Citation Styles

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
IEEE Citation Style

 

IEEE CITATION EXAMPLES

[#] = in-text citation
[#] followed by full citation information = entry in List of References or Bibliography.
  • IEEE strongly prefers that bracketed in-text citations appear sequentially, beginning with [1], within the body of the text; it does not matter in what order they appear in the List of Tables and the List of Figures.
  • For three or more authors, use et al. in the List of References. Exception: ECE does not allow the use of et al. in thesis or dissertation List of References.

 

The official IEEE style guide contains some inconsistencies and discrepancies. The Thesis Processing Office will continue to accept the BibTeX IEEE format embedded in the NPS LaTeX thesis template.

Source Type Generic Example with Rules Actual Example

BOOK

Print Book

  • Always include abbreviated state and country of publication.

 

Book (print)

One author

[#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. City, State, Country: Publisher, year.

[1] M. Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York, NY, USA: Penguin, 2006.

Book (print)

Two authors with edition number

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edition number. City, State, Country: Publisher, year.

[2] A. Strindberg and M. Wärn, Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance, 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.

Book (print)

Three authors

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, and C. C. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. City, State, Country: Publisher, year.

[3] A. H. Cordesman, A. Mausner, and D. Kasten, Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC, USA: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009.

Book Chapter

  • No quotation marks needed for book sections with generic names, such as Introduction, Foreword, Preface, etc.
 

Book Chapter (in edited book)

One author, two editors

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, B. B. Editor and C. C. Editor, Eds. City, State, Country: Publisher, year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

[1] P. Haynes, “Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, and U.S. foreign policy,” in Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, D. Moran and J. A. Russell, Eds. New York, NY, USA: Routledge, 2009, pp. 62–74.

Book Chapter (in edited book)

Three authors, one editor

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, and C. C. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, D. D. Editor, Ed. City, State, Country: Publisher, year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

[2] A. H. Cordesman, A. Mausner, and D. Kasten, Introduction, in Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, J. Smith, Ed. Washington, DC, USA: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009, pp. 4–5.

Book (portion, volume, or in a series)
  Book (portion) [#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edition number. City, State, Country: Publisher, year, ch. xxx, sec. xxx, pp. xxx–xxx. [1] B. Orend, Morality of War, 2nd ed. Tonawanda, NY, USA: Broadview Press, 2013, ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 67–70.
Book (volume) [#] A. A. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, B. B. Editor and C. C. Editor, Eds. City, State, Country: Publisher, year, pp. xxx–xxx. [1] R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA, USA: Academic Press, 1977, pp. 47–160.
Book (in a series) [#] A. A. Editor and B. B. Editor, Eds., Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Title of Series volume number). City, State, Country: Publisher, year, pp. xxx–xxx. [1] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds.,
Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Applied Mathematics Series 55). Washington, DC, USA: NBS, 1964, pp. 32–33. 

Electronic Book

  • When citing a direct quotation from an electronic book without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. The citation might include a chapter number, section heading, or paragraph number within the section, e.g., [3, chap. 8, "On the frontier"].
 

Electronic Book

With URL

[#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. City, State, Country: Publisher, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] J. Crabtree and A. Chaplin, Bolivia: Processes of Change. London, England: Zed Books, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ebook-nps/detail.action?docID=1183073

Electronic Book

With book provider

[#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. City, State, Country: Publisher, year. [Online]. Book Provider.

[2] A. Krishnan, War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2008. [Online]. Kindle edition.

CLASS NOTES, LECTURE, PRESENTATION, WORKSHOP

  • Class notes include lecture notes, slides, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.
     
  • If class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's/lecturer's name and "class notes."
     
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
 

Class Notes / Lecture

Unpublished

[#] “Title of lecture in sentence case,” class notes for Title of Class in Title Case, Abbreviated Name of Department, Institution, City, State, Country, academic quarter year.

[1] “Formatting a thesis,” class notes for Adventures in Academic Writing, Dept. of Dragon Husbandry, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA, spring 2017.

Class Notes / Lecture (online)

Published

[#] “Title of lecture in sentence case,” class notes for Title of Class in Title Case, Abbreviated Name of Department, Institution, City, State, Country, academic quarter year. [Online]. Available: URL

[2]: B. B. Horse, “Horseshoes and hand grenades: On the joys of approximation.” Lecture at Barnes Event Center, Derby, KY, USA, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://horse.com/


[3] “Python numPy tutorial,” class notes for CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition, Dept. of Comp. Sci., Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA, spring 2017. [Online]. Available: http://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/

Presentation or Workshop

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of speech/presentation/brief in sentence case,” presented at Abbreviated Venue, City of Presentation, State, Country, Month and day of Presentation (if available), year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[4] L. Randall, “Unification in warped extra dimensions and bulk holography,” presented at Cavendish Lab., Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, Jul. 19, 2002. [Online]. Available: http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/events/strings02/avt/randall/

COMPUTER PROGRAM / SOFTWARE

  • Citation is required only if the software is not well known.
  Computer Program/Software

[#] Company or A. A. Creator, City of Publication, State, Country. Year published. Title of Software in Title Case, ver. xx. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] M. Borenstein, L. Hedges, J. Higgins, and H. Rothstein. Englewood, NJ, USA. 2005. Comprehensive
Meta-Analysis, ver. 2. [Online]. Available: http://www.meta-analysis.com

CONFERENCE PAPER / PROCEEDINGS
  Conference Proceedings (online)

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, C. C. Author, D. D. Author, and E. E. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” in Abbreviated Name of Proceedings in Title Case and Italics, (location is optional), year published. [Online.] doi: or Available: URL

[1] S. Herculano-Houzel, C. E. Collins, P. Wong, J. H. Kass, and R. Lent, “The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex,” in Proc. of the Natl. Acad. of Sci. of the USA, 2008. [Online]. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805417105

Conference Proceedings (print)

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, and C. C. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Abbreviated Name of Conference in Title Case and Italics, (location is optional), year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

[2] I. Katz, K. Gabayan, and H. Aghajan, “A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras,” in Adv. Conc. for Intell. Vis. Sys.: 9th Intl. Conf., 2007, pp. 133–203.

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of paper in sentence case,” presented at Abbreviated Name of Conference, City of Conference, State, Country, year.

[3] K. Kirby and J. Stratton, “Van Allen probes: Successful launch campaign and early operations exploring earth’s radiation belts,” presented at the IEEE Aerosp. Conf., Big Sky, MT, USA, Mar. 2, 2013.

DATA SET / DATABASE
 

Data Set

Published

[#] A. A. Author, Title of Data Set in Title Case, year published. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] R. Suro, Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture: A Survey of Latinos on News Media, 2004. [Online]. Available: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/

Database

Published

[#] Name of Database. Object name xxxxxxx. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL. Accessed Abbreviated Month and day, year.

[1] NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Object name IRAS F00400+4059. [Online]. Available: http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/. Accessed Dec. 10, 2012. 

DICTIONARY / ENCYCLOPEDIA
  Dictionary / Encyclopedia

[#] “Title of entry in sentence case,” Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Accessed date. [Online]. Available: URL

[2] “Metamorphosis,” Merriam-Webster. Accessed July 6, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis

DIRECTIVE / INSTRUCTION
  Directive

[#] Name of Directive in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Name of Issuing Organization, City of Publication, State, Country, pp. xxx–xxx. doi: or Available: URL

[1] The Defense Acquisition System, DOD Directive 5000.1, Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L), Washington, DC, USA, 2003, pp. 20–21. Available: http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/
DD/issuances/dodm/857001m.pdf

Instruction

[#] Name of Instruction in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Name of Issuing Organization, City, State, Country, pp. xxx–xxx.

[2] Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, DOD Instruction 1000.01, Department of Defense, Washington, DC, USA, 2012.

DOCTRINE
 

Joint Doctrine

[#] Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Department, City of Publication, State, year. doi: or Available: URL

[1] Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, JP-1, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, DC, 2017. Available: https://fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp1.pdf

FACT SHEET
  Fact Sheet

[#] Department or Company, Title of fact sheet in sentence case and italics, document identification number, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] Texas Instruments, LM555 timer, SNAS548D, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/lm555.pdf

FIELD MANUAL
  Field Manual [#] Title of Manual in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Department, City of Publication, State, Country, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] Sniper Training, FM 23-10, Department of the Army, Washington, DC, USA, 1995. [Online]. Available: http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf

HANDBOOK
  Handbook (online) [#] Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Name of Company, City of Company, State, Country, year, [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] Transmission Systems for Potatoes, 168th ed., Western Spud Co., Kinston-Slalom, ID, USA, 1972. [Online]. http://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html

Handbook (print) [#] Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Name of Company, City of Company, State, Country, year, pp. xxx–xxx.

[2] Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed., Western Electric Co., Winston-Salem, NC, USA, 1985, pp. 44–60.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

 

Journal Article (online)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

DOI preferred

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and year published. [Online]. doi:

[1]: G. Sanico and M. Kakinaka, “Terrorism and deterrence policy with transnational support,” Def. & Peace Econ., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 153–167, Apr. 2008. [Online]. doi:10.1080/10242690701505419

Journal Article (online)

From a subscription database

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and year published. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] W. W. Newmann, “Reorganizing for national security and homeland security,” Pub. Admin. Rev., vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 126–137, Sep. 2002. [Online]. Available: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1540-6210.62.s1.22/abstract

Journal Article (online)

From an online journal

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and year published. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] N. Catrantzos, “No dark corners: A different answer to insider threats,” Homeland Sec. Aff., vol. 6, no. 2, May 2010. [Online]. Available: https://www.hsaj.org/articles/83

 

Journal Article (print)

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and day published, year.

[1] W. Q. Wang and H. Shao, “High altitude platform multichannel SAR for wide-area and staring imaging,” Aerosp. and Electron. Syst., vol. 29, no. 25, pp. 12–17, Mar. 26, 2014.

LEGAL
 

Legislative Document

[#] Legislative body. xxx Congress, Session. (year, Abbreviated Month and day). Number of Bill or Resolution, Title of document in Title Case and Italics. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] U.S. House. 102nd Congress, 1st Session. (1991, Jan. 11). H. Con. Res. 1, Sense of the Congress on Approval of Military Action. [Online]. Available: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c102:H.CON.RES.1.IH

Public Law 

Published in the U.S. Statutes at Large

 

[#] Title of Act in Title Case, Public Law number, Stat. section. Year published). doi: or Available: URL

[1] Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–336 § 2, 104 Stat. 328. 1991. [Online]. Available: http://library.clerk.house.gov/reference-files/PPL_101_336_
AmericansWithDisabilities.pdf

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Code

[#] Title of Act in Title Case, U.S.C. section xxx. Year published. 

[1] Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101. 1991.

MAP
  Google Map

[#] Google. “Title of map in sentence case.” [Online]. Available: URL. Accessed Month and day, year.

[1] Google. “Monterey Bay.” [Online]. Available:
https://www.google.com/maps/
place/Monterey+Bay/@36.7896106,-122.0843052,11z/data=
!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311. Accessed Jul. 6, 2017.

MEMORANDUM, OFFICIAL
  Memorandum, Official

[#] A. A. Author, "Title of memorandum in sentence case,"  official memorandum, Name of Issuing Organization, City of Publication, State, Country, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] T. M. Takai, "Adoption of the national information exchange model within the Department of Defense," official memorandum, Department of Defense, Washington, DC, USA, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20the%20DoD.pdf

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE
 

Newspaper Article (online)

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Month and day, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] L. Linguine, “Animal fat shampoos for achieving angel hair,” Knife and Spork Semi-Weekly, Jul. 15, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.chickenyodeling.com/dfjgp98y4t34_pherg899h.html/

Newspaper Article (print)

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Month and day, year.

[1] J. Stulberg, “The art of creating crossword puzzles,” The New York Times, Jul. 15, 2016.

PATENT 

  • If more than one date, use the year of issuance.
  Patent

[#] A. A. Rightsholder, “Title of patent in sentence case,” U.S. Patent xxxxxxx, Abbreviated Month and day of issuance, year of issuance. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] A. G. Bell, “Improvement in telegraphy,” U.S. Patent 174465, Mar. 7, 1876. [Online]. Available: https://www.google.com/patents/US174465

PERSONAL COMMUNICATION, INTERVIEW, EMAIL

  • Personal communication is material obtained directly from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.
     
  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email (presentation slides, data sets, internal documents), documents posted to a listserv or internal server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access.
  Personal Communication, Interview, or Email

[#] A. A. Interlocutor, private communication or interview or email, Abbreviated Month of communication year.

[1] R. Ajanlekoko, private communication, Sep. 2009.

[2] L. Chukwuemeka, interview, Sep. 2009.

[3] J. Jojo, email, Sep. 2009.

REPORT

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it is not freestanding, then format it as a webpage.
Government Report / Document
  CRS Report [#] A. A. Author, “Title of CRS report in sentence case,” City, State, Country, Report Number, year. [Online]. Available: URL [1] M. C. Erwin, "Intelligence issues for Congress,"  Washington DC, USA, CRS Report No. RL33539, 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf
GAO Report [#] A. A. Author, “Title of GAO report in sentence case,” City, State, Country, Report Number, year. [2] C. A. Berrick, "Homeland security: DHS’s progress and challenges in key areas of maritime, aviation, and cybersecurity," Washington, DC, USA, GAO Report No. GAO-10-106, 2000.
Other Government Report [#] A. A. Author, “Title of report in sentence case,” City, State, Country, year. [3] B. Obama, "National security strategy," Washington, DC, USA, 2015.
Technical Report

 

Technical Report (online)

With author

[#] A. A. Author. “Title of technical report in sentence case,” Abbrev. Name of Company, City, State, Country, Rep. xxxxxxx, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] S. V. Effendi and X. Vilhjálmsson. “The absorption rate of potatoes in salmonella,” Vet. Stud., Madison, WI, USA, Rep. 17-59, 2009. [Online]. Available: https://vetstud/donteatthosefries.html

Technical Report (online)

With agency as publisher

[#] Agency Name, “Title of technical report in sentence case,” City, State, Country, Rep. xxxxxxx, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] National Toxicology Program, “Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (CASRN 15625-89-5) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice (Topical Application Studies),” Washington, DC, USA, Rep. TR-576, 2012. [Online]. Available: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm/reports/longterm/tr500580
?/listedreports/tr576/index.html

Technical Report (print)

[#] A. A. Author. “Title of technical report in sentence case,” Abbrev. name of company, City, State, Country, Rep. xxxxxxx, year.

[1] K. A. Abdulatipov and F. Ramazonov. “The absorption rate of E. coli in cats,” Vet. Stud., Madison, WI, USA, Rep. 17-59, 2012.

Think Tank Report / White Paper
  Think Tank Report / White Paper [#] A. A. Author, “Title of report in sentence case,” Abbreviated Company, City, State, Country, Report Number, year published. doi: or Available: URL [1] L. Dixon, N. Clancy, B. M. Miller, S. Hoegberg, M. M. Lewis, B. Bender et al., “The cost and affordability of flood insurance in New York City,” RAND Corp., Santa Monica, CA, USA, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR1700/RR1776/
RAND_RR1776.pdf

SECONDARY SOURCE

  Secondary Source

[#] List the secondary source that quotes or discusses the material you are referring to (cite using the appropriate format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: See example.

[1] I. A. M. Nicholson, Inventing Personality: Gordon Allport and the Science of Selfhood. Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association, 2003.

In your text: We can see this principle at work in the following passage from Allport’s diary, quoted in [1].

STANDARD
  Standard [#] Title of Standard in Title Case and Italics, Standard Number, date. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL [1] Letter Symbols for Quantities, ANSI Standard Y10.5, 1968. [Online]. Available: http://standards.globalspec.com/std/1713423/asme-ansi-y10-5
THESIS / DISSERTATION
 

Thesis / Dissertation

From an institutional archive such as the NPS Archive: Calhoun

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case,” M.S. thesis or Ph.D. dissertation, Abbreviated Department, Abbreviated University, City of University, State, Country, year published. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] T. D. Moon, “Rising dragon: Infrastructure development and Chinese influence in Vietnam,” M.S. thesis, Dept. of Natl. Sec. Aff., NPS, Monterey, CA, USA, 2009. [Online]. Available: http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4694

Thesis / Dissertation (print)

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case,” M.S. thesis or Ph.D. dissertation, Abbreviated Department, Abbreviated University, City of University, State, Country, year published. 

[2] J. Rivera, “Software system architecture modeling methodology for naval gun weapon systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Comp. Sci., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, USA, 2010.

UNPUBLISHED / INFORMALLY PUBLISHED WORKS
  Unpublished Work Accepted for Publication

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” unpublished.

[1] R. Briscoe, “Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception,” unpublished.

WEBSITE / WEBPAGE
  • Title of website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
     
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, The New York Times, not Reuters or CNN.
 

Webpage

Author and publication date given

[#] A. A. Author, “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” Name of Website in Title Case, full date of publication or modification. [Online]. Available: URL

[1] R. Roth, “75 years ago, the Doolittle Raid changed history,” CNN, April 18, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html

Webpage

No author given

Organization as author

[#] “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” Name of Website in Title Case, full date of publication or modification. [Online]. Available: URL

[2] “Forging papers to sell fake art,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, April 6, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.fbi.gov/news/
stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art

Webpage

No author or date given

[#] “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” Name of Website in Title Case. Accessed date. [Online]. Available: URL

[3] “About the Department of Defense (DOD),” Department of Defense. Accessed April 18, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.defense.gov/About/

Webpage

Jane's example

[#] “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” Jane’s by IHS Markit, Full date of publication or modification. [Online]. Available: URL

[4] “Mali: Executive summary,” Jane’s by IHS Markit, May 31, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://janes.ihs.com.libproxy.nps.edu/NorthAfrica/Display/1303746

WIKIPEDIA

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
  Wikipedia

[#] “Title of entry in sentence case,” Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Accessed date. [Online]. Available: URL

[1] “Psychology,” Wikipedia. Accessed May 17, 2011. [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology

WORKING PAPER / OCCASIONAL PAPER
  Working Paper / Occasional Paper [#] A. A. Author, “Title of working paper in sentence case,” working paper, Abbreviated Institution or Company, City, State, Country, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL  [1] U. Q. Sushi, "Three-handed Fibonacci model for optimizing surface-to-volume ratio of temaki in Hilbert space," working paper, Donburi Inst. of Int. Gastron., Pierre, SD, USA, 2021. [Online]. Available: http://www.wallcrust.com/403t3-9j/340txf%oii%/gonzoponzu.html

Adapted from IEEE Editorial Style Manual 2016.