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Citation Styles

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Style

Citation Examples

 

General Rules

 


References in Text

When using the IEEE style, in-text citations are numbered sequentially in the order they appear in the text; the reference number appears in brackets. Grammatically in your body text, references may be treated as if they were footnote numbers. For example:

as shown by Brown [4], [5]
as mentioned earlier [2], [4]–[7], [9]
Smith [4] and Brown and Jones [5]
Wood et al. [7]

Or reference numbers can be used as nouns in your body text. For example:

as demonstrated in [3]
according to [4] and [6]–[9]

The author and title of the source need not be mentioned in the text, although they may be if desired.


List of References

Electronic sources are modeled after the IEEE Preparation of Papers for IEEE Transactions and Journal template. Other reference examples are sourced or adapted from the IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual. If you don't see the type of source you need here, try one of the guides on the left.

Source Type

Reference List Examples

Book (Print)

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author, Title of Published Book, #th ed. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Abbrev. of Publisher, Year, pp. xxx–xxx.

[1] B. Orend, Morality of War, 2nd ed. Tonawanda, NY: Broadview Press, 2013.

Book Chapters
(in Edited Books)

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author, “Title of chapter,” in Book Title in Title Case,
A. B. Editor, Ed. City, State (abbreviated) or Country if not USA: Publisher, Year
pp. xx–xx.

[2] L. Stein, “Random patterns,” in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York, NY: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55–70.

Example adapted from IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual.

Books (Electronic Version of a Print Book)

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author. (Year). Title of book [eBook version]. [Online]. Available: Full URL.

[3] A. Krishnan. (2008). War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting [Ebrary version]. [Online]. Available: http://www.ebrary.com/corp/

Notes: The publication date for electronic book sources comes after the author. Use periods instead of commas between elements. The word after a colon in a title is capitalized. There is no period after URL.

Book (in a Series)

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Editor1 and M. Editor2, Eds., Title of Published Book (Series Name in Title Case # of series). City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Abbrev. of Publisher, Year, pp. xxx–xxx.

[4] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Applied Mathematics Series 55). Washington, DC: NBS, 1964, pp. 32–33.

Example from IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual.

Book (Portion)

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author, Title of Published Book, #th ed. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Abbrev. of Publisher, Year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx–xxx.

[5] B. Orend, Morality of War, 2nd ed. Tonawanda, NY: Broadview Press, 2013, ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 67–70.

Book (Volume)

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” in Title of Volume, vol. #, Names of editors, Eds. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Abbrev. of Publisher, Year, pp. xxx–xxx.

[6] R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA: Academic Press, 1977, pp. 47–160.

Example from IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual.

Class Notes

BibTeX code

[#] “Lecture title,” class notes for [Class Name Here], Dept. of [Department Name Here], Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, academic quarter year.

[7] “New applications in computational mechanics,” class notes for Computational Mechanics, Dept. of Mech. and Aerosp. Eng., Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, spring 2013.

Notes: Class notes will not be available to the reader, so use sparingly. Trace the information back to an original published source whenever possible.

Computer Program

BibTeX code

If found online:
[#] Company or author, city and state. (year of release). Name of Software. [Online]. Available: www.xxx.xxx. Accessed month, day, year.

[8] Panda Security, Maitland, FL. (2016). Panda Free Antivirus. [Online]. Available: http://download.cnet.com/Panda-Free-Antivirus/3000-2239_4-10914099.html. Accessed Jan. 12, 2016.

If not found online, treat as a handbook:
[#] Name of software, version xxx, Company name, city, state, year of release.

[9] Windows 98, Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, 1998.

Conference Paper (Presented)

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author, “Title of paper in sentence case,” presented at the Unabbreviated Name of Conference, City of Conference, Abbrev State or Country if outside U.S., Year.

[10] K. Kirby and J. Stratton, “Van Allen probes: Successful launch campaign and early operations exploring earth's radiation belts,” presented at IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT, 2013.

Conference Paper (in Published Proceedings)

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author, “Title of paper in sentence case,” in Unabbreviated Name of Conference, City of Conference, Abbrev State or Country if not in U.S. if given, Year, vol. # if given, pp. xxx–xxx.

[11] C. Janow, “Guidance and control components for space applications,” in Proceedings National Electronics Conference, 1994, vol. 24, pp. 30–35.

[12] K. Delac and M. Grgic, “A survey of biometric recognition methods,” in 46th International Symposium on Electronics, Zadar, Croatia, 2004, pp. 184–193.

Notes: For published conference proceedings, include the location if it is given. Include volume number if there is one. All published proceedings have page numbers.

First example and notes from IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual.

Database

BibTeX code

[#] Database Name in Title Case. Object name XXXXXXXXXXX. [Online]. Available: site/path/file. Accessed Abbrev. Month, Day, Year.

[13] NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Object name IRAS F00400+4059. [Online]. Available: http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/. Accessed Dec. 10, 2012. 

Notes: There is no period after URL without access date. Including the accessed date is optional but helpful to your reader. Use the last date accessed if the source was accessed more than once.

Directives and Instructions

BibTeX code

Directive

[#] Name of Directive in Title Case, # ed. or directive number, Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Year, pp. xx–xx.

[14] The Defense Acquisition System, DOD Directive 5000.1, Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L), Washington, DC, 2003, pp. 20–21.

Instruction

[#] Name of Instruction in Title Case, # ed. or instruction number, Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Year, pp. xx–xx.

[15] Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, DOD Instruction 1000.01, Department of Defense, Washington, DC, 2012, pp. 1-1, 1-10.

Handbook or
Field Manuals

BibTeX code

[#] Name of Manual or Handbook in Title Case, # ed. or FM number, Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Year, pp. xx–xx.

[16] Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed., Western Elect. Co., Winston-Salem, NC, 1985, pp. 44–60.

[17] Engineer Operations, FM 3-34, U.S. Dept. of the Army, Washington, DC, 2011, 3.8–3.9.

First example from IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual.

Handbook or
Report Online

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author. (Year, Abbrev. Month). Title in sentence case. Company Name. City, Add Country if outside U.S. [Online]. Available: site/path/file 

[18] S. L. Talleen. (1996, Aug.). The IntraNet architecture: Managing information in the new paradigm. Amdahl Corps. Sunnyvale, CA. [Online]. Available: http://www.Amdahl.com/doc/products/bsg/intra/intra/html

Example from IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual.

Journal Article

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author, “Article title in sentence case,” Abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx–xxx, Abbrev. Month Year.

[19] W. Q. Wang and H. Shao, “High altitude platform multichannel SAR for wide-area and staring imaging,” Aerosp. and Electron. Syst., vol. 29, no. 25, pp. 12–17, Mar. 2014.

Journal Article (Electronic)

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author. (Year, Abbrev. Month Day). Title of article in sentence case. Journal Title Abbrev. [Online]. Volume(issue). pp. xxx–xxx if given. Available: site/path/file

[20] M. Semilof. (1996, July 15). Driving commerce to the Web—Corporate Intranets and the Internet: Lines blur. Communications Week [Online]. 6(19). Available: http://www.techweb.com/se/index.html

Notes: The date for electronic sources comes after the author. “Vol.” and “no.” (the abbreviations for volume number and issue number) are not used in front of the volume and issue numbers as they are with a print journal. Also note the use of periods instead of commas between elements.

Example from IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual.

Legislative Documents

BibTeX code

[#] Legislative Body. Number of Congress, Session. (Year, Abbrev. Month Day). Number of bill or resolution, Title in Title Case. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file 

[21] U.S. House. 102nd Congress, 1st Session. (1991, Jan. 11). H. Con. Res. 1, Sense of the Congress on Approval of Military Action. [Online]. Available: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c102:H.CON.RES.1.IH

Example adapted from IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual.

Magazine/Newspaper (Online)

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author. (Year, Abbrev Month, Day). Title in sentence case. Magazine in Italics [type of medium], paging if given. Available: site/path/file

[22] A. Ellwood. (2013, Feb. 11). Plagiarism isn’t the sincerest form of flattery. Forbes [Online]. Available: http://www.forbes.com/sites/andyellwood/2013/02/11/plagiarism-isnt-the-sincerest-form-of-flattery/

[23] J. Martin. (2014, Aug. 7). Senator quits Montana race after charge of plagiarism. New York Times [Online]. Available: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/08/us/politics/john-walsh-drops-campaign-under-pressure-from-democrats.html?_r=0

Patent

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author, “Title of patent in sentence case,” U.S. Patent xxx xx xxx, Abbrev. Month Day, Year.

[24] J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices,” U.S. Patent 3 624 125, Aug. 16, 1990.

Note: Use the patent’s issued date if more than one date is given.

Example adapted from IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual.

Patent (Available Online)

BibTeX code

[#] Name of invention in sentence case, by J. K. Inventor. (Year, Abbrev. Month Day). Patent Number ### ## [Online]. Available: site/path/file

[25] Musical toothbrush with adjustable neck and mirror, by L. M. R. Brooks. (1992, Jul. 19). Patent D 326 189 [Online]. Available: NEXIS Library: LEXPAT File: DESIGN

Example from IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual

Personal Communications (Emails, Letters, Conversations)

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Communicator, private communication, Abbrev. Month Year.

[26] D. D. Alexander, private communication, Aug. 2012.

Report or Technical Paper

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author, “Title of report in sentence case,” Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Company, Abbrev State, Rep. ###, Abbrev. Month Year.

[27] E. E. Reber, R. L. Michell, and C. J. Carter, “Oxygen absorption in the earth’s atmosphere,” Aerosp. Corp., Los Angeles, CA, Tech. Rep. TR-2000 (4230-46)-3, Nov. 1988.

Example from IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual.

Standard

BibTeX code

[#] Title of Standard in Title Case, Standard #, Year.

[28] IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969.

Example from IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual.

Thesis and Dissertation

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author, “Thesis title in sentence case,” M.S. thesis or Ph.D. dissertation, Abbrev. Dept. Name, Univ. Name, City of Univ., Abbrev State or city, country if outside U.S., Year.

[29] N. Kawasaki, “Parametric study of thermal and chemical nonequilibrium nozzle flow,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Electron. Eng., Osaka Univ., Osaka, Japan, 1993.

[30] J. O. Williams, “Narrow-band analyzer,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, 1993.

Examples from IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual.

Unpublished Works

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author, “Title of paper in sentence case,” unpublished.

[31] L. J. Garcia, “New ideas for security in democracies,” unpublished.

Web/Internet Article (with Author and Date)

BibTeX code

[#] J. K. Author. (Year, Abbrev. Month Day if available). Web article title in sentence case. [Online]. Available: http://URL

[32] J. Kaneshiro. (2011, Dec. 3). Nano technology marches on. [Online]. Available: http://www.army.mil/article/70358/Nano_technology_marches_on/

[33] D. Vergun. (2014, Aug. 14). Smarter robots partnering with soldiers. [Online]. Available: http://www.army.mil/article/131847/Smarter_ground_robots_partnering_with_Soldiers/

Web/Internet Article
(No Author)

BibTeX code

[#] Web article title in sentence case (Year, Abbrev. Month Day). Website Publisher. [Online]. Available: site/path/file

[34] Raytheon fires four TALON laser-guided rockets from MD 530G helicopter. (2014, Jul. 31). Raytheon. [Online]. Available: http://raytheon.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=43&item=2624

Web/Internet Article
(No Author, No Date)

BibTeX code

[#] Web article title in sentence case. (n.d.). Website Publisher. [Online]. Available: site/path/file. Accessed Abbrev. Month Day, Year.

[35] Veteran voices on PTSD. (n.d.). U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs. [Online]. Available: http://maketheconnection.net/conditions/ptsd2. Accessed Nov. 13, 2013.

[36] Compliance matters. (n.d.). Naval Postgraduate School Thesis Processing Office. [Online]. http://www.nps.edu/research/research1.html#Compliance. Accessed Mar. 14, 2014.

Notes: IEEE has adapted its online-source guidance from APA. If IEEE doesn’t give guidance for the type of online resource you have, default to APA. If there is no date for the web material, use (n.d.) for “no date” and provide an accessed date after the URL.

 Wikipedia

BibTeX code

[#]. Term in sentence case. (n.d.). Wikipedia. [Online]. Available: site/path/file. Accessed Abbrev. Month Day, Year.

[37] Strength training. (n.d.). Wikipedia. [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strength_training. Accessed Apr. 28, 2016.

Notes: Frequently, there are no dates with Wikipedia material. If there is no date, use (n.d.) for “no date” and provide an accessed date after the URL. 

IEEE adapts its online guidance from ISO and APA styles. If IEEE doesn’t give guidance on the type of online resource that you have, adapt APA style.

 YouTube

BibTeX code

[#] Name of Person or Organization Who Posted in Title Case. (Year, Abbrev. Month Day). Video title in sentence case. [YouTube video]. Available: site/path/file. Accessed Abbrev. Month Day, Year.

[38] HKUST Library. (2013, Oct. 9). How to cite in IEEE style. [YouTube video]. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=18uWvm6W4bc. Accessed Jun. 12, 2014.

[39] IEEE. (n.d.). IEEE one voice. [YouTube video]. Available: https://www.youtube.com/user/IEEEorg. Accessed Aug. 14, 2014.

Notes: If there is no date provided, use (n.d.) for “no date” and provide an accessed date after the URL.

IEEE adapts its online guidance from ISO and APA styles. If IEEE doesn’t give guidance on the type of online resource that you have, adapt APA style.

 

General Rules

Present numerically references in the same order, such as [1], [2], [3], as they appear in the text citations, not alphabetically.

List authors by first initials, such as J. K. Author and K. J. Author.

Use “et al.” for three or more authors: J. K. Author et al. [Exception: Professor Clark Robertson does not allow use of “et al.” in thesis or dissertation List of References]

If no author is given, start with the title.

If there is no date for the Internet material, use (n.d.) for “no date” and provide an accessed date after the URL.

IEEE writes titles of theses/dissertations, patents, reports, book chapters, articles in book volumes, conference papers, journal articles, unpublished works, and class notes in “sentence case” and encloses these in quotation marks.

Titles for journals, books, and proceedings are italicized and in Title Case (important words are capitalized; small words (is, a, the) and prepositions are lower case).

Grammatically in your body text, references may be treated as if they were footnote numbers. For example:

as shown by Brown [4], [5]
as mentioned earlier [2], [4]–[7], [9]
Smith [4] and Brown and Jones [5]
Wood et al. [7]

Or reference numbers can be used as nouns in your body text. For example:

as demonstrated in [3]
according to [4] and [6]–[9]

List citations in numerical order when citing more than one, as shown in the example above.
To group a series of three or more references—such as [4], [5], and [6]—use this format:

[4]–[6]

Electronic Sources: According to the IEEE 2014 Editorial Style Manual, IEEE has adapted the way it cites most online sources from the American Psychological Association (APA) Style Guide. If IEEE does not have guidance for the type of electronic source used, refer to the APA guide: http://libguides.nps.edu/citation/apa. NOTE: This IEEE policy decision has resulted in some source URLs having periods at their end (if there is an access date) and some not (if there is no access date); please refer to the examples provided.  

Printed Sources: If IEEE does not have guidance for a type of printed source, refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) (16th ed.): http://libguides.nps.edu/citation/chicagonb (use guidance for the entries in the bibliography, marked with B).


 

Common abbreviations used by IEEE

Acoustics  
Administration  
Administrative  
American  
Analysis  
Annals  
Annual  
Apparatus  
Applications  
Applied  
Association  
Automatic  
British  
Broadcasting  
Business  
Canadian  
Chinese  
Communications  
Computer(s)  
Conference  
Congress  
Convention  
Correspondence  
Cybernetics  
Department  
Development  
Digest  
Economic(s)  
Education  
Electrical  
Electronic  
Engineering  
Ergonomics  
European  
Evolutionary  
Foundation  
Geoscience  
Graphics  
Industrial  
Information  
Institute  
Intelligence  
International  
Japan  
Journal  
Letter(s)  
Machine  
Magazine  
Management  
Managing  
Mathematical  
Mechanical  
Meeting  
National  
Newsletter  
Nuclear  
Occupation  
Operational  
Optical  
Optics  
Organization  
Philosophical  
Proceedings  
Processing  
Production  
Productivity  
Quarterly  
Record  
Reliability  
Report  
Research  
Review  
Royal  
Science  
Selected  
Society  
Sociological  
Statistics  
Studies  
Supplement  
Symposium  
Systems  
Technical  
Techniques  
Technology  
Telecommunications  
Transactions  
Vehicular  
Working
Acoust.  
Admin.  
Administ.  
Amer.  
Anal.  
Ann.  
Annu.  
App.
Appl.  
Appl.  
Assoc.  
Automat.  
Brit.  
Broadcast.  
Bus.  
Can.  
Chin.  
Commun.  
Comput.  
Conf.  
Congr.  
Conv.  
Corresp.  
Cybern.  
Dept.  
Develop.  
Dig.  
Econ.  
Edu.  
Elect.  
Electron.  
Eng.  
Ergonom.  
Eur.  
Evol.  
Found.  
Geosci.  
Graph.  
Ind.  
Inform.  
Inst.  
Intell.  
Int.  
Jpn.  
J.  
Lett.  
Mach.  
Mag.  
Manage.  
Manag.  
Math.  
Mech.  
Meeting  
Nat.  
Newslett.  
Nucl.  
Occupat.  
Oper.  
Opt.  
Opt.  
Org.  
Philosoph.  
Proc.  
Process.  
Prod.  
Productiv.  
Quart.
Rec.  
Rel.  
Rep.  
Res.  
Rev.  
Roy.  
Sci.  
Select.  
Soc.  
Sociol.  
Statist.  
Stud.  
Suppl.  
Symp.  
Syst.  
Tech.  
Techn.  
Technol.  
Telecommun.  
Trans.  
Veh.  
Work.

 

 

Source: IEEE Editorial Style Manual. IEEE Periodicals, Piscataway, NJ, 2014, p. 34.

 

 

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