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Citation Styles

Turabian Style

Citation Examples

If you don't see the type of source you need here, try one of the guides on the left.

N = Notes                  B = Bibliography       
 

Source Type Citation Example
Bills or Resolutions (Federal unenacted)

*Cite to Congressional Record if available.

N:  1. U.S. Congress, House, JUSTICE Act of 2009, 111th Cong., 1st sess., HR 4005, Congressional Record 155, no. 162, daily ed. (November 3, 2009): H 12287.

B:  U.S. Congress. House. JUSTICE Act of 2009. 111th Cong., 1st sess., HR 4005. Congressional Record 155, no. 162, daily ed. (November 18, 2009): H 12287–12288.

N:  2. U.S. Congress, Senate, JUSTICE Act of 2009, 111th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 155, no. 132, daily ed. (September 17, 2009): S 9554.

B:  U.S. Congress. Senate. JUSTICE Act of 2009. 111th Cong., 1st sess., S 1686. Congressional Record 155, no. 132, daily ed. (September 17, 2009): S 9554–9555.

Book Chapters
(in edited books)

N:  3. Harold A. Trinkunas, “Energy Security: The Case of Venezuela,” in Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, ed. Daniel Moran and James A. Russell (New York: Routledge, 2009).

B:  Trinkunas, Harold A. “Energy Security: The Case of Venezuela.” In Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, edited by Daniel Moran and James A. Russell, 175–187. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Books (electronic)

N:  4. Armin Krishnan, War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting (Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2008)

B:  Krishnan, Armin. War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2008. ebrary Reader e-book. http://www.ebrary.com/corp/ (accessed March 1, 2010).

Books (print)

N:  5. Anthony H. Cordesman, Adam Mausner, and David Kasten, Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies, 2009), 50.

B:   Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies, 2009.

Congressional Hearings

Full Hearing

N:   6. House Committee on the Budget, Long-term Sustainability of Current Defense Plans: Hearing before the Committee on the Budget, 111th Cong., 1st sess., 2009, 15 –16. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg11147035/pdf/CHRG-111hhrg11147035.pdf (accessed March 1, 2010).

N: (shortened form):   6. House Committee, Long-term Sustainability, 15–16.

B:  U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Budget. Long-term Sustainability of Current Defense Plans: Hearing before the Committee on the Budget, 111th Cong. 1st sess., February 4, 2009. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg11147035/pdf/CHRG-111hhrg11147035.pdf (accessed March 1, 2010).


Testimony within a Hearing

N:  7. Long-term Sustainability of Current Defense Plans: Hearing Before the Committee on the Budget, 111th Cong. 25 (2009) (statement of J. Michael Gilmore, Assistant Director, Congressional Budget Office).

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports

N:  8. Richard A. Best, Intelligence Issues for Congress, CRS Report RL33539 (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, June 1, 2010).     

B:  Best, Richard A.  Intelligence Issues for Congress. CRS Report RL33539. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, June 1, 2010.

Court Cases – U.S. Supreme Court

*Cite to notes only.
*Cite to United States Supreme Court Reports (U.S.) or if not yet published there, cite to the Supreme Court Reporter (S. Ct.)
*Example of citing to online legal reference


N:  9. Winter v. NRDC, Inc., 129 S. Ct. 365 (2008), in LexisNexis Academic, http://www.lexisnexis.com/us/lnacademic/ (accessed March 1, 2010).

Executive Orders

"Almost all legal works use notes for documentation and few use bibliographies. Any work using the author-date style that needs to do more than mention the occasional source in the text should therefore use supplementary footnotes or endnotes. " (CMS, 15.54)

N:  10. Executive Order no. 11,609, Code of Federal Regulations, title 3, § 586 (1971 –75).

B:  U.S. President. Executive Order no. 11,609. Code of Federal Regulations. Title 3, § 586
(1971 –75).

Government Agency Reports and Technical Reports

N:  11. Cathleen A. Berrick, Homeland Security, 7.

*Cross –referencing between author and department may be appropriate in both the bibliography and reference list.

B:  Berrick, Cathleen A. See U.S. Government Accountability Office.
B:  U.S. Government Accountability Office. Homeland Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity, by Cathleen A. Berrick. GAO-10-106. 2009. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10106.pdf (accessed March 1, 2010).

N:  12. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), Joint Vision 2020, 36.

B:  Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS). Joint Vision 2020. Washington, DC: GPO, June 2000. http://permanent.access.gpo.gov/LPS5598/jv2020.pdf (accessed March 1, 2010).

Journal Articles
(in electronic databases) 

Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to http://dx.doi.org.libproxy.nps.edu/ in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. If no DOI, use a stable URL. Otherwise, include the name of the database and any identification number. Include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline. (CMS Online)

N:  13. Grace F. Sanico and Makoto Kakinaka, “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support,” Defence & Peace Economics 19, no. 2 (April, 2008), doi:10.1080/10242690701505419 (accessed March 1, 2010).

B:  Sanico, Grace F., and Makoto Kakinaka. “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support.” Defence & Peace Economics 19, no. 2 (April 2008): 153–67. doi:10.1080/10242690701505419 (accessed March 1, 2010).

Journal Articles (print)

N:  14. Geb Griffin, “Managing Peacekeeping Communications,” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3, no. 4 (August 2009).

B:  Griffin, Geb. “Managing Peacekeeping Communications.” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3, no. 4 (August 2009): 317–327.

Personal Communications and Interviews

*Conversations, letters, e-mail messages are usually cited only in a note, but may include citation in the bibliography if reference is critical to your argument or frequently cited.
*Unpublished interviews may refer to the interviewer as the author. [NPS: Citations should include the name of the interviewer and the person interviewed.]
*Published interviews should contain the name of the interviewer and the person interviewed.
*E-mail address belonging to an individual should be omitted.

N:   15. John Smith, interview by Michael Brown, Monterey, CA, March 2, 2007.
[NPS: John Smith, interview by Jane Doe, . . . ]


Published or broadcast interviews

An interview that has already been published or broadcast is treated like an article in a periodical or a chapter in a book. Interviews consulted online should include a URL or similar identifier and, for audiovisual materials, an indication of the medium (see 14.4–13). See also 14.277, 14.280. (CMS Online)

N:  117. “Mil Máscaras: An Interview with Pulitzer-Winner Junot Díaz (The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao),” by Matt Okie, Identitytheory.com, September 2, 2008, http://www.identitytheory.com/interviews/okie_diaz.php.

    118. McGeorge Bundy, interview by Robert MacNeil, MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour, PBS, February 7, 1990.

    119. Darcey Steinke, interview by Sam Tanenhaus and Dwight Garner, New York Times Book Review, podcast audio, April 22, 2007, http://podcasts.nytimes.com/podcasts/2007/04/20/21bookupdate.mp3.

Bellour, Raymond. “Alternation, Segmentation, Hypnosis: Interview with Raymond Bellour.” By Janet Bergstrom. Camera Obscura, nos. 3–4 (Summer 1979): 89–94.


*Internet message board (newsgroup, online forum, discussion group), electronic mailing list, or blog post. Usually cited only in a note, but may include citation in the bibliography if reference is critical to your argument or frequently cited.

Example: Military Message Traffic:

N:  20. John Smith, comment on “Carrier Strike Group 12 Incident,” Navy Knowledge Online Message Boards, comment posted March 10, 2009, https://wwwa.nko.navy.mil/portal/home/ (accessed March 1, 2010).

Public Laws: U.S. Statutes at Large/U.S. Code

*Cite statutes in notes only.
*Cite U.S. Statutes, the U.S. Code, or both, by page or by section (§) respectively.
*Shortened form differs from the usual pattern.

N:   21. Uniting and Strengthening American by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT Act) Act of 2001, Public Law 107 –56. U.S. Statutes at Large 115 (2001): 279, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ56/pdf/PLAW-107publ56.pdf (accessed March 1, 2010).

N: (shortened form):  21. USA PATRIOT Act, 280.

N:  22. National Environmental Policy Act. Public Law 91-190. U.S. Statutes at Large 83 (1970): 853, codified at U.S. Code 42 (1982), § 4331 et seq., http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/42/usc_sec_42_00004331----000-.html (accessed March 1, 2010).

N: (shortened form):  22. National Environmental Policy Act, § 4333.

Secondary Sources (one source quoted in another)

*Generally discouraged, but if original source is unavailable, both the original and the secondary source must be listed. Examples from A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th ed.

N:  23. Louis Zukofsky, “Sincerety and Objectification,” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

B:  Zukofsky, Louis. "Sincerety and Objectification.” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Theses

N:  24. Thomas D. Moon, “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam” (master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2009).

B:  Moon, Thomas D. “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam.” Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2009.

Websites

and

Web Documents

*Citations of site content are best relegated to notes; in works with no notes, they may be included in the reference list or bibliography.
*If no author, the owner of the site may stand in for the author.
*If page numbers are not available, supply a descriptive locator, such as a subheading, following the word “under.

*Personal Author

N:  25. Sarah O. Ladislaw, “The Day after Copenhagen,” Center for Strategic & International Studies, December 4, 2009, http://csis.org/publication/day-after-copenhagen (accessed March 1, 2010).

B:  Ladislaw, Sarah O. “The Day after Copenhagen.” Center for Strategic & International Studies. December 4, 2009. http://csis.org/publication/day-after-copenhagen (accessed March 1, 2010).


*Corporate author

N:  26. Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Factbook: Iran,” May 27, 2010, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html (accessed June 1, 2010).

B:  Central Intelligence Agency.  “The World Factbook: Iran." May 27,2010. http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars_a076_a76_incl_tech_correction/ (accessed June 1, 2010).


*No author and no date

N:  27. Federation of American Scientists, “Man-portable Air Defense System (MANPADS) Proliferation,” (n.d.), http://www.fas.org/programs/ssp/asmp/MANPADS.html under “The Weapons” (accessed March 1, 2010).

B:  Federation of American Scientists. “Man-portable Air Defense System (MANPADS) Proliferation.” (n.d.). http://www.fas.org/programs/ssp/asmp/MANPADS.html (accessed March 1, 2010).

General Rules

Turabian Style is based on Chicago Style, but with modifications for students and researchers.

Notes and Bibliography System

  • Commonly used in the humanities and some social sciences.
  • Cite the first note of a source in full. Subsequent citations to the same source can be shortened.
  • N = Note (footnote). 10 pt. font is acceptable. Indent first line as you would a paragraph and set subsequent lines flush left. Single space within and between citations.
  • Insert a superscript number at the end of the text you are citing.  Using a superscript number for the note is acceptable.
  • B = Bibliography. Set the first line flush left and indent subsequent lines (called a hanging indent). Single space within and between citations. [NPS: Single space within, double space between.]
  • Format book, journal, article, and public document titles in headline style (Capitalize the first and last words of the title and subtitle and all other major words and proper nouns.)
  • Italicize book and journal titles, not article titles.
  • Use Ibid. for a single work cited in the note immediately preceding. Include page numbers if different than the first note. Avoid using Ibid. to refer to notes that do not appear on the same page.

Formatting Authors

Examples taken from A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th ed. by Kate L. Turabian.

  • Two or three authors or editors: List authors as in order as shown on the title page.  In the bibliography, invert only the first author’s name.  Use the conjunction and, not the ampersand.

N:  5. Kai Bird and Martin J. Sherwin, American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005), 52.

B:  Bird, Kai, and Marti J. Sherwin. American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of Robert Oppenheimer. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.


N:  6. Joyce Appleby, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob, Telling the Truth about History . . .

B:  Appleby, Joyce, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob. Telling the Truth about History . . .

  • Four or more authors:  In the note, list only the first author's name followed by et al. [put a period after al.].  In the bibliography, include all the authors, no matter how many.  [NPS: If more than three authors, all are included in the bibliography or reference list, but list only the first three in the note or parenthetical citation, followed by et al.]

N:  8. Jacquelyn Down Hall et al., Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987), 114-5.

B:  Hall, Jacquelyn Down, James Leloudis, Robert Korstad, Mary Murphy, Lu Ann Jones, and Christopher B. Daly. Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987.

 

For successive entries of the same author(s) in a bibliography or reference list: Use a 3-em dash followed by a period.

———. The Last Dinosaur Book. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.


Public Documents

  • Include as many of the following elements as possible: (1) name of the government and government body, (2) title of the document (generally italicized and capitalized headline style), (3) name of individual author, editor, or compiler if given, (4) report number or other identifying information, (5) place of publication, publisher’s name, if different from the issuing body (use Washington, DC: Government Printing Office for publications of Congress, executive departments, and government agencies), and date of publication, (6) page numbers or other locators, if relevant.
  • Note that some shortened forms and abbreviations are different from those used elsewhere. Example 2d instead of 2nd.
  • For parenthetical citations, treat the information listed before the date in the reference list as the author. Information may be shortened, but must be done logically and consistently.

Sources within a Database

  • For journal article databases, provide stable URL.  Name of database not needed. This includes subscription-based and restricted databases.
  • Include name of database for non-journal article databases for which multiple documents or records are cited.

 


URLs

  • Provide Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) or stable URLs for any online source cited.
  • Access dates in parentheses are required for every online source cited.  Include it parenthetically after the URL: (accessed March 1, 2010). [NPS: access date not required.]
  • Do not underline URLs.
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