In the paragraph below, the reference numbers are highlighted in yellow and the signal phrases are highlighted in blue. Note that the second sentence is common knowledge, whereas the final sentence is clearly the opinion of the author.
For more information, see the TPO's Citing Responsibly in Chicago Notes & Bibliography.
A List of References includes all works cited in a text
A Bibliography lists all works cited and consulted
For papers, check with your professors for their preference. Thesis Processing prefers a List of References for the following:
When citing more than one source in a single sentence, there are two options:
Never place more than one footnote at the end of a sentence. See CMS 14.28.
Chicago prefers shorter citations, but ibid. is still allowed when the footnote is identical to the one right before it. See CMS 14.034. Be consistent. Use either ibid. or shorter citations.
Title Case: To Capitalize or Not: A Brief Tutorial
Sentence case: To capitalize or not: A brief tutorial
Always include page numbers in notes when available.
N: Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.
S: Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma, 100.
For book chapters, include page-number range in List of References/Bibliography.
B: Haynes, Peter. “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy.” In Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, edited by Daniel Moran and James A. Russell, 62–74. New York: Routledge, 2009.
A secondary source is a source that cites some other work that you discuss in your text.
Whenever possible, consult primary sources and your sources’ sources yourself. Upon investigation of the primary source, you may find you disagree with the secondary source author’s analysis or methods. Only use secondary sources when the primary source is unavailable.
The following passage incorporates a properly credited secondary source. The secondary source information is highlighted in yellow; the primary source information is highlighted in blue.
Walker describes data collected in 1999 by Miguel Roig that correlates students’ inadequate paraphrasing to poor reading comprehension. Citing Roig’s data, Walker explains that “students do in fact possess skills necessary for paraphrasing but … may be impeded from applying those skills when dealing with rigorous text”1
Note: Include only the secondary source (the source you consulted) in your reference list.