Citation Guide

IEEE: Citation Examples

IEEE: Citation Examples

(2016 ed.)

Note: The official IEEE style guide contains some inconsistencies and discrepancies. The Thesis Processing Office will continue to accept the BibTeX IEEE format embedded in the NPS LaTeX thesis template.

For NPS Theses, Papers, and Publications

To cite properly, apply the Essential Rules to the examples given below.

Blog

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Blog

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[#] A. A. Author, “Title of blog post in sentence case,” Title of Blog in Title Case, blog, full date of publication or modification [Online]. Available: URL

[1] J. Locke, “Effect of weird tails in 35mm Innsmouth sprocket periodicity distributions on re-tiered bicyclical phase shifting using Cthulhean logic,” The Thing’s Credible!, blog, December 22, 2020 [Online]. Available: https://wrywhisker.pulpfriction.net/wallcrust/linear-colinear-felinear.html

Book

Chapter in Edited Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author, two editors

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[#] A. A. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, B. B. Editor and C. C. Editor, Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

[1] P. Haynes, “Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, and U.S. foreign policy,” in Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, D. Moran and J. A. Russell, Eds. New York, NY, USA: Routledge, 2009, pp. 62–74.

Three authors, one editor

From the introduction, forward, preface, etc.

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, and C. C. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, D. D. Editor, Ed. Place of Publication: Publisher, year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

[2] A. H. Cordesman, A. Mausner, and D. Kasten, Introduction, in Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, J. Smith, Ed. Washington, DC, USA: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009, pp. 4–5.

  • No quotation marks needed for book sections with generic names, such as Introduction, Foreword, Preface, etc.
Electronic Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference  Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or URL, from book provider, or from library database

DOI preferred

[#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. [Online]. DOI or URL or Book Provider or Name of Database in Title Case

DOI or URL  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[1] M. E. Bonds, Absolute Music: The History of an Idea. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, 2014 [Online]. Available:  https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199343638.003.0004


From book provider  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[2] A. Krishnan, War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2008 [Online]. Available: Kindle


From library database  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[3] J. Crabtree and A. Chaplin, Bolivia: Processes of Change. London, England: Zed Books, 2013 [Online] Available: ProQuest

  • When citing a direct quotation from an electronic book without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. The citation might include a chapter number, section heading, or paragraph number within the section, e.g., [3, chap. 8, "On the frontier"].
  • If present, include a DOI link only (not a URL) in references from a library database.
Print Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author

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[#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

[1] M. Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York, NY, USA: Penguin, 2006.

Two authors with edition number

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[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

[2] A. Strindberg and M. Wärn, Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance, 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.

Three authors

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, and C. C. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

[3] A. H. Cordesman, A. Mausner, and D. Kasten, Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC, USA: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009.

  • Always include abbreviated state and country of publication.
     
  • For works with a translator, follow the guidance for edited books but substitute "Trans." for "Ed."
Section (in a series, portion, or volume)
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

In a series

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[#] A. A. Editor and B. B. Editor, Eds., Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Title of Series volume number). Place of Publication: Publisher, year, pp. xxx–xxx. [1] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds.,
Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Applied Mathematics Series 55). Washington, DC, USA: NBS, 1964, pp. 32–33. 

Portion

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[#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher, year, ch. xxx, sec. xxx, pp. xxx–xxx. [2] B. Orend, Morality of War, 2nd ed. Tonawanda, NY, USA: Broadview Press, 2013, ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 67–70.

Volume

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[#] A. A. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, B. B. Editor and C. C. Editor, Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, year, pp. xxx–xxx. [3] R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA, USA: Academic Press, 1977, pp. 47–160.

Class Notes / Lecture / Presentation / Workshop

  • Class notes include lecture notes, slides, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.
     
  • If class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's/lecturer's name and "class notes."
     
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Class Notes / Lecture

Published

[#] “Title of lecture in sentence case,” class notes for Title of Class in Title Case, Abbreviated Name of Department, Institution, Location of Institution, academic quarter year [Online]. Available: URL

Class Notes  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[1] “Python NumPy tutorial,” class notes for CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition, Dept. of Comp. Sci., Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA, spring 2017 [Online]. Available: https://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/


Lecture  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[2]: B. B. Horse, “Horseshoes and hand grenades: On the joys of approximation,” Lecture at Barnes Event Center, Derby, KY, USA, 2017 [Online]. Available: https://horse.com/

Class Notes / Lecture

Unpublished

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[#] “Title of lecture in sentence case,” class notes for Title of Class in Title Case, Abbreviated Name of Department, Institution, Location of Institution, academic quarter year.

[3] “Formatting a thesis,” class notes for Adventures in Academic Writing, Dept. of Dragon Husbandry, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA, spring 2017.

Presentation or Workshop

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of speech/presentation/brief in sentence case,” presented at Abbreviated Venue, Location of Presentation, Month and day of Presentation (if available), year [Online]. Available: DOI or URL

[4] L. Randall, “Unification in warped extra dimensions and bulk holography,” presented at Cavendish Lab., Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, Jul. 19, 2002 [Online]. Available: https://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/events/strings02/avt/randall/

 

Computer Program / Software

  • Citation is required only if the software is not well known.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Computer Program / Software

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Company or A. A. Creator, Place of Publication. Year published. Title of Software in Title Case, ver. xx. [Online]. Available: URL

[1] M. Borenstein, L. Hedges, J. Higgins, and H. Rothstein. Englewood, NJ, USA. 2005. Comprehensive
Meta-Analysis, ver. 2. [Online]. Available: https://www.meta-analysis.com/

 

Conference Paper / Proceedings

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

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[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of paper in sentence case,” presented at Abbreviated Name of Conference, Location of Conference, Month and day, year. [1] K. Kirby and J. Stratton, “Van Allen probes: Successful launch campaign and early operations exploring earth’s radiation belts,” presented at the IEEE Aerosp. Conf., Big Sky, MT, USA, Mar. 2, 2013.

Conference Proceedings

(online)

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, C. C. Author, D. D. Author, and E. E. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” in Abbreviated Name of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, (location is optional), year published. [Online]. Available: 

DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

[2] S. Herculano-Houzel, C. E. Collins, P. Wong, J. H. Kass, and R. Lent, “The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex,” in Proc. of the Natl. Acad. of Sci. of the USA, 2008 [Online]. Available:  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0805417105

Conference Proceedings

(print)

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[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, and C. C. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Abbreviated Name of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, (location is optional), year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. [3] I. Katz, K. Gabayan, and H. Aghajan, “A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras,” in Adv. Conc. for Intell. Vis. Sys.: 9th Intl. Conf., 2007, pp. 133–203.

Data Set / Database

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry      For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Data Set

Published

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[#] A. A. Author, Title of Data Set in Title Case, Name of Organization. Year published [Online]. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case [1] R. Suro, Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture: A Survey of Latinos on News Media, Pew Research Center. 2004 [Online]. Available: https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/

Database

Published

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[#] Name of Database. Object name xxxxxxx. Abbreviated accessed date [Online]. Available: DOI or URL [2] NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Object name IRAS F00400+4059. Accessed Dec. 10, 201[Online]. Available: https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/

 

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] “Title of entry in sentence case,” Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Abbreviated accessed date [Online]. Available: URL

[1] “Metamorphosis,” Merriam-Webster. Accessed Jul. 6, 2017 [Online]. Available: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis

 

Fact Sheet

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Fact Sheet

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[#] Department or Company, Title of fact sheet in sentence case and italics, document identification number, year [Online]. Available: URL

[1] Texas Instruments, LM555 timer, SNAS548D, 2015 [Online]. Available: https://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/lm555.pdf

 

Government / Military Document

  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Directive
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Directive

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[#] Name of Directive in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Name of Issuing Organization, Place of Publication, year [Online]. Available: URL

[1] The Defense Acquisition System, DOD Directive 5000.1, Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L), Washington, DC, USA, 2020 [Online]. Available: https://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/issuances/dodd/500001p.pdf?ver=2020-09-09-160307-310

Doctrine
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Doctrine

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[#] Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Department, Place of Publication, year [Online]. Available: URL

[1] Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, JP-1, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, DC, USA, 2017 [Online]. Available: https://fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp1.pdf

Field Manual / Military Regulation
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Field Manual / Military Regulation

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Title of Manual in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Department, Place of Publication, year [Online]. Available: URL

[1] Sniper Training, FM 23-10, Department of the Army, Washington, DC, USA, 1995 [Online]. Available: https://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf

Government Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

 

Government Report

CRS Report  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of CRS report in sentence case,” Place of Publication, Report Number, year [Online]. Available: URL

CRS Report

[1] M. C. Erwin, "Intelligence issues for Congress,"  Washington DC, USA, CRS Report No. RL33539, 2013 [Online]. Available: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf

GAO Report  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of GAO report in sentence case,” Place of Publication, Report Number, year.

GAO Report

[2] C. A. Berrick, "Homeland security: DHS’s progress and challenges in key areas of maritime, aviation, and cybersecurity," Washington, DC, USA, GAO Report No. GAO-10-106, 2009.

Strategy Document / Other Government Report  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of report in sentence case,” Place of Publication, year [Online]. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

 

Note: In the actual examples given here, the names of the strategies are treated as proper nouns and therefore capitalized.

Strategy Document / Other Government Report

[3] White House, "National Security Strategy of the United States of America," Washington, DC, USA, 2017 [Online]. Available: https://permanent.fdlp.gov/lps90878/2017/NSSFinal121820170905.pdf


[4] Joint Chiefs of Staff, "National Military Strategy of the United States of America," Washington, DC, USA, 2015 [Online]. Available: https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Publications/National_Military_Strategy_2015.pdf


[5] Department of Defense, "Summary of the 2018 National Defense Strategy of the United States of America," Washington, DC, USA, 2018 [Online]. Available: https://dod.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/2018-National-Defense-Strategy-Summary.pdf

Instruction
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Instruction

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Name of Instruction in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Name of Issuing Organization, Place of Publication, year.

[2] Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, DOD Instruction 1000.01, Department of Defense, Washington, DC, USA, 2012.

Memorandum
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Memorandum

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, "Title of memorandum in sentence case,"  official memorandum, Name of Issuing Organization, Place of Publication, year [Online]. Available: URL

[1] T. M. Takai, "Adoption of the national information exchange model within the Department of Defense," official memorandum, Department of Defense, Washington, DC, USA, 2013 [Online]. Available: https://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20the%20DoD.pdf

Handbook

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Name of Company, Place of Publication, year [Online]. Available: DOI or URL

[1] Transmission Systems for Potatoes, 168th ed., Western Spud Co., Kinston-Slalom, ID, USA, 1972 [Online]. Available: https://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html

Print

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Name of Company, Place of Publication, year, pp. xxx–xxx.

[2] Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed., Western Electric Co., Winston-Salem, NC, USA, 1985, pp. 44–60.

Journal Article

  • If present, include a DOI link only (not a URL) in references from a library database.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

DOI preferred

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and year published [Online]. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

DOI or URL  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[1]: G. Sanico and M. Kakinaka, “Terrorism and deterrence policy with transnational support,” Def. Peace Econ., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 153–167, Apr. 2008 [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419


From library database  Zotero                 Opens in new window

[2] W. W. Newmann, “Reorganizing for national security and homeland security,” Pub. Admin. Rev., vol. 62, no. S1, pp. 126–137, Sep. 2002 [Online]. Available: ProQuest

Print

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and day published, year. [4] W. Q. Wang and H. Shao, “High altitude platform multichannel SAR for wide-area and staring imaging,” IEEE Aerosp. and Electron. Syst. Mag., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 12–17, May 2014.

Legal

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Legislative Document

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Legislative body. xxx Congress, Session. (year, Abbreviated Month and day). Number of Bill or Resolution, Title of Document in Title Case and Italics. [Online]. Available: URL

[1] U.S. House. 102nd Congress, 1st Session. (1991, Jan. 11). H. Con. Res. 1, To Express the Sense of the Congress That Congress Must Approve Any Offensive Military Action Against Iraq. [Online]. Available: https://www.congress.gov/bill/102nd-congress/house-concurrent-resolution/1?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22h.+con.+res.+1%
22%5D%7D&s=1&r=1

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Code

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Title of Act in Title Case, title number U.S.C. § section number. Year published.  [2] Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101. 1991.

Public Law 

Published in the U.S. Statutes at Large

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Title of Act in Title Case, Pub. L. No. xxx, volume Source page number. Year published [Online]. Available: URL

[3] Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–336, 104 Stat. 327. 1990 [Online]. Available: https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/STATUTE-104/STATUTE-104-Pg327

Map

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Google Map

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] Google. “Title of map in sentence case.” Abbreviated accessed date [Online]. Available: URL.

[1] Google. “Monterey Bay.” Accessed Jul. 6, 2017 [Online]. Available:
https://www.google.com/maps/
place/Monterey+Bay/@36.7896106,-122.0843052,11z/data=
!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311.

 

Newspaper Article

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Month and day, year [Online]. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

[1] L. Linguine, “Animal fat shampoos for achieving angel hair,” Knife and Spork Semi-Weekly, Jul. 15, 2016 [Online]. Available: http://www.chickenyodeling.com/dfjgp98y4t34_pherg899h.html/

Print

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Month and day, year.

[2] J. Stulberg, “The art of creating crossword puzzles,” The New York Times, Jul. 15, 2016.

Patent

  • If more than one date, use the year of issuance.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Patent

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Rightsholder, “Title of patent in sentence case,” U.S. Patent xxxxxxx, Abbreviated Month and day of issuance, year of issuance. [Online]. Available: URL

[1] A. G. Bell, “Improvement in telegraphy,” U.S. Patent 174465, Mar. 7, 1876 [Online]. Available: https://www.google.com/patents/US174465

 

Personal Communication

  • Personal communication is material obtained directly from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.
     
  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include
    phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email Including attachments, internal documents, documents posted to a listserv or internal
    server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Email, Interview, Private Communication, etc.

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Interlocutor, private communication or interview or email, Abbreviated Month of communication year.

[1] J. Jojo, email, Sep. 2009.

[2] L. Chukwuemeka, interview, Sep. 2009.

[3] R. Ajanlekoko, private communication, Sep. 2009.

Report

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it is not freestanding, then format it as a webpage.
Research Report / Think Tank Report / White Paper
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Research Report / Think Tank Report / White Paper

Zotero                 Opens in new window

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of report in sentence case,” Abbreviated Company, Place of Publication, Report Number, year [Online]. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

In your text: Use et al. when three or more names are given.

[1] L. Dixon, N. Clancy, B. M. Miller, S. Hoegberg, M. M. Lewis, B. Bender, S. Ebinger, et al., “The cost and affordability of flood insurance in New York City,” RAND Corp., Santa Monica, CA, USA, RR-1776-NYCEDC, 2017 [Online]. Available: https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1776.html

 

In your text: Dixon et al. [1] extended the work …

Technical Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Technical Report

Author given

(online)

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[#] A. A. Author, “Title of technical report in sentence case,” Abbrev. Name of Company, Place of Publication, Rep. xxxxxxx, year [Online]. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

[1] S. V. Effendi and X. Vilhjálmsson, “The absorption rate of potatoes in salmonella,” Dept. Vet. Stud., Madison, WI, USA, Rep. 17-59, 2009 [Online]. Available: https://vetstudies.edu/donteatthosefries.html

Technical Report

Author given

(print)

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[#] A. A. Author, “Title of technical report in sentence case,” Abbrev. name of company, Place of Publication, Rep. xxxxxxx, year. [2] K. A. Abdulatipov and F. Ramazonov, “The absorption rate of E. coli in cats,” Dept. Vet. Stud., Madison, WI, USA, Rep. 17-59, 2012.

Technical Report

Organization as author

(online)

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[#] Organization Name, “Title of technical report in sentence case,” Place of Publication, Rep. xxxxxxx, year [Online]. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

[3] National Toxicology Program, “Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (CASRN 15625-89-5) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice (Topical Application Studies),” Washington, DC, USA, Rep. TR-576, 2012 [Online]. Available: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm/reports/longterm/tr500580
?/listedreports/tr576/index.html

Secondary Source

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Secondary Source

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[#] List the secondary source that quotes or discusses the material you are referring to (cite using the appropriate format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: See example.

[1] I. A. M. Nicholson, Inventing Personality: Gordon Allport and the Science of Selfhood. Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association, 2003.

In your text: We can see this principle at work in the following passage from Allport’s diary, quoted in [1].

 

Standard

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Standard

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[#] Title of Standard in Title Case and Italics, Standard Number, date [Online]. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case [1] Letter Symbols for Quantities, ANSI Standard Y10.5, 1968 [Online]. Available: https://standards.globalspec.com/std/1713423/asme-ansi-y10-5

Thesis / Dissertation

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Thesis / Dissertation

(print)

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[#] A. A. Author, “Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case,” M.S. thesis or Ph.D. dissertation, Abbreviated Department, Abbreviated Institution, Location of Institution, year published.  [1] J. Rivera, “Software system architecture modeling methodology for naval gun weapon systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Comp. Sci., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, USA, 2010.

Thesis / Dissertation

From an institutional archive such as the NPS Archive: Calhoun

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[#] A. A. Author, “Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case,” M.S. thesis or Ph.D. dissertation, Abbreviated Department, Abbreviated Institution, Location of Institution, year published [Online]. Available: DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

[2] T. D. Moon, “Rising dragon: Infrastructure development and Chinese influence in Vietnam,” M.S. thesis, Dept. of Natl. Sec. Aff., NPS, Monterey, CA, USA, 2009 [Online]. Available: https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/4694

 

Unpublished / Informally Published Work

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Unpublished Work

Accepted for publication

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[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” unpublished.

[1] R. Briscoe, “Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception,” unpublished.

Website / Webpage

  • Title of website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
     
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, New York Times, not Reuters, Bloomberg, CNN, etc. These news organizations only have an online presence, whereas The New York Times has both an online and print counterpart.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author and publication date given

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[#] A. A. Author, “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” Name of Website in Title Case, full date of publication or modification [Online]. Available: URL

[1] R. Roth, “75 years ago, the Doolittle Raid changed history,” CNN, April 18, 2017 [Online]. Available: https://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html

No author, no date given

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[#] Name of Website in Title Case, “Title, section, or page name in sentence case.Abbreviated accessed date [Online]. Available: URL [2] Department of Defense, “About the Department of Defense (DOD).” Accessed April 18, 2017 [Online]. Available: https://www.defense.gov/About/

Organization as author

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[#] Name of Website in Title Case, “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” full date of publication or modification [Online]. Available: URL

[3] Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Forging papers to sell fake art,” April 6, 2017 [Online]. Available: https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art

Janes example

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[#] “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” Janes, Full date of publication or modification [Online]. Available: URL

[4] “Mali: Executive summary,” Janes, May 31, 2017 [Online]. Available: https://customer.janes.com/

 

Wikipedia

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Wikipedia

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[#] “Title of entry in sentence case,” Wikipedia in Italics. Abbreviated accessed date [Online]. Available: URL

[1] “Psychology,” Wikipedia. Accessed May 17, 2011 [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology

 

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Reference Entry     For In-text Citationsput just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.
See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

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[#] A. A. Author, “Title of working paper in sentence case,” working paper, Abbreviated Institution or Company, Place of Publication, year [Online]. Available: URL [1] U. Q. Sushi, "Three-handed Fibonacci model for optimizing surface-to-volume ratio of temaki in Hilbert space," working paper, Donburi Inst. of Int. Gastron., Pierre, SD, USA, 2021 [Online]. Available: https://www.wallcrust.com/403t3-9j/340txf%oii%/gonzoponzu.html