Citation Styles

Chicago Author-Date Rules

Difference between List of References and a Bibliography

  • A List of References includes all works cited in a text
  • A Bibliography lists all works cited and consulted

For papers, check with your professors for their preference. Thesis Processing prefers a List of References for the following: 

  • Thesis
  • Capstone project report
  • MBA report
  • Dissertation

URLs

  • Include an access date if the source material has no date.
     
  • Always add a period at the end of the URL.
     
  • A URL does not belong in an in text-citation. Ever.

Multiple Sources in One Citation

Examples given for books; follow appropriate style for the source type you are citing.

Same author, same year, different sources

 

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published + a. Title of Book 1 in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author Last Name year + a, page)

 

R: Hawthorne, Pat. 2006a. Having People for Dinner: A Guide for the Home Cook. New York: Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne 2006a, 99–100)

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published + b. Title of Book 2 in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author Last Name year + b)

R: Hawthorne, Pat. 2006b.The Cannibal’s Dilemma: An Unnatural History of Four Siblings. New York: Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne 2006b)

T (both sources): (Author Last Name year + a, year + b) T (both sources): (Hawthorne 2006a, 2006b)
Same author, different year, different sources

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. Title of Book 1 in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author Last Name year, page)

R: Hawthorne, Pat. 2006. Having People for Dinner: A Guide for the Home Cook. New York: Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne 2006, 99–100)

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. Title of Book 2 in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Hawthorne, Pat. 2008. Regrets. New York: Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne 2008)
T (both sources): (Author Last Name year 1, year 2) T (both sources): (Hawthorne 2006, 2008)
Different authors, different years within one citation

Separate two or more references with a semicolon. Ensure all authors appear in list of references

T: (Author 1 Last Name year; Author 2 Last Name year)

T: (Fiddleywink and Snort 2005; Otatop 2007; Munglesnee, Grumpernickel, and Smith 1995).

 

Difference between Title Case and Sentence Case

Title Case: To Capitalize or Not: A Brief Tutorial

Sentence case: To capitalize or not: A brief tutorial

When Do I Need to Add Page Numbers?

For direct quotes, add page numbers to the in-text citation only.

Example: (Haynes 2009, 70)


For book chapters, include page-number range in List of References/Bibliography.

Example: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. 2009. Introduction. In Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, edited by John Smith, 1–12. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

No Date Given

To cite an undated document, use n.d. (no date).

Et al.

  • Up to three authors:
    • In the reference list, include all of them
    • In the text, include all of them
       
  • Between four and ten authors:
    • In the reference list, include all of them
    • In the text, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”)
       
  • More than ten authors:
    • In the reference list, include only the first seven, followed by et al.
    • In the text, list only the first author, followed by et al.

Secondary Sources

A secondary source is a source that cites some other work that you discuss in your text.

Whenever possible, consult primary sources and your sources’ sources yourself. Upon investigation of the primary source, you may find you disagree with the secondary source author’s analysis or methods. Only use secondary sources when the primary source is unavailable.


How to Incorporate Secondary Sources

The following passage incorporates a properly credited secondary source. The secondary source information is highlighted in yellow; the primary source information is highlighted in blue.

Walker (2008) describes data collected in 1999 by Miguel Roig that correlates students’ inadequate paraphrasing to poor reading comprehension. Citing Roig’s data, Walker explains that “students do in fact possess skills necessary for paraphrasing but … may be impeded from applying those skills when dealing with rigorous text” (387).

Note: Include  only  the  secondary  source  (the  source  you  consulted)  in  your  reference  list.