Citation Styles

Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)

DOI = Digital Object Identifier

What is it?

It's a Digital Object Identifier -- a unique alphanumeric string that identifies articles, ebooks, standards, datasets, etc., and provides a persistent link to its online location.

Example citation: 

Sanico, G., & Kakinaka, M. (2008). Terrorism and deterrence policy with transnational support. Defence & Peace Economics, 19, 153 –167. doi:10.1080/10242690701505419


Why use it?

  • It makes citing easier for you, and finding references easier for your reader.

  • You can put a DOI into a Web search and find the item it's linked to.

Try it!  
Search this: doi:10.1080/10242690701505419

Did you come up with the example above?


  • If you're referencing something you got from a subscription database, you don't need to worry about including the URL to the journal, just add the DOI.

Find the citation, or find the DOI

Use this tool to find the citation when you have the DOI or vice versa.