What is a DOI (Digital Object Identifier)?
A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies articles, ebooks, standards, datasets, etc. and provides a persistent link to their online location.
Why use DOIs?
If you cite something you got from a subscription database, you don't need to worry about including the URL to the journal: just add the DOI string as formatted above.
Paste this DOI into your browser search bar: 10.1080/10242690701505419
Did you retrieve this article?
Sanico, Grace F., and Makoto Kakinaka. “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support.” Defence and Peace Economics 19, no. 2 (April 2008): 153–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419.
(In the citation, insert https://doi.org/ in front of the DOI.)
DOI Search Tool
Use the Crossref Lookup Tool when you have the DOI or the citation.
Citation management tools such as Zotero and Endnote are useful when citing in your theses and papers; they typically generate citations that are 80–90 percent correct. However, you'll still need to proofread and manually edit your citations as needed. It's best practice to check your formatting against the examples and rules provided in this guide.
Which tool to use is your preference, but many of our students are finding Zotero to be easy to learn and use. It is open-source and has been around for quite a while, so the documentation and community resources are well developed and available in a number of languages.
We recommend NOT using RefWorks or the References function within Microsoft Word.
Each citation style has rules specific to that style. Applying the rules to the examples can help you format your citations properly. We provide essential rules for the most commonly asked questions.
See the TPO Citation Guides page with links to: