Citation Guide

INFORMS: Citation Examples + Rules

INFORMS (v. 1.7, 2020): Citation Examples & Essential Rules

      For NPS theses, papers, and publications: to cite properly, follow the citation examples and apply the essential rules.

Citation Examples

Essential Rules

 

If you do not see an example that matches your source type or the rule that you need, consult the Additional Resources for your style.


Citation Examples


arXiv

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

arXiv

R: Author AA (year) Title of work in sentence case. arXiv, Place of Publication, DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Barterra K (2023) Great grapes throughout history. arXiv, Half Moon Bay, CA, https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.10987654321.

T: (Barterra 2023)

Blog

  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the blog name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Blog

R: Author AA (year) Title in sentence case. Name of Blog in Title Case, blog. Accessed date, URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Locke JJ (2020) Effect of weird tails in 35mm Innsmouth sprocket periodicity distributions on re-tiered bicyclical phase shifting using Cthulhean logic. The Thing’s Credible!, blog. Accessed December 22, 2020, https://wrywhisker.pulpfriction.net/wallcrust/linear-colinear-felinear.html.

T: (Locke 2020)

Book

  • Follow the guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Chapter / Section in Edited Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author, one editor

R: Author AA (year) Title of chapter in sentence case. Editor AA, ed. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication), starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

T: (Author year)

R: Haynes P (2009) Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, and US foreign policy. Goodname A, ed. Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management (Routledge, New York), 62–74.

T: (Haynes 2009)

Three authors, two editors

From the introduction, foreword, preface, etc.

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of section in sentence case. Editor AA, Editor BB, eds. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication), starting page of section–ending page of section.

T: (Author A et al. year)

R: Cordesman AH, Mausner A, Kasten D (2009) Introduction. Python MM, Monty PP, eds. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces (Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC), 15–25.

T: (Cordesman et al. 2009)

Electronic Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or URL

DOI preferred

R: Author AA (year) Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case.

T: (Author year, location information)

DOI or URL

R: Bonds ME (2014) Absolute Music: The History of an Idea, https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199343638.003.0004.

T: (Bonds 2014, ch. 2)


From a book provider

R: Molly CC (2006) Training Dogs: A Cat's Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions on Maintaining Control of the House While Staying Insanely Cute, https://www.amazon.com.

T: (Molly 2006) 


From a library database

R: Crabtree J, Chaplin A (2013) Bolivia: Processes of Change, ProQuest.

T: (Crabtree and Chaplin 2013) 

  • When citing a direct quotation from an electronic book without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. The citation might include a chapter number, section heading, or paragraph number within the section.
Print Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author

R: Author AA (year) Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication).

T: (Author year)

R: Pollan M (2006) The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (Penguin, New York).

T: (Pollan 2006, p. 15)

Two authors with edition number

R: Author AA, Author BB (year) Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, xx ed. (Publisher, Place of Publication).

T: (Author A and  Author B year)

R: Strindberg A, Wärn M (2011) Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance, 2nd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ).

T: (Strindberg and Wärn 2011)

Three authors

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication).

T: (Author A et al. year)

R: Cordesman AH, Mausner A, Kasten D (2009) Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces (Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC).

T: (Cordesman et al. 2009, p. 23)

Class Notes / Lecture / Presentation / Workshop

  • Class notes include lecture notes, slides, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.
  • If class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's/lecturer's name and "class notes."
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Class Notes / Lecture

Published

R: Author AA (year) Title of lecture in sentence case. Class notes or Lecture, Name of Class in Title Case, Month and day of Lecture, Department, School, Location of Institution, DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Blanche C (2017) How to be the cutest cat in the world. Lecture, Meow Studies 402, August 21, Department of Applied Whiskers, Finishing School for Pets, Monterey, CA, https://wallcrust.com/meows/cats.whiskers.

T: (Blanche 2017)

Class Notes / Lecture

Unpublished

R: Author AA (year) Title of class or lecture in sentence case. Class notes or Lecture, Name of Class in Title Case, Month and day of Lecture, Department, School, Location of Institution.

T: (Author year)

Class notes:

R: Houston A (2016) Why capitalization matters when visiting the House of Potato Chips. Class notes, Performance Management and Budgeting, University of Idaho, September 28, Fort Chip, ID.

T: (Houston 2016)


Lecture:

R: Norton ME (2004) Optimizing the rotational velocity of lizards through ceiling fan modulation. Lecture, Introduction to Veterinary Studies, May 2, Department of Dragon Husbandry, Charlatan State University, Monogahela, WV.

T: (Norton 2004)

Presentation or Workshop

R: Author AA (year) Title of presentation in sentence case. Presentation or Workshop, Name of Event in Title Case, Month and day of Presentation, Venue, Location of Venue, DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Horse BB (2020) Horseshoes and hand grenades: On the joys of approximation. Presentation, Conference on Improbable Probabilities, Belmont Race Track, Elmont, NY, https://horse.edu/horseshoesandgrenades.

T: (Horse 2020)

Computer Program / Software

  • Citation is required only if the software is not well known.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Computer Program / Software

R: Rightsholder AA, Rightsholder BB, Rightsholder CC, Rightsholder DD (year) Title of obscure software in sentence case. Accessed date, DOI or URL.

T: (Rightsholder AA et al. year)


How to cite multiple authors

R: Borenstein M, Hedges L, Higgins J, Rothstein H (2005) Comprehensive meta-analysis, version 2. Accessed May 8, 2015, http://www.meta-analysis.com/?index.html.

T: (Borenstein et al. 2005)

Conference Paper / Proceedings

  • Follow the guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Conference Proceedings

(online)

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of article in sentence case. Abbreviated Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics (Venue, Location of Conference), DOI or URL.

T: (Author A et al. year)


How to cite multiple authors

R: Morentz JW, Doyle C, Skelly L, Adam N (2009) Unified Incident Command and Decision Support (UICDS) a Department of Homeland Security initiative in information sharing. 2009 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security (Waltham, MA), https://doi.org/10.1109/THS.2009.5168032.

T: (Morentz et al. 2009)

Conference Proceedings

(print)

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of article in sentence case. Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics (Venue, Location of Conference), starting page of articleending page of article.

T: (Author A et al. year)

R: Katz I, Gabayan K, Aghajan H (2007) A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 9th International Conference (Berlin, Germany), 97108.

T: (Katz I et al. 2007)

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of article in sentence case. Abbreviated Title of Conference in Title Case, Location of Conference.

T: (Author A et al. year)

R: Teplin LA, McClelland GM, Abram KM, Mileusnic D (2005) Early violent death in delinquent youth: A prospective longitudinal study. Ann. Mtg. of the Amer. Psych.-Law Soc., La Jolla, CA.

T: (Teplin et al. 2005) 

Data Set / Database

  • For information retrieved from a database, provide enough information for your readers to replicate the data. Include in your text the name of the database or the data source, along with other descriptive information (such as the unit of observation, the years selected, the sample size, and/or other selection criteria). The database does not necessarily need to appear in your List of References.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Data Set / Database

Published

R: Author AA or Organization (year) Title of study in sentence case. Organization. Accessed date, DOI or URL.

T: (Author or Organization year)

R: Suro R (2004) Changing channels and crisscrossing culture: A survey of Latinos on news media. Pew Research Center. Accessed April 30, 2012, https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/.

T: (Suro 2004)

Data Set

Unpublished

R: Author AA (year) Data provided to the author via personal communication, Month and day.

T: (Author year)

R: Blanche C (2006) Data provided to the author via email, August 30.

T: (Blanche 2006) 

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Dictionary / Encyclopedia

R: Title of entry in sentence case (year accessed) Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Accessed date, DOI or URL.

T: (Title of entry year accessed)

R: Metamorphosis (2011) Merriam-Webster. Accessed March 4, 2011, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis.

T: (Metamorphosis 2011)

Fact Sheet

  • Follow the guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Fact Sheet

R: Department (year) Title of fact sheet in sentence case, DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department year)

R: Department of Labor (2008) The construction industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), https://www.dol.gov/agencies/whd/fact-sheets/1-flsa-construction.

T (first citation): (Department of Labor [DOL] 2008)

T (subsequent citations): (DOL 2008)

Government / Military Document

  • Follow the guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Directive / Instruction
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Directive / Instruction

R: Department (year) Title of directive in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Place of Publication, DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Department of Defense (2005) Information assurance training, certification, workforce management. DOD Directive 8570.01-M, Washington, DC, https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/jp1_ch1.pdf.

T (first citation): (Department of Defense [DOD] 2005)

T (subsequent citations): (DOD 2005)

Doctrine
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Joint Doctrine

R: Department (year) Title of joint doctrine in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Place of Publication, DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Joint Chiefs of Staff (2017) Countering air and missile threats. JP 3-01, Washington, DC, https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/jp1_ch1.pdf.

T (first citation): (Joint Chiefs of Staff [JCS] 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (JCS 2017)

Field Manual / Military Regulation
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Field Manual / Military Regulation

R: Department (year) Title of field manual in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Place of Publication, DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Department of the Army (1994) Sniper training. FM 23-10, Washington, DC, http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf.

T (first citation): (Department of the Army [DA] 1994)

T (subsequent citations): (DA 1994)

Government Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Government Report

R: Department (year) Title of report in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Place of Publication, DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Secretary of Lard (2023) Craving potato chips while working. Report DPG 138-1883, Monterey, CA, https://www.ecoli.gov/bites-but-wearehungry.pdf.

T (first citation): (Secretary of Lard [SOL] 2023)

T (subsequent citations): (SOL 2023)

Strategy Document
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Strategy Document

R: Department (year) Title of document in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Place of Publication, DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Joint Chiefs of Calf (2023) National mooing strategy of the United Cows of America. Tulare, CA, https://www.moo.org/moooooooooooooooooooooooooo.pdf.

T (first citation): (Joint Chiefs of Calf [JCC] 2023)

T (subsequent citations): (JCC 2023)

Handbook

  • Follow the guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Online

R: Organization (year) Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number (Place of Publication), DOI or URL.

T: (Organization year)

R: Western Spud (1972) Transmission Systems for Potatoes, 168th ed. (Kinston-Slalom, ID), https://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html.

T: (Western Spud 1972)

Print

R: Organization (year) Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number (Place of Publication).

T: (Organization year)

R: Western Electric (1985) Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed. (Winston-Salem, NC).

T: (Western Electric 1985)

Journal Article

  • Follow the guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

DOI preferred

R: Author AA, Author BB (year) Title of article in sentence case. Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume(issue number), DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case.

T: (Author A and Author B year, p. xxx)


How to cite multiple authors

DOI or URL

R: Sanico GF, Kakinaka M (2008) Terrorism and deterrence policy with transnational support. J. of Def. and Peace 19(2), https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419.

T: (Sanico and Kakinaka 2008, p. 588)


From a library database

R: Brown GG, Dell RH, Holtz, H, Newman AM (2003) How US Air Force Space Command optimizes long-term investment in space systems. INFORMS J. on Applied Analytics 33(4), INFORMS PubsOnLine.

T: (Brown et al. 2003, p. 2)

Print

R: Author AA (year) Title of article in sentence case. Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume(issue number):starting page of article–ending page of article.

T: (Author year)

R: Griffin G (2009) Managing peacekeeping communications. J. of Bus. Continuity & Emer. Planning 3(4):317–327.

T: (Griffin 2009)

Legal

  • Legal publications use notes for documentation; few include bibliographies. Any work using the author-date style that needs to do more than mention the occasional source in the text should therefore use supplementary Chicago Notes & Bibliography footnotes formatting. For a full discussion of legal and public documents, including examples, see CMOS 14.269–305.
Bill / Resolution
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Bill/Resolution

Federal unenacted

R: None

T: None

In your text: (Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, xxx Cong. (year))

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: The Managed Competition Act (H.R. 5936, 102nd Cong. (1992)) noted that potatoes are smarter than E. coli–laden cats . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

Code of Federal Regulations
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Code of Federal Regulations

R: None

T: None

In your text: Include name of act, C.F.R. title number and section number (title number C.F.R. § xxx), and year published.

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In 2006, the Department of Energy introduced the Renewable Energy Production Incentives (10 C.F.R. § 451), which . . .

or

In 10 C.F.R. § 451 (2006), the Department of Energy establishes guidelines on Renewable Energy Production Incentives, which . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

Congressional Hearing / Testimony within a Hearing
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Congressional Hearing 

Full hearing

R: None

T: None

In your text: Include title of hearing, date, and any other useful identifying information.

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In 2009, the House Committee on the Budget held a hearing on the Long-term Sustainability of Current Defense Plans to ascertain . . . 

Footnote: See header notes.

Testimony within a Hearing

R: None

T: None

In your text: Include name of testifier, title of hearing, date, and any other useful identifying information.

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In his 2015 testimony during the NASA Infrastructure–Enabling Discovery, Enabling Durability hearing, NASA lead scientist Paul K. Martin remarked that . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

Court Case Decision
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Court Case Decision 

Lower court

R: None

T: None

In your text: Party Names (Case ID [includes first page of decision] (Court Abbreviation and year))

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In the case Lessard v. Schmidt (349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972)), the court ruled that . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

Court Case Decision 

Supreme Court

R: None

T: None

In your text: Party Names (Case ID [includes first page of decision (year))

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In the case Winter v. NRDC, Inc. (129 S. Ct. 365 (2008)), the court ruled that . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

Executive Order
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Executive Order

R: None

T: None

In your text: Include "Title of Executive Order in Title Case," executive order number, and year.

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In 2013, Executive Order 13655, "Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay," established that . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

Public Law
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Public Law

R: None

T: none

In your text: Include the title and year of the act.

Note: if the year is included in the act, there is no need to repeat it

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: The 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act established . . . 

Footnote: See header notes.

Magazine / Newspaper Article

  • Follow the guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the magazine or newspaper name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author given

(print)

R: Author AA (year) Title of article in sentence case. Title of Magazine or Newspaper in Title Case and Italics (Month and day).

T: (Author year)

R: Beforebad S (2014) Cold spaghetti: To eat or not to eat? Pasta Dynamics (January 1).

T: (Beforebad 2014)

No author given

(online)

R: Title of Magazine or Newspaper in Title Case and Italics (year) Title of article in sentence case (Month and day), DOI or URL

T: (Title of Magazine or Newspaper year)

R: The Economist (2014) So long easy money: Foreign drug firms face a severe profit squeeze (June 12), https://www.economist.com/news/business/21604178-foreign-drug-firms-face-severe-profit-squeeze-so-long-easy-money.

T: (The Economist 2014, p. 18)

Patent

  • If a patent has more than one date, use the year of issuance.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Patent

R: Rightsholder AA (year patent issued) Patent Number in Title Case. Patent Office, Location of Office, DOI or URL.

T: (Patent number year)

R: Bell AG (1876) U.S. Patent No. 174,465. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, DC, https://www.google.com/patents/US174465.

T: (U.S. Patent No. 174,465 1846)

Personal Communication / Interview / Email

  • Personal communication is material obtained directly from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.
  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email (presentation slides, data sets, internal documents), documents posted to a listserv or internal server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access.
  • If a personal name is not given, include an occupation or position instead. Example: (lieutenant commander, USN 2022).
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Personal Communication / Email

R: Correspondent AA (year) Type of information provided to the author via personal communication, Month and day.

T: (Correspondent year)

R: Wunkerbunk TT (2002) Moss-growing statistics provided to the author via personal communication, June 11.

T: (Wunkerbunk 2002)

Interview

R: Interviewee AA (year) Interview by Interviewer. Medium, Month and day. Name of Institution.

T: (Interviewee year)

R: Monster C (1985) Interview by Ernest J. Keebler. Betamax, November 20. Keebler Company.

T: (Monster 1985) 

Secondary / Indirect Source

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Secondary / Indirect Source

R: List the indirect source that quotes or discusses the material you're referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: Signal phrase (citation of indirect source, using the appropriate in-text format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: See example.

R: Nicholson, IAM (2003) Inventing Personality: Gordon Allport and the Science of Selfhood (American Psychological Association, Washington, DC).

In your text: We can see this principle at work in the following passage from Allport’s diary, as cited in Nicholson (2003): " . . . "

Report

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it is not freestanding, then format it as a webpage.
  • Follow the guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Research Report / Think Tank Report / White Paper
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Research Report / Think Tank Report / White Paper

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC or Organization (year) Title of report in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Organization, Place of Publication, Country if not in U.S., DOI or URL.

T: (Author et al. or Organization year)


How to cite multiple authors

R: Dixon L, Clancy N, Miller BM, Hoegberg, S, Lewis MM, Bender B, Ebinger S (2017) The cost and affordability of flood insurance in New York City. Report RR-1776-NYCEDC, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1776.html.

T: (Dixon et al. 2017, p. 4)
Technical Report

Author given

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of report in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Organization, Place of Publication, Country if not in U.S., DOI or URL.

T: (Author et al. or Organization year)


How to cite multiple authors

R: Wonka W, Loompa O, Bucket C (1972) Stochastic error-correction in a hyperbaric ethereal pulley system for vitreous personal vertical displacement apparatuses (PVDA). Technical report VK-1916, GLOOP Corporation, Great Missenden, UK, https://www.beanfeast.org/badegg/wahwah.pdf.

T: (Wonka et al. 1972)
Organization as author

R: Organization (year) Title of report in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Place of Publication, Country if not in U.S., DOI or URL.

T: (Organization year)

R: Trotter Agricultural Group (1961) Applications for transatlantic perambulation of gigantomorphic distention in P. persica. Technical Report OGG-19551962, New York, https://www.centipede.org/502seagulls.pdf.

T: (Trotter Agricultural Group 1961)

Thesis / Dissertation

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
From a commercial database

R: Author AA (year) Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case. Type of document, Institution, Location of Institution (if not included in institution name), Database (document identification number).

T: (Author year)

R: Nekeip R (2008) Pescatarians and daisies: A match made in sushi heaven. Master’s thesis, Garden of Sushi School of Sushi, Maui, HI, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database (AAT 3300426).

T: (Nekeip 2008)

From an institutional archive such as the NPS Archive: Calhoun

R: Author AA (year) Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case. Type of document, Department Name, Institution, Location of Institution (if not included in institution name), DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Yoshi H (1988) Effects of pizza consumption on katana-wielding dexterity in terrapinoids. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Reptile Bellicosity, Eastman & Laird University, New York, https://hdl.handle.net/6576565753/splinter.html.

T: (Yoshi 1988)

Unpublished / Informally Published Work

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Unpublished

Accepted for publication

(online)

R: Author AA (year) Title of document in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics. Forthcoming, DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Horse BB (1996) Back in the saddle 2: Back in the saddle. Gaucho Marx: A Journal of Cowpoke Consciousness. Forthcoming, https://blahblahblahhorse.com/bits2bits.

T: (Horse 1996)

Unpublished Work

(print)

R: Author AA (year) Title of document in sentence case. Unpublished type of document, Organization, Location of Organization.

T: (Author year)

R: Horse BB (1995) Back in the saddle. Unpublished memoir, Leaping H Ranch, Peoria, IL.

T: (Horse 1995)

Website / Webpage

  • The title of a website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, New York Times, not Reuters, Bloomberg, CNN, etc. These news organizations only have an online presence, whereas The New York Times has both an online and print counterpart.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the organization name.
  • Always include an accessed date for webpages.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author and date given

R: Author AA (year) Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Name of Website in Title Case. Accessed date, URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Sushi UQ (1995) Absorption of cats in sushi. Sushi Lab. Accessed November 9, 1999, https://www.wallcrust.com/hgtehrwOIASD.html.

T: (Sushi 1995)

Organization as author

R: Organization (year) Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Accessed date, URL

T: (Organization year)

R: Federal Bureau of Investigation (2017) Forging papers to sell fake art. Accessed April 13, 2017, https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art.

T (first citation): (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI] 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (FBI 2017)

No date given

R: Author AA or Organization (year accessed) Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Name of Website in Title Case. Accessed date, URL.

T: (Author year accessed)

R: Python M (2017) Finding a dead parrot on a silly walk. Ministry of Silly Walks. Accessed August 6, 2017, https://www.omgitsadeadparrot.com/feathers.

T: (Python 2017)

Janes example

R: Janes (year) Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Accessed date, URL.

T: (Janes year)

R: Janes (2017) Mali: Country overview. Accessed June 16, 2017, https://customer.janes.com/CountryIntelligence/Countries/Country_986.

T: (Janes 2017)

Wikipedia

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Wikipedia

R: Title of entry in sentence case (year accessed) Wikipedia. Accessed date, DOI or URL.

T: (Title of entry year accessed)

R: Psychology (2016) Wikipedia. Accessed October 10, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology.

T: (Psychology 2016)

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

Author AA (year) Title of working paper in sentence case. Working paper [number if available], Organization, Place of Publication, URL. Sushi UQ (2023) Three-handed Fibonacci model for optimizing surface-to-volume ratio of temaki in Hilbert space. Working paper, Donburi Institute of Internal Gastronomy, Pierre, SD, https://www.wallcrust.com/403t3-9j/340txf%oii%/gonzoponzu.html.

 


Essential Rules


Accessed Dates

Always include date accessed for webpages.

Author Names: Honorifics

Do not include honorifics (Dr., Col., Professor, etc.) when citing author names. Including these titles in the body of your document is acceptable.

Identifying Authors of Official Documents

For the National Security Strategy, cite the president as the author.

For other official documents, the author is the organization immediately responsible for creating the document. In the example below, the author is the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and the publisher is the Department of the Navy.

Identifying organizational authors

 

In the example above, the author is NOT an umbrella organization, signatory, or any of the following:

  • Chief of Naval Operations
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations
  • W. F. Moran
  • Department of Defense
  • Navy Pentagon
  • R. P. Burke
  • United States of America​

Do not include acronyms for organizations listed as authors in the List of References or footnotes:

  • YES: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.
  • NO: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO or OCNO).
  • NO: CNO or OCNO.

Bibliography vs. List of References

What is the difference between them?

  • A List of References includes all works cited in a text
  • A Bibliography lists all works cited and consulted

The NPS Thesis Processing Office prefers a List of References for the following: 

  • Thesis
  • Capstone project report
  • MBA report
  • Dissertation

For papers, check with your professors for their preference.

Capitalization: Title Case vs. Sentence case

Title Case Sentence case
Love among the Ruins: A Memoir of Life and Love in Hamburg, 1945 Love among the ruins: A memoir of life and love in Hamburg, 1945

Capitalize everything except:

  • conjunctions (and, but, or, etc.)
  • prepositions (to, of, on, among, between, etc.)
  • articles (a, an, the)

Capitalize only:

  • the first words in titles and subtitles
  • proper nouns

 

Note: Always format the information in your citations (titles, author names, etc.) according to the requirements of the citation style you are using, regardless of how it appears in the original source.

Country Names with Government Organizations

When naming government organizations, be consistent: for example, either Department of Defense or U.S. Department of Defense. If citing organizations from multiple countries, ensure that it is clear which organization is associated with which country—for example, Australian Department of Defence, South African Department of Defence, Sri Lanka Ministry of Defence, Singapore Ministry of Defence.

Equations

Every equation that is not field-specific common knowledge needs to be cited. You may weave the source into the narrative:

  • The next step was to apply the X method (Ochoa 2022), to describe ...
  • Ochoa (2022) summarizes the derivation as follows ...

Here is an example of citing properly before the equation. Note the period at the end. Equations must function grammatically as part of the text:

Boito et al. (2015) address the widely used metric, the cost per flying hours (CPFH). The formula for CPFH is

APA citing an equation

Adapted from Moreau P P (2022) A cost-effectiveness analysis of C-12 variant airborne ISR capabilities in the Marine Corps. Master's thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Department of Dragon Husbandry, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/69689.


And here is an example of how to cite an equation after it is presented:

Cost per Aircraft (PAI) was the next metric we looked at as an alternative. This metric, expressed as

APA citing an equation,

takes the total O&S costs and divides it by the total number of aircraft (Boito et al. 2015).

Adapted from Moreau P P (2022) A cost-effectiveness analysis of C-12 variant airborne ISR capabilities in the Marine Corps. Master's thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Department of Dragon Husbandry, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/69689.

Figures / Images / Graphs

A citation is required if you did not wholly create the figure—i.e., if you used someone else's image or data. A citation is not needed when all elements of the figure are your own creation.

See Figure 1 for placement of the title and the in-text citation.

  • Put a period and a space after the title.
  • If you use the figure exactly as it appears in the source, use
    “Source: ___.”
  • If you alter the original figure or use someone else's image or data to create the figure, use “Adapted from ___.”

Figures image box

Figure 1.    A Figure with a Citation in APA, Chicago Author-Date, or INFORMS Style. Source: Author (2017).

or

Figure 1.    A Figure with a Citation in APA, Chicago Author-Date, or INFORMS Style. Adapted from Author (2017).


For more details see the Thesis Template.

How Often to Cite?

  • Remember: one citation at the end of a string of sentences or a paragraph cannot “cover” the entire section.
     
  • Cite a source the first time it is used in each paragraph.
     
  • Every sentence thereafter in the paragraph that uses information from this same source must contain either a signal phrase or a citation clearly indicating where the information came from.
     
    • Note: always use a citation (even if you also use a signal phrase) every time you quote material.

In-text Citation Placement & Signal Phrases

Where in the sentence does my in-text citation go?

  • If you name your source(s) in a given sentence, a parenthetical citation containing only the year always follows immediately after the name(s) of the author(s). Example: In contrast to earlier work by Abbott and Costello (1999), Laurel and Hardy (2008) propose an altogether different model for optimizing hat density …
     
  • If you do not explicitly name your source(s) in a given sentence, a single parenthetical citation goes at the end of the sentence or clause it covers (Goffman 1974), inside the punctuation, like this (Melville 1851).
    • “If the sentence ends with a quotation, close the quote, then place the citation between the quotation marks and the punctuation, like this” (Woolf 1931, p. 22).
       
  • Do not insert spaces between a parenthetical citation and the punctuation that follows it.

In the paragraph below, the  parenthetical in-text citations are highlighted in yellow, and the signal phrases are in blue. Note that the second sentence is common knowledge, whereas the final sentence is clearly the opinion of the author.

Red and yellow are the best colors with which to decorate your restaurant because they induce feelings of hunger (Smith and Jones 2009). Consider popular fast-food chains, which often use red and yellow in their advertising and décor. According to Smith and Jones’ study (2009), restaurant customers felt more energized in red and yellow environments, which encouraged them to order more food. The same study indicated that patrons felt relaxed in blue and purple environments, which encouraged them to “spend more time considering the menu options and eat at a slower pace” (p. 452). Although blue décor can give your restaurant a more casual, laid-back feel (Kramer 1999)Smith and Jones believe it encourages patrons to linger at their tables without ordering additional food or beverages. Accordingly, it is difficult to identify a popular chain restaurant that decorates with calmer hues.

Missing Info

If any information is missing from a source (a journal with no volume number, for example), simply omit that information. For sources consulted in hardcopy, omit the URL and any additional verbiage that introduces it. Anything retrieved online, however, MUST have a link. The only exception is journals retrieved from a subscription database such as ProQuest. 

Multiple Authors, et al.

  • One or two authors:
    • In the reference list, include all of them
    • In the text, include all of them
  • Three to ten authors:
    • In the reference list, include all of them
    • In the text, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”)
  • Eleven or more authors:
    • In the reference list, include only the first seven, followed by et al.
    • In the text, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”)

Same Author, Multiple Works / Multiple Sources in One Citation

Examples given are for books; follow the appropriate style for the source type you are citing.

Source Generic Example Actual Example

Same author, same year, different sources

  • List sources in alphabetical order by title in the List of References (ignoring initial "a," "an," or "the") and append a lowercase letter to the year.
Source 1

R: Author AA (year + a) Title of Book 1 in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication).

T: (Author year + a)

R: Hawthorne M (2006a) The Cannibal’s Dilemma: An Unnatural History of Four Siblings (Penguin, New York).

T: (Hawthorne 2006a)

Source 2

R: Author AA (year+b) Title of Book 2 in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication).

T: (Author year + b)

R: Hawthorne M (2006b) Having People for Dinner: A Guide for the Home Cook (Penguin, New York).

T: (Hawthorne 2006b)

Combined

T (both sources): Author Last Name year + a, year + b)

T (both sources): (Hawthorne 2006a, 2006b)

Same author, different year, different sources

  • List sources in chronological order.
Source 1

R: Author AA (year) Title of Book 1 in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication).

T: (Author year)

R: Hawthorne M (2006) Having People for Dinner: A Guide for the Home Cook (Penguin, New York).

T: (Hawthorne 2006)

Source 2

R: Author AA (year) Title of Book 2 in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication).

T: (Author year)

R: Hawthorne P (2008) Regrets (Penguin, New York).

T: (Hawthorne 2008)

Combined

T (both sources): (Author year 1, year 2)

T (both sources): (Hawthorne 2006, 2008)

Different authors, different years

  • Place references in alphabetical order and separate them with a semicolon. Ensure all authors appear in the list of references.
Combined
T: (Author 1 year; Author 2 year)

T: (Hawthorne 2006b; Norton 1998; Stulberg 2014)

No Date Given

To cite an undated document, put the year you accessed the material in parentheses in both in-text citations and the list of references.

Online Sources: Links

When listing an online document (for example, a thesis, report, or journal article) in the references, if possible, provide a DOI. If the source does not have a DOI, link to the document itself (PDF, etc.) or to the landing page that directs the reader to the full text. 

  • Do not insert a hard or soft return within the URL string: doing so breaks the link.
  • A DOI or URL does not belong in an in-text citation. Ever.

Page Numbers

For direct quotes, add page numbers to the in-text citation only.

Example: (Haynes 2009, p. 70)


For book chapters, include page-number range in List of References/Bibliography.

Example: Cordesman AH, Mausner A, Kasten D (2009) Introduction. Python MM, Monty PP, eds. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces (Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC), 15–25.

Print vs. Online Sources

When citing a source retrieved online, use the "online" format even when you or someone else printed out the material. For example, if you print out a thesis or your advisor provides you with a printed thesis, it is still categorized as an online document.

Only cite as a print source when the material has been produced by a publisher in hard copy. For example, if you obtain a print journal or book from the library stacks, it is categorized as a printed source.

Secondary / Indirect Sources

An indirect source is a source that cites some other work that you discuss in your text.

Whenever possible, consult primary sources and your sources’ sources yourself. Upon investigation of the primary source, you may find you disagree with the indirect source author’s analysis or methods.


How to Incorporate Indirect Sources

The following passage incorporates a properly credited indirect source. The indirect source information is highlighted in yellow; the primary source information is highlighted in blue.

Walker (2008) describes Miguel Roig’s 1999 experiment, which correlates inadequate paraphrasing in student writing with poor reading comprehension. Citing Roig’s data, Walker explains that “students do in fact possess skills necessary for paraphrasing but … may be impeded from applying those skills when dealing with rigorous text” (p. 387).

Note: Include only the indirect source (the source you consulted) in your reference list.


For more information

See the TPO's "Citing Your Sources’ Sources" handout.

Tables

A citation is required if you did not wholly create the table—i.e., if you used someone else's data. A citation is not needed when all elements of the table are your own creation.

See Table 1 for placement of the title and the in-text citation.

  • Put a period and a space after the title.
  • If you use the table exactly as it appears in the source, use
    “Source: ___.”
  • If you alter the original table or if you use someone else's data to create the table, use “Adapted from ___.”

 

Table 1.    A Table with a Citation in APA, Chicago Author-Date, or INFORMS Style. Source: Author (2017).

or

Table 1.     A Table with a Citation in APA, Chicago Author-Date, or INFORMS Style. Adapted from Author (2017).

table


For more details see the Thesis Template.

Additional Resources