Citation Guide

IEEE: Citation Examples + Rules

IEEE (2023 ver.): Citation Examples & Essential Rules

      For NPS theses, papers, and publications: to cite properly, follow the citation examples and apply the essential rules.

The official IEEE style guide contains some inconsistencies and discrepancies. The Thesis Processing Office will continue to accept the BibTeX IEEE format embedded in the NPS LaTeX thesis template.

Citation Examples

Essential Rules


Citation Examples


arXiv

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

arXiv

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of work in sentence case," arXiv, year. Available: DOI or URL [1] K. Barterra, "Great grapes throughout history," arXiv, 2023. Available: https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.24681012

Blog

  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the blog name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Blog

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of blog post in sentence case,” Title of Blog in Title Case, blog, full date of publication or modification. Available: URL

[1] J. Locke, “Effect of weird tails in 35mm Innsmouth sprocket periodicity distributions on re-tiered bicyclical phase shifting using Cthulhean logic,” The Thing’s Credible!, blog, Dec. 22, 2020. Available: https://wrywhisker.pulpfriction.net/wallcrust/linear-colinear-felinear.html

Book

Chapter in Edited Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author, two editors

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, B. B. Editor and C. C. Editor, Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

[1] P. Haynes, “Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, and U.S. foreign policy,” in Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, D. Moran and J. A. Russell, Eds. New York, NY, USA: Routledge, 2009, pp. 62–74.

Three authors, one editor

From the introduction, forward, preface, etc.

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, and C. C. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, D. D. Editor, Ed. Place of Publication: Publisher, year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

[2] A. H. Cordesman, A. Mausner, and D. Kasten, Introduction, in Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, J. Smith, Ed. Washington, DC, USA: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009, pp. 4–5.

  • No quotation marks needed for book sections with generic names, such as Introduction, Foreword, Preface, etc.
Electronic Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or URL, from a book provider or library database

DOI preferred

[#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. Available: DOI or URL or Book Provider or Name of Database in Title Case

DOI or URL  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[1] M. E. Bonds, Absolute Music: The History of an Idea. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, 2014. Available:  https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199343638.003.0004


From a book provider  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[2] A. Krishnan, War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2008. Available: Kindle


From a library database  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[3] J. Crabtree and A. Chaplin, Bolivia: Processes of Change. London, England: Zed Books, 2013. Available: ProQuest

Print Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

[1] M. Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York, NY, USA: Penguin, 2006.

Two authors with edition number

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

[2] A. Strindberg and M. Wärn, Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance, 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.

Three authors

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, and C. C. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

[3] A. H. Cordesman, A. Mausner, and D. Kasten, Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC, USA: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009.

  • Always include abbreviated state and country of publication.
  • For works with a translator, follow the guidance for edited books but substitute "Trans." for "Ed."
Series or Volume
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

In a series

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Editor and B. B. Editor, Eds., Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Title of Series volume number). Place of Publication: Publisher, year. [1] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds.,
Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Applied Mathematics Series 55). Washington, DC, USA: NBS, 1964.

Volume

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, B. B. Editor and C. C. Editor, Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. [3] R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA, USA: Academic Press, 1977, pp. 47–160.

Class Notes / Lecture / Presentation / Workshop

  • Class notes include lecture notes, slides, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.
  • If class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's/lecturer's name and "class notes."
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Class Notes / Lecture

Published

[#] “Title of lecture in sentence case,” class notes for Title of Class in Title Case, Abbreviated Name of Department, Institution, Location of Institution, academic quarter year. Available: URL

Class Notes  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[1] “Python NumPy tutorial,” class notes for CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition, Dept. of Comp. Sci., Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA, spring 2017. Available: https://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/


Lecture  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[2] B. B. Horse, “Horseshoes and hand grenades: On the joys of approximation,” lecture at Barnes Event Center, Derby, KY, USA, 2017. Available: https://horse.com/

Class Notes / Lecture

Unpublished

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] “Title of lecture in sentence case,” class notes for Title of Class in Title Case, Abbreviated Name of Department, Institution, Location of Institution, academic quarter year.

[3] “Formatting a thesis,” class notes for Adventures in Academic Writing, Dept. of Dragon Husbandry, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA, spring 2017.

Presentation or Workshop

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of speech/presentation/brief in sentence case,” presented at Abbreviated Venue, Location of Presentation, Month and day of Presentation (if available), year. Available: DOI or URL

[4] L. Randall, “Unification in warped extra dimensions and bulk holography,” presented at Cavendish Lab., Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, Jul. 19, 2002. Available: https://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/events/strings02/avt/randall/

Computer Program / Software

  • Citation is required only if the software is not well known.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Computer Program / Software

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Company or A. A. Creator, Place of Publication. Year published. Title of Software in Title Case and Italics, ver. xx. Available: URL

[1] M. Borenstein, L. Hedges, J. Higgins, and H. Rothstein, Englewood, NJ, USA. 2005. Comprehensive
Meta-Analysis
, ver. 2. Available: https://www.meta-analysis.com/

Conference Paper / Proceedings

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Conference Proceedings

(online)

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, C. C. Author, D. D. Author, and E. E. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” in Abbreviated Name of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, (location is optional), year published (if not present in the conference title). Available: 

DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case


How to cite multiple authors

[2] J. W. Morentz, C. Doyle, L. Skelly, and N. Adam, “Unified Incident Command and Decision Support (UICDS) a Department of Homeland Security initiative in information sharing,” in 2009 IEEE Conf. on Tech. for Homeland Sec. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5168032

Conference Proceedings

(print)

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, and C. C. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Abbreviated Name of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, (location is optional), year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. [3] I. Katz, K. Gabayan, and H. Aghajan, “A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras,” in Adv. Conc. for Intell. Vis. Sys.: 9th Intl. Conf., 2007, pp. 133–203.

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of paper in sentence case,” presented at Abbreviated Name of Conference in title Case and Italics, Location of Conference, Month and day, year, paper number. [1] K. Kirby and J. Stratton, “Van Allen probes: Successful launch campaign and early operations exploring earth’s radiation belts,” presented at the IEEE Aerosp. Conf., Big Sky, MT, USA, Mar. 2, 2013, Paper 24 DKL 138.

Data Set / Database

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Data Set

Published

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, "Title of Data Set in Title Case," Organization, year published. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case [1] R. Suro, "Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture: A Survey of Latinos on News Media," Pew Research Center, 2004. Available: https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/

Database

Published

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] "Name of Database." Object name xxxxxxx. Accessed: abbreviated date. Available: DOI or URL [2] "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database." Object name IRAS F00400+4059. Accessed: Dec. 12, 2022. Available: https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] “Title of entry in sentence case,” Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Accessed: abbreviated date. Available: URL

[1] “Metamorphosis,” Merriam-Webster. Accessed: Jul. 6, 2017. Available: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis

Fact Sheet

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Fact Sheet

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Department or Company, Title of fact sheet in sentence case and italics, document identification number. Year. Available: URL

[1] Texas Instruments, LM555 timer, SNAS548D. 2015. Available: https://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/lm555.pdf

Government / Military Document

Directive
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Directive

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Name of Directive in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Name of Issuing Organization. Place of Publication, year. Available: URL

[1] The Defense Acquisition System, DOD Directive 5000.1, Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L). Washington, DC, USA, 2020. Available: https://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/issuances/dodd/500001p.pdf?ver=2020-09-09-160307-310

Doctrine
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Doctrine

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Department. Place of Publication, year. Available: URL

[1] Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, JP-1, Joint Chiefs of Staff. Washington, DC, USA, 2017. Available: https://fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp1.pdf

Field Manual / Military Regulation
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Field Manual / Military Regulation

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Title of Manual in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Department. Place of Publication, year. Available: URL

[1] Sniper Training, FM 23-10, Department of the Army. Washington, DC, USA, 1995. Available: https://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf

Government Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

 

Government Report

CRS Report  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of CRS report in sentence case,” Institution, Place of Publication, Report Number, year. Available: URL

CRS Report

[1] M. C. Erwin, "Intelligence issues for Congress," Congressional Research Service, Washington DC, USA, CRS Report No. RL33539, 2013. Available: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf

GAO Report  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of GAO report in sentence case,” Institution, Place of Publication, Report Number, year.

GAO Report

[2] C. A. Berrick, "Homeland security: DHS’s progress and challenges in key areas of maritime, aviation, and cybersecurity," Government Accountability Office, Washington, DC, USA, GAO Report No. GAO-10-106, 2009.

Strategy Document / Other Government Report  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of report in sentence case,” Place of Publication, year. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

 

Note: In the actual examples given here, the names of the strategies are treated as proper nouns and therefore capitalized.

Strategy Document / Other Government Report

[3] J. Biden, "National Security Strategy of the United States of America," Washington, DC, USA, 2022. Available: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/Biden-Harris-Administrations-National-Security-Strategy-10.2022.pdf


[4] Joint Chiefs of Staff, "National Military Strategy of the United States of America," Washington, DC, USA, 2015. Available: https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Publications/National_Military_Strategy_2015.pdf


[5] Department of Defense, "Summary of the 2018 National Defense Strategy of the United States of America," Washington, DC, USA, 2018. Available: https://dod.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/2018-National-Defense-Strategy-Summary.pdf

Instruction
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Instruction

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Name of Instruction in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Name of Issuing Organization. Place of Publication, year.

[2] Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, DOD Instruction 1000.01, Department of Defense. Washington, DC, USA, 2012.

Memorandum
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Memorandum

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, "Title of memorandum in sentence case,"  official memorandum, Name of Issuing Organization, Place of Publication, year. Available: URL

[1] T. M. Takai, "Adoption of the national information exchange model within the Department of Defense," official memorandum, Department of Defense, Washington, DC, USA, 2013. Available: https://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20the%20DoD.pdf

Handbook / Manual

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

Author given

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. Author, Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Name of Company. Place of Publication, year. Available: DOI or URL

[1] P. Potatohead, Transmission Systems for Potatoes, 168th ed., Western Spud Co. Kinston-Slalom, ID, USA, 1972. Available: https://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html

Print

Organization as author

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Name of Company. Place of Publication, year.

[2] Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed., Western Electric Co. Winston-Salem, NC, USA, 1985.

Journal Article

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

DOI preferred

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and year published. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case


How to cite multiple authors

DOI or URL  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[1] G. Sanico and M. Kakinaka, “Terrorism and deterrence policy with transnational support,” Def. Peace Econ., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 153–167, Apr. 2008. Available: https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419


From a library database  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[2] W. W. Newmann, “Reorganizing for national security and homeland security,” Pub. Admin. Rev., vol. 62, no. S1, pp. 126–137, Sep. 2002, Available: ProQuest

Print

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and day published, year. [4] W. Q. Wang and H. Shao, “High altitude platform multichannel SAR for wide-area and staring imaging,” IEEE Aerosp. and Electron. Syst. Mag., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 12–17, May 2014.

Legal

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Court Case Decisions

Lower Court

[#] Party Names in Title Case, Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter, first page of decision] (Court Abbreviation and year). Available: URL

[22] U.S. v. Councilman, 245 F. Supp. 2d 319 (D. Mass. 2003).

Court Case Decisions

Supreme Court

[#] Party Names in Title Case, Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter, first page of decision] (year). Available: URL

[7] United States v. Ninety-Five Barrels Alleged Apple Cider Vinegar, 265 U.S. 438 (1924).

Legislative Document

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Legislative body, xxx Congress, Session. (year, Abbreviated Month and day). Number of Bill or Resolution, Title of Document in Title Case and Italics. Available: URL

[1] U.S. House, 102nd Congress, 1st Session. (1991, Jan. 11). H. Con. Res. 1, To Express the Sense of the Congress That Congress Must Approve Any Offensive Military Action against Iraq. Available: https://www.congress.gov/bill/102nd-congress/house-concurrent-resolution/1?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22h.+con.+res.+1%
22%5D%7D&s=1&r=1

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Code

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Title of Act in Title Case, title number U.S.C. § section number. Year published.  [2] Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101. 1991.

Public Law 

Published in the U.S. Statutes at Large

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Title of Act in Title Case, Pub. L. No. xxx, volume Source page number. Year published. Available: URL

[3] Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–336, 104 Stat. 327. 1990. Available: https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/STATUTE-104/STATUTE-104-Pg327

Map

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Google Map

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Google, “Title of map in sentence case.” Accessed: abbreviated date. Available: URL

[1] Google, “Monterey Bay.” Accessed: Jul. 6, 2017. Available:
https://www.google.com/maps/
place/Monterey+Bay/@36.7896106,-122.0843052,11z/data=
!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311

Multimedia

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Video

News, YouTube, or
any kind of streaming video

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Video Owner/Creator, Location [if available, include country]. Title of Video in Title Case and Italics, (Release date). Accessed: Full Date. Available: URL

[1] CNN. US Military Sends Warships, Aircraft to Texas, (August 31, 2017). Accessed: Jan. 19, 2022. [Video]. Available: https://www.cnn.com/2017/08/30/politics/texas-harvey-flooding-military-response/

Newspaper Article

  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the newspaper name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Month and day, year. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

[1] L. Linguine, “Animal fat shampoos for achieving angel hair,” Knife and Spork Semi-Weekly, Jul. 15, 2016. Available: http://www.chickenyodeling.com/dfjgp98y4t34_pherg899h.html/

Print

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Month and day, year.

[2] J. Stulberg, “The art of creating crossword puzzles,” The New York Times, Jul. 15, 2016.

Patent

  • If a patent has more than one date, use the year of issuance.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Patent

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Rightsholder, “Title of patent in sentence case,” U.S. Patent xxxxxxx, Abbreviated Month and day of issuance, year of issuance. Available: URL

[1] A. G. Bell, “Improvement in telegraphy,” U.S. Patent 174465, Mar. 7, 1876. Available: https://www.google.com/patents/US174465

Personal Communication

  • Personal communication is material obtained directly from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.
  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include
    phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email Including attachments, internal documents, documents posted to a listserv or internal server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access.
  • If a personal name is not given, include an occupation or position instead. Example: [3] Lieutenant commander, USN, personal communication, Apr. 11, 2022.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Email, Interview, Private Communication, etc.

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Interlocutor, private communication or interview or email, Abbreviated Month of communication year.

[1] J. Jojo, email, Sep. 2009.

[2] L. Chukwuemeka, interview, Sep. 2009.

[3] R. Ajanlekoko, personal communication, Sep. 2009.

Report

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it is not freestanding, then format it as a webpage.
Research Report / Think Tank Report / White Paper
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Research Report / Think Tank Report / White Paper

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of report in sentence case,” Abbreviated Company, Place of Publication, Report Number, year. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

In your text: Use et al. when three or more names are given.


How to cite multiple authors

[1] L. Dixon et al., “The cost and affordability of flood insurance in New York City,” RAND Corp., Santa Monica, CA, USA, RR-1776-NYCEDC, 2017. Available: https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1776.html

 

In your text: Dixon et al. [1] extended the work . . .

Technical Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Technical Report

Author given

(online)

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of technical report in sentence case,” Abbrev. Name of Company, Place of Publication, Rep. xxxxxxx, year. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case


How to cite multiple authors

[1] S. V. Effendi and X. Vilhjálmsson, “The absorption rate of potatoes in salmonella,” Dept. Vet. Stud., Madison, WI, USA, Rep. 17-59, 2009. Available: https://vetstudies.edu/donteatthosefries.html

Technical Report

Author given

(print)

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of technical report in sentence case,” Abbrev. name of company, Place of Publication, Rep. xxxxxxx, year. [2] K. A. Abdulatipov and F. Ramazonov, “The absorption rate of E. coli in cats,” Dept. Vet. Stud., Madison, WI, USA, Rep. 17-59, 2012.

Technical Report

Organization as author

(online)

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Organization Name, “Title of technical report in sentence case,” Place of Publication, Rep. xxxxxxx, year. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

[3] National Toxicology Program, “Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (CASRN 15625-89-5) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice (Topical Application Studies),” Washington, DC, USA, Rep. TR-576, 2012. Available: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm/reports/longterm/tr500580
?/listedreports/tr576/index.html

Secondary / Indirect Source

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Secondary / Indirect Source

[#] List the indirect source that quotes or discusses the material you are referring to (cite using the appropriate format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: See example.

[1] I. A. M. Nicholson, Inventing Personality: Gordon Allport and the Science of Selfhood. Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association, 2003.

In your text: We can see this principle at work in the following passage from Allport’s diary, quoted in [1].

Standard

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Standard

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Title of Standard in Title Case and Italics, Standard Number. Date. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case [1] Letter Symbols for Quantities, ANSI Standard Y10.5. 1968. Available: https://standards.globalspec.com/std/1713423/asme-ansi-y10-5

Thesis / Dissertation

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Dissertation

(print)

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case,” M.S. thesis or Ph.D. dissertation, Abbreviated Department, Abbreviated Institution, Location of Institution, year published.  [1] J. Rivera, “Software system architecture modeling methodology for naval gun weapon systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Comp. Sci., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, USA, 2010.

Thesis

From an institutional archive such as the NPS Archive: Calhoun

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case,” M.S. thesis or Ph.D. dissertation, Abbreviated Department, Abbreviated Institution, Location of Institution, year published. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

[2] T. D. Moon, “Rising dragon: Infrastructure development and Chinese influence in Vietnam,” M.S. thesis, Dept. of Natl. Sec. Aff., NPS, Monterey, CA, USA, 2009. Available: https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/4694

Unpublished / Forthcoming Work

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Forthcoming / Work to Be Published [#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Title of Publication in Title Case and Italics, to be published. [1] R. Crisco, “Benefits of lard from a lapsed vegetarian,” Bacon and Arugula Times, to be published.

Unpublished Work

Submitted for publication

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,”  submitted for publication.

[1] R. Briscoe, “Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception,” submitted for publication.

Website / Webpage

  • The title of a website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, New York Times, not Reuters, Bloomberg, CNN, etc. These news organizations only have an online presence, whereas The New York Times has both an online and print counterpart.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the organization name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author and date given

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” Name of Website in Title Case, full date of publication or modification. Available: URL

[1] R. Roth, “75 years ago, the Doolittle Raid changed history,” CNN, April 18, 2017. Available: https://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html

Organization as author

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Name of Website in Title Case, “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” full date of publication or modification. Available: URL [3] Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Forging papers to sell fake art,” April 6, 2017. Available: https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art

Organization as author, no date given

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Name of Website in Title Case, “Title, section, or page name in sentence case.” Accessed: abbreviated date. Available: URL [2] Department of Defense, “About the Department of Defense (DOD).” Accessed: Apr. 18, 2017. Available: https://www.defense.gov/About/

Janes example

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” Janes, Full date of publication or modification. Available: URL

[4] “Mali: Country overview,” Janes, May 31, 2017. Available: https://customer.janes.com/CountryIntelligence/Countries/Country_986

Wikipedia

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Wikipedia

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] “Title of entry in sentence case,” Wikipedia in Italics. Accessed: Abbreviated Date. Available: URL

[1] “Psychology,” Wikipedia. Accessed: May 17, 2011. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets: [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of working paper in sentence case,” working paper, Abbreviated Institution or Company, Place of Publication, year. Available: URL [1] U. Q. Sushi, "Three-handed Fibonacci model for optimizing surface-to-volume ratio of temaki in Hilbert space," working paper, Donburi Inst. of Int. Gastron., Pierre, SD, USA, 2021. Available: https://www.wallcrust.com/403t3-9j/340txf%oii%/gonzoponzu.html

 


Essential Rules


Accessed Dates

Only include date accessed if the source material has no date.

Author Names: Honorifics

Do not include honorifics (Dr., Col., Professor, etc.) when citing author names. Including these titles in the body of your document is acceptable.

Identifying Authors of Official Documents

For the National Security Strategy, cite the president as the author.

For other official documents, the author is the organization immediately responsible for creating the document. In the example below, the author is the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and the publisher is the Department of the Navy.

Identifying organizational authors

 

In the example above, the author is NOT an umbrella organization, signatory, or any of the following:

  • Chief of Naval Operations
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations
  • W. F. Moran
  • Department of Defense
  • Navy Pentagon
  • R. P. Burke
  • United States of America​

Do not include acronyms for organizations listed as authors in the List of References or footnotes:

  • YES: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.
  • NO: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO or OCNO).
  • NO: CNO or OCNO.

Bibliography vs. List of References

What is the difference between them?

  • A List of References includes all works cited in a text
  • A Bibliography lists all works cited and consulted

The NPS Thesis Processing Office prefers a List of References for the following: 

  • Thesis
  • Capstone project report
  • MBA report
  • Dissertation

For papers, check with your professors for their preference.

Capitalization: Title Case vs. Sentence case

Title Case Sentence case
Love among the Ruins: A Memoir of Life and Love in Hamburg, 1945 Love among the ruins: A memoir of life and love in Hamburg, 1945

Capitalize everything except:

  • conjunctions (and, but, or, etc.)
  • prepositions (to, of, on, among, between, etc.)
  • articles (a, an, the)

Capitalize only:

  • the first words in titles and subtitles
  • proper nouns

 

Note: Always format the information in your citations (titles, author names, etc.) according to the requirements of the citation style you are using, regardless of how it appears in the original source.

Country Names with Government Organizations

When naming government organizations, be consistent: for example, either Department of Defense or U.S. Department of Defense. If citing organizations from multiple countries, ensure that it is clear which organization is associated with which country—for example, Australian Department of Defence, South African Department of Defence, Sri Lanka Ministry of Defence, Singapore Ministry of Defence.

Equations

Every equation that is not field-specific common knowledge needs to be cited. You may weave the source into the narrative:

  • The author applied the X method [4] to describe ...
  • The derivation that follows is summarized from [4].

Here is an example of citing properly before the equation. Note the period after the equation; the equation must function grammatically as part of the text:


And here is an example of how to cite an equation after it is presented:

 

Figures / Images / Graphs

A citation is required if you did not wholly create the figure—i.e., if you used someone else's image or data. A citation is not needed when all elements of the figure are your own creation.

See Figure 1 for placement of the title and the bracketed citation.

  • Put a period and a space after the title.
  • If you use the figure exactly as it appears in the source, use
    “Source: ___.”
  • If you alter the original figure or use someone else's image or data to create the figure, use “Adapted from ___.”

Figures image box

Figure 1.    A Figure with a Citation in IEEE Style. Source: [7].

or

Figure 1.    A Figure with a Citation in IEEE Style. Adapted from [7].


For more details, see the Thesis Template.

How Often to Cite?

  • Remember: one citation at the end of a string of sentences or a paragraph cannot “cover” the entire section.
     
  • Cite a source the first time it is used in each paragraph.
     
  • Every sentence thereafter in the paragraph that uses information from this same source must contain either a signal phrase or a citation clearly indicating where the information came from.
     
    • Note: always use a citation (even if you also use a signal phrase) every time you quote material.

In-text Citation Placement & Signal Phrases

Citation Order
 

  • IEEE strongly prefers that bracketed in-text citations appear sequentially, beginning with [1], within the body of the text; it does not matter in what order they appear in the List of Tables and the List of Figures.

 

Where in the sentence does my bracketed citation go?
 

  • If you name your source(s) in a given sentence, a bracketed citation follows immediately after mentioning the source. Example: Rejecting Abbott and Costello’s method [1], Laurel and Hardy [2] propose an altogether different model for optimizing hat density.
     
  • Bracketed citations can also be treated as source names themselves. Example: In contrast to [1], [2] proposes an altogether different model.
     
    • Note: Do not, however, begin a sentence with a bracketed citation.
       
  • Otherwise, bracketed citations are placed at the end of the phrase [3] or sentence they cover [4], inside the punctuation, like this [5].
     
    • If the sentence ends with a quotation, "close the quote, then place the citation between the quotation marks and the punctuation, like this” [6].
       
  • Do not insert spaces between a bracketed citation and the punctuation that follows it.

In the paragraph below, citations are highlighted in yellow and signal phrases are in blue. Note that the second sentence is common knowledge, whereas the final sentence is clearly the opinion of the author.

Smith’s study [1] indicates that red and yellow are the best colors with which to decorate your restaurant because they induce feelings of hunger. Consider popular fast-food chains, which often use red and yellow in their advertising and décor. According to Smith’s study, restaurant customers felt more energized in red and yellow environments, which encouraged them to order more food. The same study explained that patrons felt relaxed in blue and purple environments, which encouraged them to “spend more time considering the menu options and eat at a slower pace.” Although other hospitality research suggests blue décor can give your restaurant a casual, laid-back atmosphere [2]Smith believes it encourages patrons to linger at their tables without ordering additional food or beverages. Accordingly, it is difficult to identify a popular chain restaurant that decorates with calmer hues.

Missing Info

If any information is missing from a source (a journal with no volume number, for example), simply omit that information. For sources consulted in hardcopy, omit the URL and any additional verbiage that introduces it. Anything retrieved online, however, MUST have a link. The only exception is journals retrieved from a subscription database such as ProQuest. 

Multiple Authors, et al.

 
  • In the List of References, if a source has more than six authors, include the first author's name followed by et al. (in italics)
  • In the body of the text, if a source has three or more authors, include the first author's name followed by et al.
    Example: Ma et al. [19] extended the work …

Rules for the MAE Department: 

  • In the List of References, list all the authors.
  • In the body of the text, use et al. when three or more names are given.

    Example: Ma et al. [19] extended the work …

Multiple Sources Bracketing Format

Correct format: [23], [34], [77]

Incorrect format: [23, 34, 77]

Online Sources: Links

When listing an online document (for example, a thesis, report, or journal article) in the references, if possible, provide a DOI. If the source does not have a DOI, link to the document itself (PDF, etc.) or to the landing page that directs the reader to the full text. 

  • Do not insert a hard or soft return within the URL string: doing so breaks the link.
  • A DOI or URL does not belong in an in-text citation. Ever.

Page Numbers

It is not necessary to include page numbers in bracketed citations.

For a portion in a book, journal, or other volume, include page-number range in List of References/Bibliography.

Example: [7] P. Haynes, “Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, and U.S. foreign policy,” in Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, D. Moran and J. A. Russell, Eds. New York, NY, USA: Routledge, 2009, pp. 62–74.

Print vs. Online Sources

When citing a source retrieved online, use the "online" format even when you or someone else printed out the material. For example, if you print out a thesis or your advisor provides you with a printed thesis, it is still categorized as an online document.

Only cite as a print source when the material has been produced by a publisher in hard copy. For example, if you obtain a print journal or book from the library stacks, it is categorized as a printed source.

Secondary / Indirect Sources

An indirect source is a source that cites some other work that you discuss in your text.

Whenever possible, consult primary sources and your sources’ sources yourself. Upon investigating the primary source, you may find you disagree with the indirect source author’s analysis or methods.


How to Incorporate Indirect Sources

The following passage incorporates a properly credited indirect source. The indirect source information is highlighted in yellow; the primary source information is highlighted in blue.

Walker describes Miguel Roig’s 1999 experiment, which correlates inadequate paraphrasing in student writing with poor reading comprehension. Citing Roig’s data, Walker explains that “students do in fact possess skills necessary for paraphrasing but … may be impeded from applying those skills when dealing with rigorous text” [1].

Note: Include only the indirect source (the source you consulted) in your reference list. 


For more information

See the TPO's "Citing Your Sources’ Sources" handout.

Tables

A citation is required if you did not wholly create the table—i.e., if you used someone else's data. A citation is not needed when all elements of the table are your own creation.

See Table 1 for placement of the title and the bracketed citation.

  • Put a period and a space after the title.
  • If you use the table exactly as it appears in the source, use
    “Source: ___.”
  • If you alter the original table or if you use someone else's data to create the table, use “Adapted from ___.”

 

Table 1.    A Table with a Citation in IEEE Style. Source: [7].

or

Table 1.     A Table with a Citation in IEEE Style. Adapted from [7].

table


For more details, including on table notes, see the Thesis Template.