Citation Styles

Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)

DOI = Digital Object Identifier

What is it?

It's a Digital Object Identifier -- a unique alphanumeric string that identifies articles, ebooks, standards, datasets, etc., and provides a persistent link to its online location.

Why use it?

  • It makes citing easier for you, and finding references easier for your reader.

  • You can put a DOI into a Web search and find the item it's linked to.

Try it!  
Put this into your browser:

Did you retrieve this article?

Sanico, Grace F., and Makoto Kakinaka. “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support.” Defence and Peace Economics 19, no. 2 (April 2008): 153–67.

*Note that in the citation, the DOI string is preceded by


  • If you're referencing something you got from a subscription database, you don't need to worry about including the URL to the journal, just add the DOI string as formatted above.

Find the citation, or find the DOI

Use this tool to find the citation when you have the DOI or vice versa.