Citation Guide

INFORMS: Examples

INFORMS: Examples

(2016 ed.)

For NPS Theses, Papers, and Publications

To cite properly, apply the Essential Rules to the examples given below.

Book

  • Always include page numbers for direct quotes when available.
Print Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author

R: Author AA (year) Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication).

T: (Author year)

R: Pollan M (2006) The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (Penguin, New York).

T: (Pollan 2006, p. 15)

Two authors with edition number

R: Author AA, Author BB (year) Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, xx ed. (Publisher, Place of Publication).

T: (Author A and  Author B year)

R: Strindberg A, Wärn M (2011) Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance, 2nd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ).

T: (Strindberg and Wärn 2011)

Three authors

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication).

T: (Author A et al. year)

R: Cordesman AH, Mausner A, Kasten D (2009) Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces (Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC).

T: (Cordesman et al. 2009, p. 23)

Book Chapter in Edited Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author, one editor

R: Author AA (year) Title of chapter in sentence case. Editor AA, ed. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication), starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

T: (Author year)

R: Haynes P (2009) Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, US foreign policy. Goodname A, ed. Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management (Routledge, New York), 62–74.

T: (Haynes 2009)

Three authors, two editors

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of chapter in sentence case. Editor AA, Editor BB, eds. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication), starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

T: (Author A et al. year)

R: Cordesman AH, Mausner A, Kasten D (2009) Introduction. Python MM, Monty PP, eds. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces (Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC), 15–25.

T: (Cordesman et al. 2009)

Electronic Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Electronic Book

R: Author AA (year) Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Crabtree J, Chaplin A (2013) Bolivia: Processes of Change, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ebook-nps/detail.action?docID=1183073.

T: (Crabtree and Chaplin 2013) 

  • When citing a direct quotation from an electronic book without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. The citation might include a chapter number, section heading, or paragraph number within the section.

Class Notes / Lecture / Presentation / Workshop

  • Class notes include lecture notes, slides, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.
     
  • If class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's/lecturer's name and "class notes."
     
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Class Notes/ Lecture

Unpublished

R: Author AA (year) Title of  class or lecture in sentence case. Class notes or Lecture, Name of Class in Title Case, Month and day of Lecture, Department, School, Location of Institution.

T: (Author year)

Class notes:

R: Houston A (2016) Why capitalization matters when visiting the House of Potato Chips. Class notes, Performance Management and Budgeting, University of Idaho, September 28, Fort Chip, ID.

T: (Houston 2016)


Lecture:

R: Norton ME (2004) Optimizing the rotational velocity of lizards through ceiling fan modulation. Lecture, Introduction to Veterinary Studies, May 2, Department of Dragon Husbandry, Charlatan State University, Monogahela, WV.

T: (Norton 2004)

Class Notes/ Lecture

Published

R: Author AA (year) Title of lecture in sentence case. Class notes or Lecture, Name of Class in Title Case, Month and day of Lecture, Department, School, Location of Institution. DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Blanche C (2017) How to be the cutest cat in the world. Lecture, Meow Studies 402, August 21, Department of Applied Whiskers, Navel Pregraduate School, Monterey, CA. http://wallcrust.com/meows/cats.whiskers.

T: (Blanche 2017)

Presentation or Workshop

R: Author AA (year) Title of presentation in sentence case. Presentation or Workshop, Name of Event in Title Case, Month and day of Presentation, Venue, Location of Venue. DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Horse BB (2017) Horseshoes and hand grenades: On the joys of approximation. Presentation, Conference on Improbable Probabilities, Belmont Race Track, Elmont, NY. http://horse.edu/horseshoesandgrenades/
perfect_together.

T: (Horse 2017)

 

Computer Program / Software

  • Citation is required only if the software is not well known.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Computer Program / Software

R: Rightsholder AA, Rightsholder BB, Rightsholder CC, Rightsholder DD (year) Title of obscure software in sentence case. Accessed date, DOI or URL.

T: (Rightsholder AA et al. year)

R: Borenstein M, Hedges L, Higgins J, Rothstein H (2005) Comprehensive meta-analysis, version 2. Accessed May 8, 2015, http://www.meta-analysis.com/?index.html.

T: (Borenstein et al. 2005)

 

Conference Paper / Proceedings

  • Always include page numbers for direct quotes when available.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Conference Proceedings

(online)

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of article in sentence case. Abbreviated Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics (Venue, Location of Conference), DOI or URL.

T: (Author A et al. year)

R: Herculano-Houzel S, Collins CE, Wong P (2008) The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proc. of the Natl. Acad. of Sci. of the USA (Pizza Hut, Paducah, KY), https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0805417105.

T: (Herculano-Houzel et al. 2008)

Conference Proceedings

(print)

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of article in sentence case. Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics (Venue, Location of Conference), starting page of articleending page of article.

T: (Author A et al. year)

R: Herculano-Houzel S, Collins CE, Wong P (2008) The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proc. of the Natl. Acad. of Sci. of the USA (Pizza Hut, Paducah, KY), 112233112255.

T: (Herculano-Houzel et al. 2008)

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of article in sentence case. Abbreviated Title of Conference in Title Case, Location of Conference.

T: (Author A et al. year)

R: Teplin LA, McClelland GM, Abram KM (2005) Early violent death in delinquent youth: A prospective longitudinal study. Ann. Mtg. of the Amer. Psych.-Law Soc., La Jolla, CA.

T: (Teplin et al. 2005) 

Data Set / Database

  • For information retrieved from a database, provide enough information for your readers to replicate the data. Include in your text the name of the database or the data source, along with other descriptive information (such as the unit of observation, the years selected, the sample size, and/or other selection criteria). The database does not necessarily need to appear in your List of References.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Data Set / Database

Published

R: Author AA or Organization (year) Title of study in sentence case. Accessed date, DOI or URL.

T: (Author or Organization year)

R: Suro R (2004) Changing channels and crisscrossing culture: A survey of Latinos on news media. Accessed April 30, 2012, http://www.pewhispanic.org/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/.

T: (Suro 2004)

Data Set

Unpublished

R: Author AA (year) Data provided to the author via personal communication, Month and day.

T: (Author year)

R: Blanche C (2006) Data provided to the author via email, August 30.

T: (Blanche 2006) 

 

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Dictionary / Encyclopedia

R: Title of entry in sentence case (year accessed) Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Accessed date, DOI or URL.

T: (Title of entry year accessed)

R: Metamorphosis (2011) Merriam-Webster. Accessed March 4, 2011, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis.

T: (Metamorphosis 2011)

 

Fact Sheet

  • Always include page numbers for direct quotes when available.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Fact Sheet

R: Department (year) Title of fact sheet in sentence case, DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department year)

R: Department of Labor (2008) The construction industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), http://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs1.htm.

T (first citation): (Department of Labor [DOL] 2008)

T (subsequent citations): (DOL 2008)

 

Government / Military Documents

  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Directive / Instruction
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Directive / Instruction

 

R: Department (year) Title of directive in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Place of Publication. DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

 

R: Department of Defense (2005) Information assurance training, certification, workforce management. DoD Directive 8570.01-M. Washington, DC, http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/issuances/dodm/857001m.pdf.

T (first citation): (Department of Defense [DoD] 2005)

T (subsequent citations): (DoD 2005)

Doctrine
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Joint Doctrine

R: Department (year) Title of joint doctrine in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Place of Publication. DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Joint Chiefs of Staff (2017) Countering air and missile threats. JP 3-01, Washington, DC. http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_01_20172104.pdf.

T (first citation): (Joint Chiefs of Staff [JCS] 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (JCS 2017)

Field Manual / Military Regulation
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Field Manual / Military Regulation

R: Department (year) Title of Field Manual in Title Case and Italics. Type of document and identification number, Place of Publication, DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Department of the Army (1994) Sniper Training. FM 23-10, Washington, DC, http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf.

T (first citation): (Department of the Army [DA] 1994)

T (subsequent citations): (DA 1994)

Handbook

  • Always include page numbers for direct quotes when available.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Online

R: Organization (year) Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number (Place of Publication), DOI or URL.

T: (Organization year)

R: Western Spud (1972) Transmission Systems for Potatoes, 168th ed. (Kinston-Slalom, ID). http://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html.

T: (Western Spud 1972)

Print

R: Organization (year) Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number (Place of Publication).

T: (Organization year)

R: Western Electric (1985) Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed. (Winston-Salem, NC).

T: (Western Electric 1985)

Legal

  • Legal publications use notes for documentation; few include bibliographies. Any work using the author-date style that needs to do more than mention the occasional source in the text should therefore use supplementary Chicago Notes & Bibliography footnotes formatting. For a full discussion of legal and public documents, including examples, see 14.269–305.
Bill / Resolution
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Bill/Resolution (print)

Federal unenacted, untitled

R: None

T: None

In your text: (Abbreviated bill or resolution source and number, xxx Cong. (Year published))

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: The Managed Competition Act (H.R. 5936, 102nd Cong. (1992)) noted that potatoes are smarter than E. coli–laden cats …

Footnote: See header notes.

Code of Federal Regulations
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Code of Federal Regulations

R: None

T: None

In your text: Include name of act, title number, source, section number, and year published.

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In 2006, the Department of Energy introduced the Renewable Energy Production Incentives (10 C.F.R. § 451), which ...

or

In 10 C.F.R. § 451 (2006), the Department of Energy establishes guidelines on Renewable Energy Production Incentives, which ...

Footnote: See header notes.

Congressional Hearing / Testimony within a Hearing
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Congressional Hearing 

Full hearing

(online)

R: None

T: None

In your text: Include title of hearing, date, and any other useful identifying information.

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In 2009, the House Committee on the Budget held a hearing on the Long-term Sustainability of Current Defense Plans to ascertain . . . 

Footnote: See header notes.

Testimony within a Hearing

(print)

R: None

T: None

In your text: Include name of testifier, title of hearing, date, and any other useful identifying information.

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In his 2015 testimony during the NASA Infrastructure–Enabling Discovery, Enabling Durability hearing, NASA lead scientist Paul K. Martin remarked that . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

Court Case Decision
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Court Case Decision 

Lower court

(online)

R: None

T: None

In your text: Name of Court Case (volume Source (Court Abbreviation and year of decision))

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In the case Lessard v. Schmidt (349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972)), the court ruled that ...

Footnote: See header notes.

Court Case Decision 

Supreme Court

(print)

R: None

T: None

In your text: Name of Court Case (Volume Source Page (year of decision))

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In the case Winter v. NRDC, Inc. (129 S. Ct. 365 (2008)), the court ruled that ...

Footnote: See header notes.

Executive Order
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Executive Order

(online)

R: None

T: None

In your text: Include "Title of Executive Order in Title Case," executive order number, and year.

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In 2013, Executive Order 13655, "Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay," established that . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

Public Law
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Public Law

R: None

T: none

In your text: Include the title of the act and year published.

Note: if the year is included in the act, there is no need to repeat it

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: The 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act established …

Footnote: See header notes.

Journal Article

  • Always include page numbers for direct quotes when available.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

From an online journal

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 

DOI preferred

R: Author AA, Author BB (year) Title of article in sentence case. Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume(issue number), DOI or URL.

T: (Author A and Author B year)

R: Sanico G, Kakinaka M (2008) Terrorism and deterrence policy with transnational support. J. of Def. and Peace 19(2), https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419.

T: (Sanico and Kakinaka 2008, p. 588)

From a print journal

R: Author AA (year) Title of article in sentence case. Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume(issue number):starting page of article–ending page of article.

T: (Author year)

R: Griffin G (2009) Managing peacekeeping communications. J. of Bus. Continuity & Emer. Planning 3(4):317–327.

T: (Griffin 2009)

Magazine / Newspaper Article

  • Always include page numbers for direct quotes when available.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

No author given

(online)

R: Title of Magazine or Newspaper in Title Case and Italics (year) Title of article in sentence case (Month and day), DOI or URL

T: (Title of Magazine or Newspaper year)

R: The Economist (2014) So long easy money: Foreign drug firms face a severe profit squeeze (June 12), https://www.economist.com/news/business/21604178-foreign-drug-firms-face-severe-profit-squeeze-so-long-easy-money.

T: (The Economist 2014, p. 18)

Author given

(print)

R: Author AA (year) Title of article in sentence case. Title of Magazine or Newspaper in Title Case and Italics (Month and day).

T: (Author year)

R: Beforebad S (2014) Cold spaghetti: To eat or not to eat? Pasta Dynamics (January 1).

T: (Beforebad 2014)

 

Patent

  • If more than one date, use the year of issuance.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Patent

R: Rightsholder AA (year patent issued) Patent Number in Title Case. Patent Office, Location of Office, DOI or URL.

T: (Patent number year)

R: Bell AG (1876) U.S. Patent No. 174,465. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, DC, https://www.google.com/patents/US174465.

T: (U.S. Patent No. 174,465 1846)

 

Personal Communication / Interview / Email

  • Personal communication is material obtained directly from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.
     
  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email (presentation slides, data sets, internal documents), documents posted to a listserv or internal server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Personal Communication / Email

R: Correspondent AA (year) Type of information provided to the author via personal communication, Month and day.

T: (Correspondent year)

R: Wunkerbunk TT (2002) Moss-growing statistics provided to the author via personal communication, June 11.

T: (Wunkerbunk 2002)

Interview

R: Interviewee AA (year) Interview by Interviewer. Medium, Month and day. Name of Institution.

T: (Interviewee year)

R: Monster C (1985) Interview by Ernest J. Keebler. Betamax, November 20. Keebler Company.

T: (Monster 1985) 

Report

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it is not freestanding, then format it as a webpage.
     
  • Always include page numbers for direct quotes when available.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Report

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC or Organization (year) Title of report in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Organization, Place of Publication, Country if not in U.S., DOI or URL.

T: (Author et al. or Organization year)

R: Dixon L, Clancy N, Miller B (2017) The cost and affordability of flood insurance in New York City. Report RR-1776-NYCEDC, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/
pubs/research_reports/RR1700/RR1776/RAND_RR1776.pdf.

T: (Dixon et al. 2017, p. 4)
Technical Report

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC or Organization (year) Title of report in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Organization, Place of Publication, Country if not in U.S., DOI or URL.

T: (Author et al. or Organization year)

R: Wonka W, Loompa O, Bucket C (1972) Stochastic error-correction in a hyperbaric ethereal pulley system for vitreous personal vertical displacement apparatuses (PVDA). Technical report VK-1916, GLOOP Corporation, Great Missenden, UK. https://www.beanfeast.org/badegg/wahwah.pdf.

T: (Wonka et al. 1972)
Working Paper

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC or Organization (year) Title of report in sentence case. Type of document and identification numberOrganization, Place of Publication, Country if not in U.S., DOI or URL.

T: (Author or Organization year)

R: Recline R (1994) Effects of chair inflation on lumbar pillow borrowing rates. Working paper 124806437052-j, National Bureau of Ergonomic Research, Kickapoo, KS. https://www.ergonomist.com/countyseat.html.

T: (Recline 1994)

 

Secondary Source

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Secondary Source

R: List the secondary source that quotes or discusses the material you're referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: Signal phrase (citation of secondary source, using the appropriate in-text format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: See example.

R: Nicholson, IAM (2003) Inventing Personality: Gordon Allport and the Science of Selfhood (American Psychological Association, Washington, DC).

In your text: We can see this principle at work in the following passage from Allport’s diary, as cited in Nicholson (2003): " . . . "

 

Thesis / Dissertation

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

From an institutional archive such as the NPS Archive: Calhoun

R: Author AA (year) Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case. Type of document, Department Name, Institution, Location of Institution (if not included in institution name). DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Yoshi H (1988) Effects of pizza consumption on katana-wielding dexterity in terrapinoids. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Reptile Bellicosity, Eastman & Laird University, New York. http://hdl.handle.net/6576565753/splinter.html.

T: (Yoshi 1988)

From a commercial database

R: Author AA (year) Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case. Type of document, Institution, Location of Institution (if not included in institution name). Database (document identification number).

T: (Author year)

R: Nekeip R (2008) Pescatarians and daisies: A match made in sushi heaven. Master’s thesis, Garden of Sushi School of Sushi, Maui, HI. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database (AAT 3300426).

T: (Nekeip 2008)

 

Unpublished / Informally Published Work

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Unpublished Work Accepted for Publication

(online)

R: Author AA (year) Title of document in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics. Forthcoming. DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Horse BB (1996) Back in the saddle 2: Back in the saddle. Gaucho Marx: A Journal of Cowpoke Consciousness. Forthcoming. http://blahblahblahhorse.com/bits2bits.

T: (Horse 1996)

Unpublished Work

(print)

R: Author AA (year) Title of document in sentence case. Unpublished type of document, Organization, Location of Organization.

T: (Author year)

R: Horse BB (1995) Back in the saddle. Unpublished memoir, Leaping H Ranch, Peoria, IL.

T: (Horse 1995)

 

Website / Webpage

  • Title of website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
     
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, New York Times, not Reuters, Bloomberg, CNN, etc. These news organizations only have an online presence, whereas The New York Times has both an online and print counterpart.

  • Always include an accessed date for webpages.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author and publication date given

Author AA (year) Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Name of Website in Title Case. Accessed date, URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Sushi UQ (1995) Absorption of cats in sushi. Sushi Lab. Accessed November 9, 1999, http://www.wallcrust.com/hgtehrwOIASD.html.

T: (Sushi 1995)

No author given

Organization as author

R: Organization (year) Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Accessed date, URL

T: (Organization year)

R: Federal Bureau of Investigation (2017) Forging papers to sell fake art. Accessed April 13, 2017, https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art.

T (first citation): (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI] 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (FBI 2017)

No date given

R: Author AA or Organization (year accessed) Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Name of Website in Title Case. Accessed date, URL.

T: (Author year accessed)

R: Python M (2017) Finding a dead parrot on a silly walk. Ministry of Silly Walks. Accessed August 6, 2017, https://www.omgitsadeadparrot.com/feathers.

T: (Python 2017)

Jane's example

R: Jane’s by IHS Markit (year) Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Accessed date, URL.

T: (Jane’s by IHS Markit year)

R: Jane’s by IHS Markit (2017) Executive summary: Mali. Accessed June 16, 2017, https://janes.ihs.com.libproxy.nps.edu/
NorthAfrica/Display/1303746.

T: (Jane’s by IHS Markit 2017)

 

Wikipedia

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Wikipedia

R: Title of entry in sentence case (year accessed) Wikipedia. Accessed date, DOI or URL.

T: (Title of entry year accessed)

R: Psychology (2016) Wikipedia. Accessed October 10, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology.

T: (Psychology 2016)