Citation Styles

Chicago Notes & Bibliography / Turabian Rules

Difference between List of References and a Bibliography

  • A List of References includes all works cited in a text
  • A Bibliography lists all works cited and consulted

For papers, check with your professors for their preference. Thesis Processing prefers a List of References for the following: 

  • Thesis
  • Capstone project report
  • MBA report
  • Dissertation


  • Include a retrieval date if the source material has no date.
  • Always include a period at the end of the URL.

Multiple Citations in a Single Sentence

When citing more than one source in a single sentence, there are two options:

  • Place a single footnote at the end of the sentence, outside the punctuation, and include all citations in this footnote, separated by semicolons. See CMS 14.57.
  • Place each footnote at the end of the clause containing the information it cites. See CMS 14.26.

Never place more than one footnote at the end of a sentence. See CMS 14.28.

Et al.

  • Up to three authors:
    • In the Bibliography / List of References, include all of them
    • In the footnote, include all of them
  • Four to ten authors:
    • In the Bibliography / List of References, include all of them
    • In the footnote, list only the first author, followed by et al.
  • More than ten authors:
    • In the Bibliography / List of References, include only the first seven, followed by et al.
    • In the footnote, list only the first author, followed by et al.

Secondary Sources

A secondary source is a source that cites some other work that you discuss in your text.

Whenever possible, consult primary sources and your sources’ sources yourself. Upon investigation of the primary source, you may find you disagree with the secondary source author’s analysis or methods. Only use secondary sources when the primary source is unavailable.

How to Incorporate Secondary Sources

The following passage incorporates a properly credited secondary source. The secondary source information is highlighted in yellow; the primary source information is highlighted in blue.

Walker describes data collected in 1999 by Miguel Roig that correlates students’ inadequate paraphrasing to poor reading comprehension. Citing Roig’s data, Walker explains that “students do in fact possess skills necessary for paraphrasing but … may be impeded from applying those skills when dealing with rigorous text”1

Note: Include  only  the  secondary  source  (the  source  you  consulted)  in  your  reference  list. 

Difference between Title Case and Sentence Case

Title Case: To Capitalize or Not: A Brief Tutorial

Sentence case: To capitalize or not: A brief tutorial

When Do I Need to Add Page Numbers?

Always include page numbers in notes when available.

N: Michael PollanThe Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

S: Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma, 100.

For book chapters, include page-number range in List of References/Bibliography.

B: Haynes, Peter. “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy.” In Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, edited by Daniel Moran and James A. Russell, 62–74. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Ibid. and Shortened Citations

Chicago used to recommend use of “ibid.” to indicate the reference is the same as the one immediately preceding it. Although ibid. is still accepted, Chicago now prefers shortened citations, even when the footnote is identical to the one right before it. See CMS 14.034

There are four forms of notes:

  • Full citation for first appearance
  • Short citations for subsequent appearances: Author, Title, page number.
  • Shorter citations contain only author and page number and appear directly after full or short citations until you change to another source. Use instead of ibid.
  • Ibid. (not preferred)

Example Footnotes List:

11. Toni Morrison, Beloved (New York: Vintage, 2004), 3.
12. Morrison, 18.
13. Morrison, 18.
14. Toni Morrison, Song of Solomon (New York: Vintage, 2004), 45.
15. Morrison, 47
16. Morrison, Beloved, 52.
17. Morrison, 55.
18. Morrison, Song of Solomon, 324–25.
19. Morrison, 238.
20. Morrison, 239.
21. Morrison, Song of Solomon, 240; Beloved, 32.
22. Morrison, Beloved, 33.
23. Morrison, 34.
24. FBI, “Stolen Memories.” [Full citation appeared in an earlier footnote, not shown here]
25. FBI.