Citation Styles

IEEE - Citation Examples

   (2016 ed.)

The official IEEE style guide contains some inconsistencies and discrepancies. The Thesis Processing Office will continue to accept the BibTeX IEEE format embedded in the NPS LaTeX thesis template.

Book

Print Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author

[#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

[1] M. Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York, NY, USA: Penguin, 2006.

Two authors with edition number

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

[2] A. Strindberg and M. Wärn, Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance, 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.

Three authors

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, and C. C. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

[3] A. H. Cordesman, A. Mausner, and D. Kasten, Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC, USA: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009.

  • Always include abbreviated state and country of publication.
     
  • For works with a translator, follow the guidance for edited books but substitute "Trans." for "Ed."
Book Chapter in Edited Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
One author, two editors

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, B. B. Editor and C. C. Editor, Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

[1] P. Haynes, “Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, and U.S. foreign policy,” in Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, D. Moran and J. A. Russell, Eds. New York, NY, USA: Routledge, 2009, pp. 62–74.

Three authors, one editor

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, and C. C. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, D. D. Editor, Ed. Place of Publication: Publisher, year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter.

[2] A. H. Cordesman, A. Mausner, and D. Kasten, Introduction, in Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, J. Smith, Ed. Washington, DC, USA: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009, pp. 4–5.

  • No quotation marks needed for book sections with generic names, such as Introduction, Foreword, Preface, etc.
Book (portion, volume, or in a series)
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Portion [#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher, year, ch. xxx, sec. xxx, pp. xxx–xxx. [1] B. Orend, Morality of War, 2nd ed. Tonawanda, NY, USA: Broadview Press, 2013, ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 67–70.
Volume [#] A. A. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, B. B. Editor and C. C. Editor, Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, year, pp. xxx–xxx. [2] R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA, USA: Academic Press, 1977, pp. 47–160.
In a series [#] A. A. Editor and B. B. Editor, Eds., Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Title of Series volume number). Place of Publication: Publisher, year, pp. xxx–xxx. [3] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds.,
Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Applied Mathematics Series 55). Washington, DC, USA: NBS, 1964, pp. 32–33. 
Electronic Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
With URL [#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL [1] J. Crabtree and A. Chaplin, Bolivia: Processes of Change. London, England: Zed Books, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ebook-nps/detail.action?docID=1183073
With book provider [#] A. A. Author, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. [Online]. Book Provider. [2] A. Krishnan, War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2008. [Online]. Kindle edition.
  • When citing a direct quotation from an electronic book without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. The citation might include a chapter number, section heading, or paragraph number within the section, e.g., [3, chap. 8, "On the frontier"].

Class Notes, Lecture, Presentation, Workshop

  • Class notes include lecture notes, slides, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.
     
  • If class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's/lecturer's name and "class notes."
     
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Class Notes/ Lecture

Unpublished

[#] “Title of lecture in sentence case,” class notes for Title of Class in Title Case, Abbreviated Name of Department, Institution, Location of Institution, academic quarter year.

[1] “Formatting a thesis,” class notes for Adventures in Academic Writing, Dept. of Dragon Husbandry, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA, spring 2017.

Class Notes/ Lecture

Published

(online)

[#] “Title of lecture in sentence case,” class notes for Title of Class in Title Case, Abbreviated Name of Department, Institution, Location of Institution, academic quarter year. [Online]. Available: URL

[2]: B. B. Horse, “Horseshoes and hand grenades: On the joys of approximation.” Lecture at Barnes Event Center, Derby, KY, USA, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://horse.com/


[3] “Python numPy tutorial,” class notes for CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition, Dept. of Comp. Sci., Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA, spring 2017. [Online]. Available: http://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/

Presentation or Workshop

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of speech/presentation/brief in sentence case,” presented at Abbreviated Venue, Location of Presentation, Month and day of Presentation (if available), year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[4] L. Randall, “Unification in warped extra dimensions and bulk holography,” presented at Cavendish Lab., Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, Jul. 19, 2002. [Online]. Available: http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/events/strings02/avt/randall/

 

Computer Program / Software

  • Citation is required only if the software is not well known.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Computer Program/Software

[#] Company or A. A. Creator, Place of Publication. Year published. Title of Software in Title Case, ver. xx. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] M. Borenstein, L. Hedges, J. Higgins, and H. Rothstein. Englewood, NJ, USA. 2005. Comprehensive
Meta-Analysis, ver. 2. [Online]. Available: http://www.meta-analysis.com

 

Conference Paper / Proceedings

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Conference Proceedings

(online)

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, C. C. Author, D. D. Author, and E. E. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” in Abbreviated Name of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, (location is optional), year published. [Online.] doi: or Available: URL [1] S. Herculano-Houzel, C. E. Collins, P. Wong, J. H. Kass, and R. Lent, “The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex,” in Proc. of the Natl. Acad. of Sci. of the USA, 2008. [Online]. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805417105

Conference Proceedings

(print)

[#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, and C. C. Author, “Title of chapter in sentence case,” in Abbreviated Name of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, (location is optional), year, pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. [2] I. Katz, K. Gabayan, and H. Aghajan, “A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras,” in Adv. Conc. for Intell. Vis. Sys.: 9th Intl. Conf., 2007, pp. 133–203.

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of paper in sentence case,” presented at Abbreviated Name of Conference, Location of Conference, Month and day, year.

[3] K. Kirby and J. Stratton, “Van Allen probes: Successful launch campaign and early operations exploring earth’s radiation belts,” presented at the IEEE Aerosp. Conf., Big Sky, MT, USA, Mar. 2, 2013.

Data Set / Database

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Data Set

Published

[#] A. A. Author, Title of Data Set in Title Case, year published. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL [1] R. Suro, Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture: A Survey of Latinos on News Media, 2004. [Online]. Available: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/

Database

Published

[#] Name of Database. Object name xxxxxxx. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL. Accessed Abbreviated Month and day, year. [2] NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Object name IRAS F00400+4059. [Online]. Available: http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/. Accessed Dec. 10, 2012. 

 

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Dictionary / Encyclopedia

[#] “Title of entry in sentence case,” Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Accessed date. [Online]. Available: URL

[1] “Metamorphosis,” Merriam-Webster. Accessed July 6, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis

 

Directive / Instruction

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Directive

[#] Name of Directive in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Name of Issuing Organization, Place of Publication, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] The Defense Acquisition System, DoD Directive 5000.1, Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L), Washington, DC, USA, 2003. [Online]. Available: http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/
DD/issuances/dodm/857001m.pdf

Instruction

[#] Name of Instruction in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Name of Issuing Organization, Place of Publication, year.

[2] Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, DoD Instruction 1000.01, Department of Defense, Washington, DC, USA, 2012.

 

Doctrine

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Joint Doctrine [#] Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Department, Place of Publication, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL [1] Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, JP-1, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, DC, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp1.pdf

Fact Sheet

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Fact Sheet

[#] Department or Company, Title of fact sheet in sentence case and italics, document identification number, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] Texas Instruments, LM555 timer, SNAS548D, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/lm555.pdf

 

Field Manual / Military Regulation

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Field Manual / Military Regulation [#] Title of Manual in Title Case and Italics, document identification number, Department, Place of Publication, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] Sniper Training, FM 23-10, Department of the Army, Washington, DC, USA, 1995. [Online]. Available: http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf

 

Handbook

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Online [#] Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Name of Company, Place of Publication, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] Transmission Systems for Potatoes, 168th ed., Western Spud Co., Kinston-Slalom, ID, USA, 1972. [Online]. Available: http://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html

Print [#] Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Name of Company, Place of Publication, year, pp. xxx–xxx.

[2] Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed., Western Electric Co., Winston-Salem, NC, USA, 1985, pp. 44–60.

Journal Article

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

DOI preferred

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and year published. [Online]. doi:

[1]: G. Sanico and M. Kakinaka, “Terrorism and deterrence policy with transnational support,” Def. & Peace Econ., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 153–167, Apr. 2008. [Online]. doi:10.1080/10242690701505419

From a subscription database

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and year published. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[2] W. W. Newmann, “Reorganizing for national security and homeland security,” Pub. Admin. Rev., vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 126–137, Sep. 2002. [Online]. Available: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1540-6210.62.s1.22/abstract

From an online journal

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and year published. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[3] N. Catrantzos, “No dark corners: A different answer to insider threats,” Homeland Sec. Aff., vol. 6, no. 2, May 2010. [Online]. Available: https://www.hsaj.org/articles/83

From a print journal

[#] A. A. Author and B. B. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Abbreviated Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx, no. xxx, pp. starting page of article–ending page of article, Abbreviated Month and day published, year.

[4] W. Q. Wang and H. Shao, “High altitude platform multichannel SAR for wide-area and staring imaging,” Aerosp. and Electron. Syst., vol. 29, no. 25, pp. 12–17, Mar. 26, 2014.

Legal

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Legislative Document

[#] Legislative body. xxx Congress, Session. (year, Abbreviated Month and day). Number of Bill or Resolution, Title of document in Title Case and Italics. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] U.S. House. 102nd Congress, 1st Session. (1991, Jan. 11). H. Con. Res. 1, Sense of the Congress on Approval of Military Action. [Online]. Available: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c102:H.CON.RES.1.IH

Public Law 

Published in the U.S. Statutes at Large

[#] Title of Act in Title Case, Public Law number, Stat. section. Year published. doi: or [Online]. Available: URL

[2] Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–336 § 2, 104 Stat. 328. 1991. [Online]. Available: http://library.clerk.house.gov/reference-files/PPL_101_336_AmericansWithDisabilities.pdf

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Code

[#] Title of Act in Title Case, U.S.C. section xxx. Year published. 

[3] Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101. 1991.

Map

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Google Map

[#] Google. “Title of map in sentence case.” [Online]. Available: URL. Accessed Month and day, year.

[1] Google. “Monterey Bay.” [Online]. Available:
https://www.google.com/maps/
place/Monterey+Bay/@36.7896106,-122.0843052,11z/data=
!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311. Accessed Jul. 6, 2017.

 

Memorandum, Official

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Memorandum, Official

[#] A. A. Author, "Title of memorandum in sentence case,"  official memorandum, Name of Issuing Organization, Place of Publication, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] T. M. Takai, "Adoption of the national information exchange model within the Department of Defense," official memorandum, Department of Defense, Washington, DC, USA, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20the%20DoD.pdf

 

Newspaper Article

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Month and day, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] L. Linguine, “Animal fat shampoos for achieving angel hair,” Knife and Spork Semi-Weekly, Jul. 15, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.chickenyodeling.com/dfjgp98y4t34_pherg899h.html/

Print

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Abbreviated Month and day, year.

[2] J. Stulberg, “The art of creating crossword puzzles,” New York Times, Jul. 15, 2016.

Patent

  • If more than one date, use the year of issuance.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Patent

[#] A. A. Rightsholder, “Title of patent in sentence case,” U.S. Patent xxxxxxx, Abbreviated Month and day of issuance, year of issuance. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] A. G. Bell, “Improvement in telegraphy,” U.S. Patent 174465, Mar. 7, 1876. [Online]. Available: https://www.google.com/patents/US174465

 

Personal Communication, Interview, Email

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Personal Communication, Interview, or Email

[#] A. A. Interlocutor, private communication or interview or email, Abbreviated Month of communication year.

[1] R. Ajanlekoko, private communication, Sep. 2009.

[2] L. Chukwuemeka, interview, Sep. 2009.

[3] J. Jojo, email, Sep. 2009.

Report

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it is not freestanding, then format it as a webpage.
Government Report / Document
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
CRS Report [#] A. A. Author, “Title of CRS report in sentence case,” Place of Publication, Report Number, year. [Online]. Available: URL [1] M. C. Erwin, "Intelligence issues for Congress,"  Washington DC, USA, CRS Report No. RL33539, 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf
GAO Report [#] A. A. Author, “Title of GAO report in sentence case,” Place of Publication, Report Number, year. [2] C. A. Berrick, "Homeland security: DHS’s progress and challenges in key areas of maritime, aviation, and cybersecurity," Washington, DC, USA, GAO Report No. GAO-10-106, 2000.
Other Government Report [#] A. A. Author, “Title of report in sentence case,” Place of Publication, year. [3] B. Obama, "National security strategy," Washington, DC, USA, 2015.
Technical Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Technical Report (online)

With author

[#] A. A. Author. “Title of technical report in sentence case,” Abbrev. Name of Company, Place of Publication, Rep. xxxxxxx, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] S. V. Effendi and X. Vilhjálmsson. “The absorption rate of potatoes in salmonella,” Dept. Vet. Stud., Madison, WI, USA, Rep. 17-59, 2009. [Online]. Available: https://vetstudies.edu/donteatthosefries.html

Technical Report (online)

With agency as publisher

[#] Agency Name, “Title of technical report in sentence case,” Place of Publication, Rep. xxxxxxx, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[2] National Toxicology Program, “Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (CASRN 15625-89-5) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice (Topical Application Studies),” Washington, DC, USA, Rep. TR-576, 2012. [Online]. Available: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm/reports/longterm/tr500580
?/listedreports/tr576/index.html

Technical Report (print)

[#] A. A. Author. “Title of technical report in sentence case,” Abbrev. name of company, Place of Publication, Rep. xxxxxxx, year.

[3] K. A. Abdulatipov and F. Ramazonov. “The absorption rate of E. coli in cats,” Dept. Vet. Stud., Madison, WI, USA, Rep. 17-59, 2012.

Think Tank Report / White Paper
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Think Tank Report / White Paper

List of Think Tanks, U.S. and Globally 

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of report in sentence case,” Abbreviated Company, Place of Publication, Report Number, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL [1] L. Dixon, N. Clancy, B. M. Miller, S. Hoegberg, M. M. Lewis, B. Bender et al., “The cost and affordability of flood insurance in New York City,” RAND Corp., Santa Monica, CA, USA, RR-1776-NYCEDC, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR1700/RR1776/
RAND_RR1776.pdf

Secondary Source

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Secondary Source

[#] List the secondary source that quotes or discusses the material you are referring to (cite using the appropriate format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: See example.

[1] I. A. M. Nicholson, Inventing Personality: Gordon Allport and the Science of Selfhood. Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association, 2003.

In your text: We can see this principle at work in the following passage from Allport’s diary, quoted in [1].

 

Standard

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Standard [#] Title of Standard in Title Case and Italics, Standard Number, date. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL [1] Letter Symbols for Quantities, ANSI Standard Y10.5, 1968. [Online]. Available: http://standards.globalspec.com/std/1713423/asme-ansi-y10-5

Thesis / Dissertation

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Thesis / Dissertation

From an institutional archive such as the NPS Archive: Calhoun

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case,” M.S. thesis or Ph.D. dissertation, Abbreviated Department, Abbreviated Institution, Location of Institution, year published. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL

[1] T. D. Moon, “Rising dragon: Infrastructure development and Chinese influence in Vietnam,” M.S. thesis, Dept. of Natl. Sec. Aff., NPS, Monterey, CA, USA, 2009. [Online]. Available: http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4694

Thesis / Dissertation (print)

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case,” M.S. thesis or Ph.D. dissertation, Abbreviated Department, Abbreviated Institution, Location of Institution, year published. 

[2] J. Rivera, “Software system architecture modeling methodology for naval gun weapon systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Comp. Sci., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, USA, 2010.

 

Unpublished / Informally Published Work

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Unpublished Work Accepted for Publication

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of article in sentence case,” unpublished.

[1] R. Briscoe, “Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception,” unpublished.

Website / Webpage

  • Title of website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
     
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, New York Times, not Reuters or CNN.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author and publication date given

[#] A. A. Author, “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” Name of Website in Title Case, full date of publication or modification. [Online]. Available: URL

[1] R. Roth, “75 years ago, the Doolittle Raid changed history,” CNN, April 18, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html

No author given

Organization as author

[#] Name of Website in Title Case. “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” full date of publication or modification. [Online]. Available: URL

[2] Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Forging papers to sell fake art,” April 6, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art

No author or date given

[#] Name of Website in Title Case. “Title, section, or page name in sentence case.Accessed date. [Online]. Available: URL

[3] Department of Defense. “About the Department of Defense (DoD).” Accessed April 18, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.defense.gov/About/

Jane's example

[#] “Title, section, or page name in sentence case,” Jane’s by IHS Markit, Full date of publication or modification. [Online]. Available: URL

[4] “Mali: Executive summary,” Jane’s by IHS Markit, May 31, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://janes.ihs.com.libproxy.nps.edu/NorthAfrica/Display/1303746

 

Wikipedia

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Wikipedia

[#] “Title of entry in sentence case,” Wikipedia in Italics. Accessed date. [Online]. Available: URL

[1] “Psychology,” Wikipedia. Accessed May 17, 2011. [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology

 

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
[#] = Bibliography / List of References entry          For In-text Citations, put just the number in brackets, [1], [2], [3], etc.

See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Working Paper / Occasional Paper [#] A. A. Author, “Title of working paper in sentence case,” working paper, Abbreviated Institution or Company, Place of Publication, year. [Online]. doi: or Available: URL  [1] U. Q. Sushi, "Three-handed Fibonacci model for optimizing surface-to-volume ratio of temaki in Hilbert space," working paper, Donburi Inst. of Int. Gastron., Pierre, SD, USA, 2021. [Online]. Available: http://www.wallcrust.com/403t3-9j/340txf%oii%/gonzoponzu.html