In the paragraph below, citations are highlighted in yellow and signal phrases are in blue. Note that the second sentence is common knowledge, whereas the final sentence is clearly the opinion of the author.
For more information, see the TPO's Citing Responsibly in IEEE.
Correct format: , , 
Incorrect format: [23, 34, 77]
For papers, check with your professors for their preference. Thesis Processing prefers a List of References for the following:
Title Case: To Capitalize or Not: A Brief Tutorial
Sentence case: To capitalize or not: A brief tutorial
It is not necessary to include page numbers in bracketed citations.
For a portion in a book, journal, or other volume, include page-number range in List of References/Bibliography.
Example:  P. Haynes, “Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, and U.S. foreign policy,” in Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, D. Moran and J. A. Russell, Eds. New York, NY, USA: Routledge, 2009, pp. 62–74.
Do not include honorifics (Dr., Col., Professor, etc.) when citing author names.
A secondary source is a source that cites some other work that you discuss in your text.
Whenever possible, consult primary sources and your sources’ sources yourself. Upon investigation of the primary source, you may find you disagree with the secondary source author’s analysis or methods. Only use secondary sources when the primary source is unavailable.
The following passage incorporates a properly credited secondary source. The secondary source information is highlighted in yellow; the primary source information is highlighted in blue.
Walker describes data collected in 1999 by Miguel Roig that correlates students’ inadequate paraphrasing to poor reading comprehension. Citing Roig’s data, Walker explains that “students do in fact possess skills necessary for paraphrasing but … may be impeded from applying those skills when dealing with rigorous text” .
Note: Include only the secondary source (the source you consulted) in your reference list.