jane E. Brody, “Mental Reserves Keep Brains Agile,” New York Times, December 11, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11brod.html.

S: Brody, “Mental Reserves Keep Brains Agile.”

B: Brody, Jane E. “Mental Reserves Keep Brains Agile.” New York Times, December 11, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11brod.html. 

Newspaper Article (online)

No author given

Chi/Tur

N: “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Month and day, year, DOI or URL.

S: “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Month and day, year. DOI or URL. 

N: “Toxic Algae in San Luis Reservoir Prompts Warning from State,” Monterey Herald, June 30, 2017, http://www.montereyherald.com/
environment-and-nature/20170630/toxic-algae-in-san-luis-reservoir-prompts-warning-from-state.

S: “Toxic Algae in San Luis Reservoir Prompts Warning from State.”

B: Monterey Herald. “Toxic Algae in San Luis Reservoir Prompts Warning from State.” June 30, 2017. http://www.montereyherald.com/
environment-and-nature/20170630/toxic-algae-in-san-luis-reservoir-prompts-warning-from-state. 

Newspaper Article (print)

Author given

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Month and day, year, page[s].

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Month and day, year. 

N: Michael R. Gordon, “Shifting Fronts, Rising Danger: The Afghanistan War Evolves,” New York Times, December 9, 2001, A1.

S: Gordon, “Shifting Fronts," A1.

B: Gordon, Michael R. “Shifting Fronts, Rising Danger: The Afghanistan War Evolves.” New York Times, December 9, 2001.

Newspaper Article (print)

No author given 

Chi/Tur

N: “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Month and day, year.

S: “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Month and day, year. 

N: “2 Tunnels Found under the Border,” Monterey Herald, April 5, 2014.

S: “2 Tunnels Found under the Border.”

B: Monterey Herald. “2 Tunnels Found under the Border.” April 5, 2014. 

PATENT
  Chi/Tur

N: Rightsholder First and Last Name, Title of patent in sentence case, U.S. Patent xxxxxxx, filed Month and day of filing, year of filing, and issued Month and day of issuance, year, DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, Title of patent in sentence case.

B: Rightsholder Last Name, Rightsholder First Name. Title of patent in sentence case. U.S. Patent xxxxxxx, filed Month and day of filing, year of filing, and issued Month and day of issuance, year. DOI or URL.

N: Alexander Graham Bell, Improvement in telegraphy, U.S. Patent 174465, filed February 14, 1876, and issued March 7, 1876, https://www.google.com/patents/US174465.

S: Bell, Improvement in telegraphy.

B: Bell, Alexander Graham. Improvement in telegraphy. U.S. Patent 174465, filed February 14, 1876, and issued March 7, 1876. https://www.google.com/patents/US174465.

PERSONAL COMMUNICATION, INTERVIEW, EMAIL

  • Personal communication is material obtained from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.

  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email, internal documents, documents posted to a listserv or internal server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access. 

Personal Communication  

N: Interlocutor Name, type of communication, Month and day of communication, year.

S: None

B: None

N: Flo Katz, personal communication, September 8, 2009.

S: None

B: None 

 

Interview Chi/Tur

In your text: Include name and title of interviewee as well as full date of interview.

S: None

B: None

In your text: Paulo Shapiro (professor of potato behavioral science), in discussion with the author, August 9, 2017.

S: None

B: None 

Email

Including attachments such as presentation slides, data sets, internal documents

Chi/Tur

N: Sender, email message to author, Month and day of email, year.

S: None

B: None

N: Quentina Grumbupple, email message to author, October 22, 1994.

S: None

B: None

SECONDARY SOURCE

Secondary Source Chi/Tur

In your text: Include primary and secondary source information for clarity.

N: To cite a source from a secondary source (“quoted in …”) is generally to be discouraged, since authors are expected to have examined the works they cite. If an original source is unavailable, however, both the original and the secondary source must be listed.

S: Use quoted source for shortened citation.

B: List the secondary source that quotes or discusses the material you are referring to (cite using the appropriate bibliography format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In this example, Costello is quoting Zukofsky’s poem.

In your text: We can see this principle at work in the following passage from Zukofsky’s poem, quoted in Costello: "…"1

N: Louis Zukofsky, “Sincerity and Objectification,” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

S: Zukofsky, “Sincerity and Objectification," 78.

B: Costello, Bonnie. Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

SPEECH

Speech Chi/Tur

In your text: Include name of speaker.

N: Follow source type.

S: Follow source type.

B: List the source that quotes or reprints the speech you are referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: Martin Luther King, Jr., declared, “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed.”1

N: Jacob Smith, ed. Well Said! Great Speeches in American History (Washington, DC: E & K Publishing. 2009), 27.

S: Smith, Well Said!, 33.

B: Smith, Jacob, ed. Well Said! Great Speeches in American History. Washington, DC: E & K Publishing. 2009.

THESIS / DISSERTATION

Thesis / Dissertation

From an institutional archive

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case,” (master’s thesis or PhD diss., Institution, year published), page[s], DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case.” Master’s thesis or PhD diss., Institution, year published. DOI or URL.

N: Thomas D. Moon, “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam” (master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2009), 48–56, http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4694.

S: Moon, “Rising Dragon,” 55.

B: Moon, Thomas D. “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam.” Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4694.


N: Joey Rivera, “Software System Architecture Modeling Methodology for Naval Gun Weapon Systems” (PhD diss., Naval Postgraduate School, 2010), 77, http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10504.

S: Rivera, “Software System Architecture,” 22.

B: Rivera, Joey. “Software System Architecture Modeling Methodology for Naval Gun Weapon Systems.” PhD diss., Naval Postgraduate School, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10504.

Thesis / Dissertation

From a commercial database

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case,” (master’s thesis or PhD diss., Institution, year published), page[s], Database (document identification number).

S: Last Name, “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case," page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case.” Master’s thesis or PhD diss., Institution, year published. Database (document identification number).

N: Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008), 89–99, ProQuest (AAT 3300426).

S: Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires,” 89.

B: Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008. ProQuest (AAT 3300426).

 UNPUBLISHED / INFORMALLY PUBLISHED WORKS

Unpublished Work (print) Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Work in Title Case” (unpublished [type of work], Month and day viewed, year viewed), page[s].

S: Last Name, “Title of Work in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Work in Title Case.” Unpublished [type of work], Month and day viewed, year.

N: Belmont B. Horse, “Back in the Saddle” (unpublished memoir, May 3, 1995), 995.

S: Horse, “Back in the Saddle.” 995.

B: Horse, Belmont B. “Back in the Saddle.” Unpublished memoir, May 3, 1995.

Unpublished work (online) Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Work in Title Case” (unpublished [type of work], last modified Month and day modified, year modified), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Work in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Work in Title Case.” Unpublished [type of work], last modified Month and day modified, year modified. DOI or URL.

N: Belmont B. Horse, “Back in the Saddle 2: Backward in the Saddle” (unpublished screenplay, last modified December 24, 1996), http://horse.com/bits2bits.

S: Horse, “Back in the Saddle 2.”

B: Horse, Belmont B. “Back in the Saddle 2: Backward in the Saddle.” Unpublished screenplay, last modified December 24, 1996. http://horse.com/bits2bits.

Works Accepted for Publication (online) Chi/Tur

N: Follow style for source type.

S: Follow style for source type.

B: Follow style for source type.

N: Robert Briscoe, “Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (forthcoming), http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf.

S: Briscoe, “Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception.”

B: Briscoe, Robert. “Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (forthcoming). http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf.

VISUAL MEDIA
Motion Picture Chi

N: Title of Film in Title Case and Italics, directed by Director (year originally released; City of Publication, State: Publisher, year published of the copy you are using), medium or DOI or URL.

S: Title of Film in Title Case and Italics.

B: Director Last Name, Director First Name, dir. Title of Film in Title Case and Italics. Year originally released; Place of Publication: Publisher, year published of the copy you are using. Medium or DOI or URL.

N: The Invisible War, directed by Kirby Dick (2012; Los Angeles, CA: Docurama, 2012), http://www.netflix.com.

S: The Invisible War.

B: Dick, Kirby, dir. The Invisible War. 2012; Los Angeles, CA: Docurama, 2012. http://www.netflix.com.

Motion Picture Tur

N: Title of Film in Title Case and Italics, directed by Director (Publisher, year originally released), medium (publisher of the copy you are using, year), DOI or URL.

S: Title of Film in Title Case and Italics.

B: Director Last Name, Director First Name, dir. Title of Film in Title Case and Italics. Publisher, year originally released. Medium. Publisher of copy you are using, year. DOI or URL.

N: Crumb, directed by Terry Zwigoff (Superior Pictures, 1994), DVD (Sony Pictures, 2006).

S: Crumb.

B: Zwigoff, Terry, dir. Crumb. Superior Pictures, 1994. DVD. Sony Pictures, 2006.

Video

CNN, YouTube, or any kind of streaming video

Chi/Tur

N: “Title of Video in Title Case,” type of video, length of video, posted by Author or Organization or Screen Name, Month and day of posting, year of posting, URL.

S: Last Name or Organization or Screen Name, “Title of Video in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name or Organization or Screen Name. “Title of Video in Title Case.” Type of video, length of video. Month and day of posting, year of posting. URL.

N: “Possible Ghost Caught on Surveillance Camera,” YouTube video, 1:19, posted by BellaFolletti, April 8, 2009, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dq1ms2JhYBI.

S: BellaFolletti, “Possible Ghost Caught on Surveillance Camera.”

B: BellaFolletti. “Possible Ghost Caught on Surveillance Camera.” YouTube video, 1:19. April 8, 2009. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dq1ms2JhYBI.


N: “US Military Sends Warships, Aircraft to Texas,” CNN, video, 1:31, August 31, 2017, http://www.cnn.com/
2017/08/30/politics/texas-harvey-flooding-military-response/?iid=ob_lockedrail_topeditorial.

S: “US Military Sends Warships, Aircraft to Texas.”

B: CNN. “US Military Sends Warships, Aircraft to Texas.” Video, 1:31. August 31, 2017. http://www.cnn.com/
2017/08/30/politics/texas-harvey-flooding-military-response/?iid=ob_lockedrail_topeditorial.

WEBSITE / WEBPAGE

  • Title of website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
     
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, New York Times, not Reuters or CNN.

Webpage

Author and publication date given

Chi/Tur

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case,” Organization, full date given on page or full date of access, URL.

S: Name, “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Organization. Full date given on page or full date of access. URL.

N: Richard Roth, “75 Years Ago, the Doolittle Raid Changed History,” CNN, last modified April 18, 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html.

S: Roth, “75 Years Ago, the Doolittle Raid Changed History.”

B: Roth, Richard. “75 Years Ago, the Doolittle Raid Changed History.” CNN. Last modified April 18, 2017. http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/
us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html.

Webpage

No author given

Organization as author

Chi/Tur

N: “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case,” Organization, full date given on page or full date of access, URL.

S: “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.”

B: Organization. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Full date given on page or full date of access. URL.

N: “Forging Papers to Sell Fake Art,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, April 6, 2017, https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art.

S: “Forging Papers to Sell Fake Art.”

B: Federal Bureau of Investigation. “Forging Papers to Sell Fake Art.” April 6, 2017. https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art.

Webpage

No date given

Chi/Tur

N: “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case,” Organization, accessed Month and day of access, year, URL.

S: Organization, “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.”

B: Organization. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Accessed Month and day of access, year. URL.

N: “About the Department of Defense (DOD),” Department of Defense, accessed April 18, 2017, https://www.defense.gov/About/.

S: Department of Defense, “About the Department of Defense (DOD).”

B: Department of Defense. “About the Department of Defense (DOD).” Accessed April 18, 2017. https://www.defense.gov/About/.

Webpage

Jane's example

Chi/Tur

N: “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case,” Jane’s by IHS Markit, full date given on page or full date of access, URL.

S: “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.”

B: Jane’s by IHS Markit. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Full date given on page or full date of access. URL.

N: “Mali: Executive Summary,” Jane’s by IHS Markit, May 31, 2017, http://janes.ihs.com/Janes/Display/1303746.

S: “Mali: Executive Summary.”

B: Jane’s by IHS Markit. “Mali: Executive Summary.” Jane’s. May 31, 2017. http://janes.ihs.com/Janes/Display/1303746.

WIKIPEDIA:

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
     
  • Do not italicize the titles of online-only sources such as Wikipedia.
Wikipedia Chi/Tur

N: Wikipedia, s.v. “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun,” accessed or modified date, URL.

S: Wikipedia, “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun.”

B: WikipediaS.v. “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun.” Accessed or modified date. URL.

 

N: Wikipedia, s.v. “psychology,” last modified July 8, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology.

S: Wikipedia, “psychology.”

B: Wikipedia. S.v. “psychology.” Last modified July 8, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology.

WORKING PAPER / OCCASIONAL PAPER

Working Paper / Occasional Paper  
N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Working Paper in Title Case” (working paper, Institution or Company, year), page[s], DOI or URL.
 
S: Last Name, “Title of Working Paper in Title Case.”
 
B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Working Paper in Title Case.” Working paper, Institution or Company, year. DOI or URL.
N: Lila Linguine, “Anteaters and Aardvarks: Power Critters” (working paper, Animal Rights Institute, 2014), 22, https://www.aanda.power/careers.html.
 
S: Linguine, “Anteaters and Aardvarks.”
 
B: Linguine, Lila. “Anteaters and Aardvarks: Power Critters.” Working paper, Animal Rights Institute, 2014. https://www.aanda.power/careers.html.

Adapted from Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. and Turabian's Manual for Writers, 8th ed.