Citation Styles

Source Type Generic Example with Rules Actual Example

BOOK

Print Book

 

Book (print)

One author

R: Author AA (year) Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication).

T: (Author year)

R: Pollan M (2006) The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (Penguin, New York).

T: (Pollan 2006)

Book (print)

Two authors with edition number

R: Author AA, Author BB (year) Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, xx ed. (Publisher, Place of Publication).

T: (Author A and  Author B year)

R: Strindberg A, Wärn M (2011) Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance, 2nd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ).

T: (Strindberg and Wärn 2011)

Book (print)

Three authors

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication).

T: (Author A et al. year)

R: Cordesman AH, Mausner A, Kasten D (2009) Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces (Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC).

T: (Cordesman et al. 2009)

Book Chapter

 

Book Chapter (in edited book)

One author, one editor

R: Author AA (year) Title of chapter in sentence case. Editor AA, ed. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication), starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

T: (Author year)

R: Haynes P (2009) Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, US foreign policy. Goodname A, ed. Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management (Routledge, New York), 62–74.

T: (Haynes 2009)

Book Chapter (in edited book)

Three authors, two editors

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of chapter in sentence case. Editor AA, Editor BB, eds. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Publisher, Place of Publication), starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

T: (Author A et al. year)

 

R: Cordesman AH, Mausner A, Kasten D (2009) Introduction. Python MM, Monty PP, eds. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces (Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC), 15–25.

T: (Cordesman et al. 2009)

Electronic Book

  • When citing a direct quotation from an electronic book without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. The citation might include a chapter number, section heading, or paragraph number within the section.
 

Electronic Book

R: Author AA (year) Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Crabtree J, Chaplin A (2013) Bolivia: Processes of Change, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/​lib/​ebook-nps/​detail.action?docID=1183073.

T: (Crabtree and Chaplin 2013) 

CLASS NOTES / LECTURE / PRESENTATION / WORKSHOP

  • Class notes include lecture notes, slides, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.
     
  • If class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's/lecturer's name and "class notes."
     
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
 

Class Notes / Lecture

Unpublished

R: Author AA (year) Title of  class or lecture in sentence case. Class notes or Lecture, Name of Class in Title Case, Month and day of Lecture, Department, School, Location of Institution.

T: (Author year)

Class notes:

R: Houston A (2016) Why capitalization matters when visiting the House of Potato Chips. Class notes, Performance Management and Budgeting, University of Idaho, September 28, Fort Chip, ID.

T: (Houston 2016)


Lecture:

R: Norton ME (2004) Optimizing the rotational velocity of lizards through ceiling fan modulation. Lecture, Introduction to Veterinary Studies, May 2, Department of Dragon Husbandry, Charlatan State University, Monogahela, WV.

T: (Norton 2004)

Class Notes / Lecture

Published

R: Author AA (year) Title of lecture in sentence case. Class notes or Lecture, Name of Class in Title Case, Month and day of Lecture, Department, School, Location of Institution. DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Blanche C (2017) How to be the cutest cat in the world. Lecture, Meow Studies 402, August 21, Department of Applied Whiskers, Navel Pregraduate School, Monterey, CA. http://wallcrust.com/meows/cats.whiskers.

T: (Blanche 2017)

Presentation or Workshop

R: Author AA (year) Title of presentation in sentence case. Presentation or Workshop, Name of Event in Title Case, Month and day of Presentation, Venue, Location of Venue. DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Horse BB (2017) Horseshoes and hand grenades: On the joys of approximation. Presentation, Conference on Improbable Probabilities, Belmont Race Track, Elmont, NY. http:// horse.edu/horseshoesandgrenades/perfect_together.

T: (Horse 2017)

COMPUTER PROGRAM / SOFTWARE

  • Citation is required only if the software is not well known.
  Computer Program / Software

R: Rightsholder AA, Rightsholder BB, Rightsholder CC, Rightsholder DD (year) Title of obscure software in sentence case. Accessed date, DOI or URL.

T: (Rightsholder AA et al. year)

R: Borenstein M, Hedges L, Higgins J, Rothstein H (2005) Comprehensive meta-analysis, version 2. Accessed May 8, 2015, http://www.meta-analysis.com/​index.html.

T: (Borenstein et al. 2005)

CONFERENCE PAPER / PROCEEDINGS
  Conference Proceedings (online)

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of article in sentence case. Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics (Venue, Location of Conference), DOI or URL.

T: (Author A et al. year)

R: Herculano-Houzel S, Collins CE, Wong P (2008) The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (Pizza Hut, Paducah, KY), https://doi.org/10.1073/​pnas.0805417105.

T: (Herculano-Houzel et al. 2008)

Conference Proceedings (print)

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of article in sentence case. Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics (Venue, Location of Conference), starting page of articleending page of article.

T: (Author A et al. year)

R: Herculano-Houzel S, Collins CE, Wong P (2008) The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (Pizza Hut, Paducah, KY), 112233112255.

T: (Herculano-Houzel et al. 2008)

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (year) Title of article in sentence case. Title of Conference in Title Case, Location of Conference.

T: (Author A et al. year)

R: Teplin LA, McClelland GM, Abram KM (2005) Early violent death in delinquent youth: A prospective longitudinal study. Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA.

T: (Teplin et al. 2005) 

DATA SET / DATABASE
 

Data Set / Database

Published

R: Author AA or Organization (year) Title of study in sentence case. Accessed date, DOI or URL.

T: (Author or Organization year)

R: Suro R (2004) Changing channels and crisscrossing culture: A survey of Latinos on news media. Accessed April 30, 2012, http://www.pewhispanic.org/​2004/​04/​19/​changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/.

T: (Suro 2004)

Data Set

Unpublished

R: Author AA (year) Data provided to the author via personal communication, Month and day.

T: (Author year)

R: Blanche C (2006) Data provided to the author via email, August 30.

T: (Blanche 2006) 

DICTIONARY / ENCYCLOPEDIA
  Dictionary / Encyclopedia

R: Title of entry in sentence case (year accessed) Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Accessed date, DOI or URL.

T: (Title of entry year accessed)

R: Metamorphosis (2011) Merriam-Webster. Accessed March 4, 2011, https://www.merriam-webster.com/​dictionary/​metamorphosis.

T: (Metamorphosis 2011)

DIRECTIVE / INSTRUCTION
  Directive / Instruction

R: Department (year) Title of directive in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Place of Publication. DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Department of Defense (2005) Information assurance training, certification, workforce management. DoD Directive 8570.01-M. Washington, DC, http://www.esd.whs.mil/​Portals/​54/​Documents/​DD/​issuances/​dodm/​857001m.pdf.

T (first citation): (Department of Defense [DoD] 2005)

T (subsequent citations): (DoD 2005)

DOCTRINE
 

Joint Doctrine

R: Department (year) Title of joint doctrine in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Place of Publication. DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Joint Chiefs of Staff (2017) Countering air and missile threats. JP 3-01, Washington, DC. http://www.dtic.mil/​doctrine/​new_pubs/jp3_01_20172104.pdf.

T (first citation): (Joint Chiefs of Staff [JCS] 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (JCS 2017)

FACT SHEET
  Fact Sheet

R: Department (year) Title of fact sheet in sentence case, DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department year)

R: Department of Labor (2008) The construction industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), http://www.dol.gov/​whd/​regs/​compliance/​whdfs1.htm.

T (first citation): (Department of Labor [DOL] 2008)

T (subsequent citations): (DOL 2008)

FIELD MANUAL

  • Use this format for military regulations.
  Field Manual

R: Department (year) Title of Field Manual in Title Case and Italics. Type of document and identification number, Place of Publication, DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Department of the Army (1994) Sniper Training. FM 23-10, Washington, DC, http://www.bits.de/​NRANEU/​others/​amd-us-archive/​fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf.

T (first citation): (Department of the Army [DA] 1994)

T (subsequent citations): (DA 1994)

HANDBOOK
  Handbook (online)

R: Organization (year) Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number (Place of Publication), DOI or URL.

T: (Organization year)

R: Western Spud (1972) Transmission Systems for Potatoes, 168th ed. (Kinston-Slalom, ID). http://www.spud.org/​potato/​transmission/​grease.html.

T: (Western Spud 1972)

Handbook (print)

R: Organization (year) Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number (Place of Publication).

T: (Organization year)

R: Western Electric (1985) Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed. (Winston-Salem, NC).

T: (Western Electric 1985)

JOURNAL ARTICLE

 

Journal Article (online)

DOI preferred

R: Author AA, Author BB (year) Title of article in sentence case. Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume(issue number), DOI or URL.

T: (Author A and Author B year)

R: Sanico G, Kakinaka M (2008) Terrorism and deterrence policy with transnational support. Defence & Peace Economics 19(2), https://doi.org/10.1080/​10242690701505419.

T: (Sanico and Kakinaka 2008)

 

Journal Article (print)

R: Author AA (year) Title of article in sentence case. Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume(issue number):starting page of article–ending page of article.

T: (Author year)

R: Griffin G (2009) Managing peacekeeping communications. Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3(4):317–327.

T: (Griffin 2009)

MAGAZINE / NEWSPAPER ARTICLE
 

Magazine / Newspaper Article (online)

No author given

R: Title of Magazine or Newspaper in Title Case and Italics (year) Title of article in sentence case (Month and day), DOI or URL

T: (Title of Magazine or Newspaper year)

R: The Economist (2014) So long easy money: Foreign drug firms face a severe profit squeeze (June 12), https://www.economist.com/​news/​business/​21604178-foreign-drug-firms-face-severe-profit-squeeze-so-long-easy-money.

T: (The Economist 2014)

Magazine Article (print)

Author given

R: Author AA (year) Title of article in sentence case. Title of Magazine or Newspaper in Title Case and Italics (Month and day).

T: (Author year)

R: Beforebad S (2014) Cold spaghetti: To eat or not to eat? Pasta Dynamics (January 1).

T: (Beforebad 2014)

PATENT

  • If more than one date, use the year of issuance.
  Patent

R: Rightsholder AA (year patent issued) Patent Number in Title Case. Patent Office, Location of Office, DOI or URL.

T: (Patent number year)

R: Bell AG (1876) U.S. Patent No. 174,465. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, DC, https://www.google.com/​patents/​US174465.

T: (U.S. Patent No. 174,465 1846)

PERSONAL COMMUNICATION / INTERVIEW / EMAIL

  • Personal communication is material obtained directly from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.
     
  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email (presentation slides, data sets, internal documents), documents posted to a listserv or internal server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access.
  Personal Communication / Email

R: Correspondent AA (year) Type of information provided to the author via personal communication, Month and day.

T: (Correspondent year)

R: Wunkerbunk TT (2002) Moss-growing statistics provided to the author via personal communication, June 11.

T: (Wunkerbunk 2002)

Interview

R: Interviewee AA (year) Interview by Interviewer. Medium, Month and day. Name of Institution.

T: (Interviewee year)

R: Monster C (1985) Interview by Ernest J. Keebler. Betamax, November 20. Keebler Company.

T: (Monster 1985) 

REPORT / TECHNICAL REPORT / WORKING PAPER

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it is not freestanding, then format it as a webpage.
                                                           Report

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC or Organization (year) Title of report in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Organization, Place of Publication, Country if not in U.S., DOI or URL.

T: (Author et al. or Organization year)

R: Dixon L, Clancy N, Miller B (2017) The cost and affordability of flood insurance in New York City. Report RR-1776-NYCEDC, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/
pubs/research_reports/RR1700/RR1776/RAND_RR1776.pdf.

T: (Dixon et al. 2017)
  Technical Report

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC or Organization (year) Title of report in sentence case. Type of document and identification number, Organization, Place of Publication, Country if not in U.S., DOI or URL.

T: (Author et al. or Organization year)

R: Wonka W, Loompa O, Bucket C (1972) Stochastic error-correction in a hyperbaric ethereal pulley system for vitreous personal vertical displacement apparatuses (PVDA). Technical report VK-1916, GLOOP Corporation, Great Missenden, UK. https://www.beanfeast.org/badegg/wahwah.pdf.

T: (Wonka et al. 1972)
  Working Paper

R: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC or Organization (year) Title of report in sentence case. Type of document and identification numberOrganization, Place of Publication, Country if not in U.S., DOI or URL.

T: (Author or Organization year)

R: Recline R (1994) Effects of chair inflation on lumbar pillow borrowing rates. Working paper 124806437052-j, National Bureau of Ergonomic Research, Kickapoo, KS. https://www.ergonomist.com/countyseat.html.

T: (Recline 1994)

SECONDARY SOURCE

  Secondary Source

R: List the secondary source that quotes or discusses the material you're referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: Signal phrase (citation of secondary source, using the appropriate in-text format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: See example.

R: Nicholson, IAM (2003) Inventing Personality: Gordon Allport and the Science of Selfhood (American Psychological Association, Washington, DC).

In your text: We can see this principle at work in the following passage from Allport’s diary, as cited in Nicholson (2003): " . . . "

THESIS / DISSERTATION

 

 

Thesis / Dissertation

From an institutional archive such as the NPS Archive: Calhoun

R: Author AA (year) Title of thesis/?dissertation in sentence case. Type of document, Department Name, Institution, Location of Institution (if not included in institution name). DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Yoshi H (1988) Effects of pizza consumption on katana-wielding dexterity in terrapinoids. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Reptile Bellicosity, Eastman & Laird University, New York. http://hdl.handle.net/6576565753/splinter.html.

T: (Yoshi 1988)

Thesis / Dissertation

From a commercial database

R: Author AA (year) Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case. Type of document, Institution, Location of Institution (if not included in institution name). Database (document identification number).

T: (Author year)

R: Nekeip R (2008) Pescatarians and daisies: A match made in sushi heaven. Master’s thesis, Garden of Sushi School of Sushi, Maui, HI. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database (AAT 3300426).

T: (Nekeip 2008)

UNPUBLISHED / INFORMALLY PUBLISHED WORKS
  Unpublished Work Accepted for Publication

R: Author AA (year) Title of document in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics. Forthcoming. DOI or URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Horse BB (1996) Back in the saddle 2: Back in the saddle. Gaucho Marx: A Journal of Cowpoke Consciousness. Forthcoming. http://blahblahblahhorse.com/bits2bits.

T: (Horse 1996)

Unpublished Work (print)

R: Author AA (year) Title of document in sentence case. Unpublished type of document, Organization, Location of Organization.

T: (Author year)

R: Horse BB (1995) Back in the saddle. Unpublished memoir, Leaping H Ranch, Peoria, IL.

T: (Horse 1995)

WEBSITE / WEBPAGE
  • Title of website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, The New York Times, not Reuters or CNN.
  • Always include an accessed date for web pages.

 

 

 

 

Webpage

Author and publication date given

Author AA (year) Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Name of Website in Title Case. Accessed date, URL.

T: (Author year)

R: Sushi UQ (1995) Absorption of cats in sushi. Sushi Lab. Accessed November 9, 1999, http://www.wallcrust.com/?hgtehrwOIASD.html.

T: (Sushi 1995)

Webpage

No author given

Organization as author

R: Organization (year) Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Accessed date, URL

T: (Organization year)

R: Federal Bureau of Investigation (2017) Forging papers to sell fake art. Accessed April 13, 2017, https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art.

T (first citation): (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI] 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (FBI 2017)

Webpage

No date given

R: Author AA or Organization (year accessed) Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Name of Website in Title Case. Accessed date, URL.

T: (Author year accessed)

R: Python M (2017) Finding a dead parrot on a silly walk. Ministry of Silly Walks. Accessed August 6, 2017, https://www.omgitsadeadparrot.com/feathers.

T: (Python 2017)

Webpage

Jane's example

R: Jane’s by IHS Markit (year) Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Accessed date, URL.

T: (Jane’s by IHS Markit year)

R: Jane’s by IHS Markit (2017) Executive summary: Mali. Accessed June 16, 2017, https://janes.ihs.com.libproxy.nps.edu/
NorthAfrica/Display/1303746.

T: (Jane’s by IHS Markit 2017)

WIKIPEDIA

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
  Wikipedia

R: Title of entry in sentence case (year accessed) Wikipedia. Accessed date, DOI or URL.

T: (Title of entry year accessed)

R: Psychology (2016) Wikipedia. Accessed October 10, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology.

T: (Psychology 2016)