Citation Guide

BibTeX Code

Citation Examples by Source Type

The following codes are for supplementary use with the NPS thesis LaTeX template, available at
https://wiki.nps.edu/display/LaTexTP/LaTex+Thesis+Portal. The template comes prepackaged with a BibTeX tool.

 

Source Type

BibTeX Code Examples

Blog

Back

Use misc class.
@misc{locke_2020,
  author = "J. Locke",
  title = "Effect of weird tails in 35mm Innsmouth sprocket periodicity distributions on re-tiered bicyclical phase shifting using {C}thulhean logic",
  month = "Dec. 22,",
  year = "2020. [Online]",
  howpublished = "Thing’s Credible!, blog", 
  url = "https://wrywhisker.pulpfriction.net/wallcrust/linear-colinear-felinear.html"
}

Book

(print)  

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Normal use of book class.
@book{pollan_2006,
  author = "M. Pollan",
  title = "The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals",
  publisher = "Penguin",
  address = "New York, NY, USA",
  edition = "2nd ed.",
  year = "2006"
}

Book Chapter

In edited book

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Use incollection class.
@incollection{haynes_2009,
  author = "P. Haynes",
  editor = "D. Moran and J. A. Russel",
  title = "Al-{Q}aeda, oil dependence, and {U.S.} foreign policy",
  booktitle = "Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management",
  publisher = "Routledge",
  address = "New York, NY, USA",
  year = "2009",
  pages = "62--77"
}

Book Electronic

With URL

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Use ebook entry, with howpublished and URL declarations
@ebook{bonds_2014,
  author = "M. E. Bonds",
  title = "Absolute Music: The History of an Idea",
  howpublished = "Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2014. [Online].",
  url = "https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199343638.003.0004",
}

Book Electronic

With book provider

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Normal ebook entry, with howpublished decorations.
@ebook{krishnan_2008,
  author = "A. Krishnan",
  title = "War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting",
  howpublished = "Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2008. [Online]. Kindle edition",
}

Book Portion

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Normal use of inbook.
@inbook{orend_2013,
  author = "B. Orend",
  title = "Morality of War",
  publisher = "Broadview Press",
  address = " Tonawanda, NY",
  edition = "2nd ed.",
  year = "2013",
  chapter = "2, sec.\ 3",
  pages = "67--70"
}

Book in a Series

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Not just a book, but a part of a book portion (since there is page range).
@inbook{abramowitz_64,
  editor = "M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun",
  title = "Handbook of Mathematical Functions",
  series = "Applied Mathematics Series 55",
  publisher = "NBS",
  address = "Washington, DC, USA",
  pages = "32--33",
  year = "1964"
}

Book Volume

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Normal use of incollection for a chapter in a volume of collected works.
@incollection{myer_77,
  author        = "R. L. Myer",
  editor        = "P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret",
  title         = "Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials",
  booktitle     = "Nonlinear Optics",
  publisher     = "Academic Press",
  address       = "San Francisco, CA",
  year          = "1977",
  volume        = "4",
  pages         = "47--160",
}

Class Notes / Lecture / Presentation / Workshop

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Use misc for class notes.
@misc{NPS_notes_2013,
  title = "New applications in computational mechanics",
  organization = "Dept. of Mech. and Aerosp. Eng., Naval Postgraduate School",
  howpublished = "class notes for Computational Mechanics",
  address = "Monterey, CA",
  year = "spring 2013"
}

Computer Program / Software

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Variant of manual class
@manual{comprehensive_2005,
  author = "M. Borenstein and L. Hedges and J. Higgins and H. Rothstein",
  address = "Englewood, NJ, USA",
  title = "Comprehensive Meta-Analysis",
  howpublished = "ver. 2",
  year = "2005. [Online].",
  url = "http://www.meta-analysis.com"
}

Conference Paper / Proceedings

(online)

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Variant of inproceedings class. Note brackets for more than two authors and placement of "Online."
@inproceedings{herculano_2008,
  author = "{S. Herculano-Houzel, C. E. Collins, P. Wong, J. H. Kass, and R. Lent}",
  title = "The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex",
  booktitle = "Proc. of the Natl. Acad. of Sci. of the USA",
  year = "2008. [Online].",
  url = "doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805417105",
}

Conference Paper / Proceedings

(print)

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Normal use of inproceedings class.
@inproceedings{katz_2007,
  author = "I. Katz and K. Gabayan and H. Aghajan",
  title = "A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras",
  booktitle = "Adv. Conc. for Intell. Vis. Sys.: 9th Intl. Conf.",
  year = "2007",
  pages = "133--203"
}

Conference Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

Back

Use misc.
@misc{kirby_2013,
  author = "K. Kirby and J. Stratton",
  title = "{V}an {A}llen probes: Successful launch campaign and early operations exploring earth's radiation belts",
  howpublished = "presented at IEEE Aerospace Conference",
  address = "Big Sky, MT",
  year = "2013"
}

Data Set / Database

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Normal use of electronic class.
@electronic{nsa_ipac_2012,
  author = "{NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database}",
  organization = "Object name IRAS F00400+4059",
  url = "http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/",
  note = "Accessed Dec. 10, 2012"
}

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Back

Use misc class, placing most elements in howpublished. Note italics on dictionary name.
@misc{merriam_2017,
  title = "Metamorphosis",
  howpublished = {\emph{Merriam-Webster}. Accessed July 6, 2017. [Online]},
  url = "https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis"
}

Fact Sheet

Back

Use misc class, placing most elements in howpublished. Note italics on title.
@misc{texas_2015,
  author = "{Texas Instruments}",
  howpublished = {\emph{LM555 timer}, SNAS548D, 2015. [Online]},
  url = "http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/lm555.pdfs"
}

Government / Military Document

CRS or GAO Report

Back

Variant  of misc class.
@misc{erwin_2011,
  author = "M. C. Erwin",
  title = "Intelligence issues for Congress",
  address = "Washington, DC: USA",
  howpublished = "CRS Report No. RL33539",
  year = "2011. [Online].",
  url = "http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf"
}

Government / Military Document

Directive

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Follow the manual style. Note use of "Online" if found online.
@manual{dod_5000.1,
  title = "The Defense Acquisition System",
  howpublished = "DOD Directive 5000.1",
  organization = "Under Secretary of Defense (AT\&L)",
  address = "Washington, DC, USA",
  year = "2003. [Online].",
  url = "http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/
DD/issuances/dodm/857001m.pdf",
}

Government / Military Document

Doctrine

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Follow the manual style. Note use of "Online" if found online.
@manual{JP1,
  title = "Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States",
  howpublished = "JP-1",
  organization = "Joint Chiefs of Staff",
  address = "Washington, DC, USA",
  year = "2017. [Online].",
  url = "https://fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp1.pdf",
}

Government / Military Document

Field Manual / Military Regulation

Back

Follow the manual style. We add the section range as a note, since its not a normal page range.
@manual{engineer_ops_2011,
  title = "Engineer Operations",
  howpublished = "FM 3-34",
  organization = "U.S. Dept. of the Army",
  address = "Washington, DC",
  year = "2011",
  note = "3.8--3.9",
}

Government / Military Document

Instruction

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Follow the manual style.
@manual{instruction_1000.01,
  title         = "Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention",
  howpublished  = "DOD Instruction 1000.01",
  organization  = "Department of Defense",
  address       = "Washington, DC",
  year          = "2012",
  pages         = "1-1, 1-10"
}

Government / Military Document

Memorandum

Back

Variant of misc class. Notice escaping for special characters in URL.
@misc{takai_2013,
  author        = "T. M. Takai",
  title         = "Adoption of the national information exchange model within the {D}epartment of {D}efense",
  address       = "Washington, DC: USA",
  howpublished  = "official memorandum,  {D}epartment of {D}efense, Washington, DC, USA",
  year          = "2013. [Online].",
  url           = "http://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28\%20Adoption\%20of\%20the\%20NIEM\%20within\%20the\%20DoD.pdf"
}

Handbook

(online)

Back

Follow the manual class. Enter "[Online]" in year field.
@manual{talleen_1996,
  author = "S. L. Talleen",
  title = "The IntraNet architecture: Managing information in the new paradigm",
  organization = "Amdahl Corps",
  address = "Sunnyvale, CA, USA",
  year = "1996. [Online].",
  month = Aug,
  url = "http://www.Amdahl.com/doc/products/bsg/intra/intra/html",
}

Handbook

(print)

Back

Follows the manual style. 
@manual{transmission_comm_85,
  title = "Transmission Systems for Communications",
  edition = "3rd",
  organization = "Western Elect. Co.",
  address = "Winston-Salem, NC",
  year = "1985",
  pages = "44--60",
}

Journal Article

(online)

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Article entry populated with "[Online]" and URL in year field.
@article{sanico_2018,
  author = "G. Sanico and M. Kakinaka",
  title = "Terrorism and deterrence policy with transnational support",
  journal = "Def. \& Peace Econ.",
  volume = "19",
  number = "2",
  year = "2018. [Online]. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419",
  month = "April",
}

Journal Article

(print)

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Normal use of article class.
@article{wang_2014,
  author = "W. Q. Wang and H. Shao",
  title = "High altitude platform multichannel {SAR} for wide-area and staring imaging",
  journal = "Aerosp. and Electron. Syst.",
  volume = "29",
  number = "25",
  month = mar,
  year = "2014",
  pages = "12--17"
}

Legal

Legislative Document

Back

Variant of electronic with strange authors, use journal field to put title in italics.
@electronic{congress_1991,
  author = "{U.S. House. 102nd Congress, 1st Session}",
  journal = "H. Con. Res. 1, Sense of the Congress on Approval of Military Action",
  year = "1991",
  month = "Jan. 11",
  url = "http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c102:H.CON.RES.1.IH",
}

Legal

Public Law, U.S. Code

Back

Variant of electronic with strange authors, most information in howpublished.
@electronic{americans_1991,
  author = "{Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990}",
  howpublished = "42 U.S.C. § 12101. 1991",
}

Map

Google

Back

Use misc class, entering "[Online]" in year field.
@misc{Google_2017,
  author = "Google",
  title = "Monterey Bay",
  month = "Accessed Jul. 6, 2017.",
  year = "[Online]",
  url = "https://www.google.com/maps/
place/Monterey+Bay/@36.7896106,-122.0843052,11z/data =
!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311"
}

Newspaper Article

(online)

Back

Use misc, entering "Online" in year. Note period and comma in month.
@misc{linguine_2016,
  author = "L. Linguine",
  title = "Animal fat shampoos for achieving angel hair",
  journal = "Knife and Spork Semi-Weekly",
  year = "2016. [Online]",
  month = "Jul. 15,",
  url = "http://www.chickenyodeling.com/dfjgp98y4t34_pherg899h.html/"
}

Newspaper Article

(print)

Back

Variant of misc. Use italics in howpublished and comma in month.
@misc{stulberg_2016,
  author = "J. Stulberg",
  title = "The art of creating crossword puzzles",
  howpublished = "\emph{New York Times}",
  year = "2016",
  month = "Jul. 15,"
}

Patent

Back

Normal use of patent class.
@patent{bell_1876,
  author = "A. G. Bell",
  title = "Improvement in telegraphy",
  nationality = "United States",
  number = "174465",
  day = "7",
  month = Mar,
  year = "1876",
  url = "https://www.google.com/patents/US174465"
}

Personal Communication / Interview / Email

Back

Use misc.
@misc{ajanlekoko_2009,
  author = "R. Ajanlekoko",
  howpublished = "private communication",
  year = "2009",
  month = sep,
}

Report

Research Report / Think Tank Report / White Paper

Back

Use misc class, placing a lot of info in howpublished declaration.
@misc{dixon_2017,
  author = "L. Dixon and N. Clancy and B. M. Miller and S. Hoegberg and M. M. Lewis and {B. Bender et al.}",
  title = "The cost and affordability of flood insurance in New York City",
  howpublished = "RAND Corp., Santa Monica, CA, USA, RR-1776-NYCEDC",
  year = "2017. [Online]",
  url = "https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR1700/RR1776/
RAND_RR1776.pdf"
}

Report

Technical Report

With author

Back

Use techreport class.
@techreport{effendi_2009,
  author = "S. V. Effendi and X. Vilhjálmsson",
  title = "The absorption rate of potatoes in salmonella",
  institution = "Dept. Vet. Stud.",
  address = "Madison, WI, USA",
  number = "17-59",
  year = "2009. [Online]",
  url = "https://vetstudies.edu/donteatthosefries.html"
}

Report

Technical Report

With agency as author

(online)

Back

 (Mis)use techreport class, place address in institution declaration.
@techreport{national_toxicology_2012,
  author = "{National Toxicology Program}",
  title = "Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of trimethylolpropane triacrylate {(CASRN 15625-89-5) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice (Topical Application Studies)}",
  institution = "Washington, DC, USA",
  number = "TR-576, 2012",
  year = "2012. [Online]",
  url = "https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm/reports/longterm/tr500580
?/listedreports/tr576/index.html"
}

Report

Technical Report

(print)

Back

Use techreport class.
@techreport{abdulatipov_2012,
  author = "K. A. Abdulatipov and F. Ramazonov",
  title = "The absorption rate of E. coli in cats",
  institution = "Dept. Vet. Stud.",
  address = "Madison, WI, USA",
  number = "17-59",
  year = "2012"
}

Standard

Back

Standards fit well with manual class.
@manual{ieee_308,
  title         = "IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems",
  howpublished  = "IEEE Standard 308",
  year          = "1969",
}

Thesis / Dissertation

Back

Normal use of mastersthesis class. By default the type is "Master's thesis".
If we want something more specific like M.S. thesis, we need to set a new type field.
@mastersthesis{kawasaki_1993,
  author        = "N. Kawasaki",
  title         = "Parametric study of thermal and chemical nonequilibrium nozzle flow",
  school        = "Dept. Electron. Eng., Osaka Univ.",
  address       = "Osaka, Japan",
  type          = "M.S. thesis",
  year          = "1993",
}

Normal use of phdthesis class.
@phdthesis{williams_1993,
  author        = "J. O. Williams",
  title         = "Narrow-band analyzer",
  school        = "Dept. Elect. Eng., Harvard Univ.",
  address       = "Cambridge, MA",
  year          = "1993"
}

Unpublished / Informally Published Work

Back

Normal use of unpublished class.
@unpublished{briscoe_unpub,
  author = "R. Briscoe",
  title = "Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception",
  note = "unpublished"
}

Website / Webpage

Author and publication date given

Back

Use misc class, entering "[Online]" in year field.
@misc{Roth_2017,
  author = "R. Roth",
  title = "75 years ago, the {D}oolittle {R}aid changed history",
  howpublished = "CNN",
  month = "Apr. 18,",
  year = "2017. [Online]",
  url = "http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html"
}

Website / Webpage


No author given
Organization as author

Back

Use electronic class, note brackets around organization as author, enter date after title.
@electronic{FBI_2017,
  author = {{Federal Bureau of Investigation}},
  title = {"Forging papers to sell fake art," Apr. 6, 2017},
  url = "https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art"
}

Website / Webpage

No author or date given

Back

Use electronic class, note brackets around organization as author, enter access date after title.

  author = {{Department of Defense}},
  title = {``About the Department of Defense (DOD).'' Accessed Apr. 18, 2017},
  url = "https://www.defense.gov/About/"
}

 

Website / Webpage

Jane's Example

Back

Use misc class, placing most elements in howpublished.
@misc{Janes_2017,
  title = "Mali: Executive summary",
  howpublished = {Jane's, May 31, 2017. [Online]},
  url = "https://customer.janes.com/"
}

Wikipedia

Back

Misc class, placing most elements in howpublished. Note italics on "Wikipedia"
@misc{wiki_2016,
  title = "Strength training",
  howpublished = {\emph{Wikipedia}. Accessed Apr. 28, 2016. [Online]},
  url = "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strength_training"
}

Working / Occasional Paper

Back

Misc works well, placing many elements in howpublished.
@misc{sushi_2021,
  author = "U. Q. Sushi",
  title = "Three-handed {F}ibonacci model for optimizing surface-to-volume ratio of temaki in {H}ilbert space",
  howpublished = "working paper, Donburi Inst. of Int. Gastron., Pierre, SD, USA, 2021. [Online]",
  url = "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology"
}

Video

With date

News video,  YouTube, or
any kind of streaming video

Variant of electronic, placing date in title field. Note special LaTeX quotation marks in title field.
@electronic{youtube_2013,
  author = "{HKUST Library}",
  title = {``How to cite in IEEE style.'' Oct. 9, 2013},
  howpublished = "[YouTube video]",
  url = "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =18uWvm6W4bc"
}

Video

No date

News video,  YouTube, or
any kind of streaming video

Variant of electronic, placing access date in title field. Note special LaTeX quotation marks in title field.
@electronic{youtube_2014,
  author = "{IEEE}",
  title = {{``IEEE one voice.'' Accessed Aug. 14, 2014.}},
  howpublished = "[YouTube video]",
  url = "https://www.youtube.com/user/IEEEorg"
}