Citation Styles

IEEE Rules

Difference between List of References and a Bibliography

  • A List of References includes all works cited in a text
  • A Bibliography lists all works cited and consulted

For papers, check with your professors for their preference. Thesis Processing prefers a List of References for the following: 

  • Thesis
  • Capstone project report
  • MBA report
  • Dissertation


  • Include a retrieval date if the source material has no date.
  • Do not add a period at the end of the URL.
  • A URL does not belong in an in text-citation. Ever.

Citing Information from Multiple Sources

Correct format: [23], [34], [77]

Incorrect format: [23, 34, 77]

Et al.

  • For seven or more authors, use the first author's name plus et al. in the List of References.
    • Exception: ECE does not allow the use of et al. in thesis or dissertation List of References.

Difference between Title Case and Sentence Case

Title Case: To Capitalize or Not: A Brief Tutorial

Sentence case: To capitalize or not: A brief tutorial

When do I need to add page numbers?

It is not necessary to include page numbers in bracketed citations.

For a portion in a book, journal, or other volume, include page-number range in List of References/Bibliography.

Example: [7] P. Haynes, “Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, and U.S. foreign policy,” in Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, D. Moran and J. A. Russell, Eds. New York, NY, USA: Routledge, 2009, pp. 62–74.

Author Names

Do not include honorifics (Dr., Col., Professor, etc.) when citing author names.

Secondary Sources

A secondary source is a source that cites some other work that you discuss in your text.

Whenever possible, consult primary sources and your sources’ sources yourself. Upon investigation of the primary source, you may find you disagree with the secondary source author’s analysis or methods. Only use secondary sources when the primary source is unavailable.

How to Incorporate Secondary Sources

The following passage incorporates a properly credited secondary source. The secondary source information is highlighted in yellow; the primary source information is highlighted in blue.

Walker describes data collected in 1999 by Miguel Roig that correlates students’ inadequate paraphrasing to poor reading comprehension. Citing Roig’s data, Walker explains that “students do in fact possess skills necessary for paraphrasing but … may be impeded from applying those skills when dealing with rigorous text” [1, p. 17].

Note: Include  only  the  secondary  source  (the  source  you  consulted)  in  your  reference  list.