Citation Styles

APA Rules

Difference between List of References and a Bibliography

  • A List of References includes all works cited in a text
  • A Bibliography lists all works cited and consulted

For papers, check with your professors for their preference. Thesis Processing prefers a List of References for the following: 

  • Thesis
  • Capstone project report
  • MBA report
  • Dissertation

Same Author, Same Year

When citing multiple sources by the same author from the same year, list them in alphabetical order by title in the List of References  (ignoring initial "a," "an," or "the") and append a lowercase letter to the year.


R: Hawthorne, M. (2006a). The cannibal’s dilemma: An unnatural history of four siblings. New York, NY: Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne, 2006a)


R: Hawthorne, M. (2006b). Having people for dinner: A guide for the home cook. New York, NY: Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne, 2006b)

 

 

Multiple Sources in One Citation

  Generic Example with Rules Actual Example
Same author, same year, different sources
Source 1

R: Author, A. A. (Year published + a). Title of book in sentence case and italics. City, State: Publisher.

T: (Author, year + a)

R: Hawthorne, M. (2006a). The cannibal’s dilemma: An unnatural history of four siblings. New York, NY: Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne, 2006a)

Source 2

R: Author, A. A. (Year published +b). Title of book in sentence case and italics. City, State: Publisher.

T: (Author, year + b)

R: Hawthorne, M. (2006b). Having people for dinner: A guide for the home cook. New York, NY: Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne, 2006b)
Combined

T: (Author year + a, year + b)

T: (Hawthorne 2006a, 2006b)

Same author, different year, different sources
Source 1

R: Author, A. A. (Year published). Title of book in sentence case and italics. City, State: Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Hawthorne, M. (2006). Having people for dinner: A guide for the home cook. New York, NY: Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne, 2006)

Source 2

R: Author, A. A. (Year published). Title of book in sentence case and italics. City, State: Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Hawthorne, M. (2008). Regrets. New York, NY: Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne, 2008)
Combined

T: (Author, year 1, year 2)

T: (Hawthorne, 2006, 2008)

Different authors, different years within one citation
Combined

Separate two or more references with a semicolon, and place in alphabetical order; in the same order in which they appear in the reference list.

R: Ensure all authors appear in list of references

T: (Author 1, year; Author 2, year; etc.)

(Hawthorne, 2006b; Norton, 1998; Stulberg, 2014)

(Nekeip & Nywdlog, 2005; Qaga, 2007; Romato, Trange, & Bemon, 1995).

 

Difference between Title Case and Sentence Case

Title Case: To Capitalize or Not: A Brief Tutorial

Sentence case: To capitalize or not: A brief tutorial

When Do I Need to Add Page Numbers?

For direct quotes, add page numbers to the in-text citation only.

Example: (Haynes, 2009, p. 70)


For book chapters, include page-number range in List of References/Bibliography.

Example: Cordesman, A. H., Mausner, A., & Kasten, D. (2009). Introduction. In J. Smith (Ed.), Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces (pp. 1–12). Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

URLs

  • Include a retrieval date if the source material has no date.
     
  • Do not add a period at the end of the URL.
     
  • A URL does not belong in an in text-citation. Ever.

Author as Publisher

When the author and publisher are the same, use the word "Author" as the name of the publisher in the reference list citation.

Department of Defense. (2012, April 16). Identification (ID) cards required by the Geneva Convention (DOD Instruction 1000.01). Washington, DC: Author.

Author Names

Do not include honorifics (Dr., Col., Professor, etc.) when citing author names.

Et al. / Multiple Authors of a Single Work

For examples of how to properly incorporate the citation into your text and references, see row one.

# Authors of a single work First citation
in signal-phrase format
Subsequent citations First citation
in parenthetical format
Subsequent citation Reference List

One

Walker (2007) reported that ...

Walker (2007) reported that ...

Your citation goes at the end of the sentence (Walker, 2007).

Your citation goes at the end of the sentence (Walker, 2007).

Walker, V. (2007). [then the remaining reference information]
Two

Walker and Allen (2004)

Walker and Allen (2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

Walker, V., & Allen, R. L. (2004).
Three, Four, or Five List all authors List just first author + "et al." List all authors List just first author + "et al." List all authors
Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, and Walsh (2006) Bradley et al. (2006) (Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006) (Bradley et al., 2006) Bradley, K. S., Ramirez, H., Soo, T., & Walsh J. (2006).
Six or Seven Wasserstein et al. (2005) Wasserstein et al. (2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005) List all authors. (2005).
Eight or More as above as above as above as above List first six authors, then insert (...) and finally add the last author's name. (2005).
Groups (readily identified through abbreviation) as authors National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003) NIMH (2003) (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003) (NIMH, 2003) National Institute of Mental Health. (2003).
Groups (no abbreviation) as authors University of Pittsburgh (2005) University of Pittsburgh (2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) University of Pittsburgh. (2005).

 Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Secondary Sources

A secondary source is a source that cites some other work that you discuss in your text.

Whenever possible, consult primary sources and your sources’ sources yourself. Upon investigation of the primary source, you may find you disagree with the secondary source author’s analysis or methods. Only use secondary sources when the primary source is unavailable.


How to Incorporate Secondary Sources

The following passage incorporates a properly credited secondary source. The secondary source information is highlighted in yellow; the primary source information is highlighted in blue.

Walker (2008) describes data collected in 1999 by Miguel Roig that correlates students’ inadequate paraphrasing to poor reading comprehension. Citing Roig’s data, Walker explains that “students do in fact possess skills necessary for paraphrasing but … may be impeded from applying those skills when dealing with rigorous text” (p. 387).

Note: Include  only  the  secondary  source  (the  source  you  consulted)  in  your  reference  list.