Citation Guide

APA: Citation Examples

APA: Citation Examples

(7th ed.)

For NPS Theses, Papers, and Publications

To cite properly, apply the Essential Rules to the examples given below.

 

Blog

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Post

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R: Author, A. A. or Screen Name. (Full date). Title of post in sentence case. Title of Blog in Title Case and Italics. URL

T: (Screen Name or Author, year)

R: Dubner, S. J. (2014, June 25). The quality-quantity tradeoff dilemma. Freakonomics. https://freakonomics.com/2014/06/25/the-quality-quantity-tradeoff-dilemma/

T: (Dubner, 2014)

Comment

R: Author, A. A. or Screen Name. (Full date). Re: Title of original blog post in sentence case [Comment on the blog post "Title of blog post in sentence case"]. URL

T: (Screen Name or Author, year)

R: MiddleKid. (2007, January 5). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Comment on the blog post "Has anyone seen my sanity?"]. https://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/22/the-unfortunate-prerequisites/

T: (MiddleKid, 2007)

 

Book

Chapter in Edited Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author, two editors, with edition number

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R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter in sentence case. In B. B. Editor & C. C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book in sentence case and italics (xx ed., pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter). Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Haynes, P. (2009). Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, and US foreign policy. In D. Moran and J. A. Russell (Eds.), Energy security and global politics: The militarization of resource management (2nd ed., pp. 62–74). Routledge.

T: (Haynes, 2009, p. 70)

Three authors, one editor

From the introduction, forward, preface, etc.

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R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of chapter in sentence case. In D. D. Editor (Ed.), Title of book in sentence case and italics (pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter).  Publisher.

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Cordesman, A. H., Mausner, A., & Kasten, D. (2009). Introduction. In J. Smith (Ed.), Winning in Afghanistan: Creating effective Afghan security forces (pp. 1–12). Center for Strategic and International Studies.

T (first citation): (Cordesman et al., 2009, pp. 2–3)

Electronic Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or URL, from book provider, or from library database

DOI preferred

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. [E-reader version]. DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

T: (Author, year, location information)

DOI or URL  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Bonds, M. E. (2014). Absolute music: The history of an idea. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199343638.003.0004

T: (Bonds, 2014, Chapter 3, para. 1)


From book provider  Zotero Opens in new window

R: A. Krishnan. (2008). War as business: Technological change and military service contracting [Kindle DX version]. https://www.amazon.com

T: (Krishnan, 2008)


From library database  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Crabtree, J., & Chaplin, A. (2013). Bolivia: Processes of change. ProQuest

T: (Crabtree & Chaplin, 2013)

Print Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author

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R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore's dilemma: A natural history of four meals. Penguin.

T: (Pollan, 2006)

Two authors with edition number

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R: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics (edition number). Publisher.

T: (Author A & Author B, year)

R: Strindberg, A., & Wärn, M. (2011). Islamism: Religion, radicalization and resistance (2nd ed.). John Wiley and Sons.

T: (Strindberg & Wärn, 2011)

Three authors

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R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. Publisher.

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Cordesman, A. H., Mausner, A., & Kasten, D. (2009). Winning in Afghanistan: Creating effective Afghan security forces. Center for Strategic and International Studies.

T(Cordesman et al., 2009, pp. 45–46)

  • When citing a direct quotation from an electronic book without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. The citation might include a chapter number, section heading, location number, or paragraph number within the section.
  • If present, include a DOI link only (not a URL) in references from a library database.

Class Notes, Slides, Lecture, Presentation, Workshop

  • Class notes include lecture notes, slides, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.
  • If slides, lecture, class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's/lecturer's name and type of medium (e.g., "class notes," "PowerPoint slides").
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry    T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Class Notes

Published

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R: Instructor, A. A. (Year). Title of notes in sentence case and italics [Class notes for/on . . . ]. Department, University. DOI or URL

T: (Instructor, year)

R: Johnson, J. (2017). Python NumPy tutorial [Class notes for CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition]. Department of Computer Science, Stanford University. https://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/

T: (Johnson, 2017)

Lecture

Published

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R: Author, A. A. (Year of presentation). Title of lecture in sentence case and italics [Lecture] or [Description of lecture in sentence case]. Venue, location. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Horse, B. B. (2020). Horseshoes and hand grenades: On the joys of approximation [Lecture]. Belmont Race Track, Elmont, NY, United States. https://horse.edu/

T: (Horse, 2020)

Class Notes, Lecture, or Slides

Unpublished

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R: Do not include in references list if not publicly available

T: (A. Author, class notes, Month and day of class, year)

R: None

T: (D. Bray, PowerPoint slides, March 26, 2017)

Presentation or Workshop

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R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title of presentation in sentence case and italics [Presentation or Workshop]. Name of Event, Location. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Randall, L. (2002, July 19). Unification in warped extra dimensions and bulk holography [Presentation]. Holography in Action, Cambridge, MA, United States. https://04.phf-site.com/2016/12/strings-2002-at-cavendish-laboratory.html

T: (Randall, 2002)

 

Computer Program / Software

  • Cite the software you use in your research if it is not well known in your field.
  • Do not cite the software you use in your research if it is well known in your field. Simply name it in your text.
  • However, a citation is always required if paraphrasing or quoting material from a software program; this includes code, text, images, etc.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Hard copy

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R: Author, A. A. or Company. (Year). Title in sentence case and italics (Version number) [Computer software]. Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Esolang, A. N. (2014). Obscure reference generator [Computer software]. E & K Press.

T: (Esolang, 2014)

Online

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R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., & Author, D. D. or Company. (Year). Title in sentence case and italics (Version number) [Computer software]. Publisher. DOI or URL

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2005). Comprehensive meta-analysis (Version 2) [Computer software]. Biostat. https://www.meta-analysis.com/index.html

T: (Borenstein et al., 2005)

 

Conference Paper / Proceedings

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry   T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Conference Proceedings

(online)

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R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., . . . & Author, Z. Z. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics, starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Author A et al., year)

R: Morentz, J. W., Doyle, C., Wong, Skelly, L. & Adam, N. (2009). Unified Incident Command and Decision Support (UICDS) a Department of Homeland Security initiative in information sharing. 2009 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security, 182187. https://doi.org/10.1109/THS.2009.5168032

T (first citation): (Morentz et al., 2009, p. 185)

Conference Proceedings

(print)

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R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., . . . & Author, Z. Z. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. In A. A. Editor, B. B. Editor, C. C. Editor, . . . & Z. Z. Editor (Eds.), Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics (pp. x–xxx).

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Katz, I., Gabayan, K., & Aghajan, H. (2007). A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras. In J. Blanc-Talon, W. Philips, D. Popescu, & P. Scheunders (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 4678. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (pp. 97–108).

T: (Katz et al., 2007)

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

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R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., . . . & Author, Z. Z. (Full date). Title of paper in sentence case and italics [Paper presentation]. Conference Name, Location. DOI or URL

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Teplin, L. A., McClelland, G. M., Abram, K. M., & Washburn, J. J. (2005, January 7). Early violent death in delinquent youth: A prospective longitudinal study [Paper presentation]. Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, United States.

T: (Teplin et al., 2005) 

Data Set / Database

  • For information retrieved from a database, provide enough information for your readers to replicate the data. In your text, include the name of the database or the source of the data, along with other descriptive information (such as the unit of observation, the years selected, the sample size, and/or other selection criteria).
  • Data that is unpublished and retrievable is available to your readers if they contact the given source.
  • Data that is unpublished and not retrievable is not available to the general public.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Published

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R: Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title in sentence case and italics (Version number) [Data set]. Organization if not listed as the author. DOI or URL

T: (Author or Organization, year)

R: Suro, R. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing culture: A survey of Latinos on news media [Data set]. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/

T: (Suro, 2004)

Unpublished and retrievable

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R: Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title in sentence case and italics (Version number) [Unpublished raw data] or [Unpublished raw data on . . . ]. Source of data. DOI or URL

T: (Author or Organization, year)

R: Carotene, B. (2020). Changing chard and crisscrossing cucumbers [Unpublished raw data]. U.S. Department of Vegetable Statistics.

T: (Carotene, 2020)


R: Carotene, B. (2020). [Unpublished raw data on the benefits of eating vegetables that begin with the letter C]. U.S. Department of Vegetable Statistics. https://www.wallcrust.edu/fiberchunks

T: (Carotene, 2020)

Unpublished and not retrievable

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An unpublished data set that is not retrievable by readers is treated as a personal communication and therefore not cited in references.

R: None

T: (Author, A. A., personal communication, full date)

R: None

T: (K. Kanteen, personal communication, December 18, 2019)

 

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Dictionary

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R: Organization in Title Case. (n.d.). Entry in sentence case. In Reference work in sentence case and italics. Retrieved full date from URL

T: (Organization, n.d.)

R: Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Metamorphosis. In Merriam-Webster dictionary. Retrieved July 6, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis

T: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)

Encyclopedia

Zotero Opens in new window

 

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of entry in sentence case. In Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. URL

T: (Author, year)


For an organizational author, format as a dictionary entry (see above).

For a personal author, format as a chapter in an edited book.

R: Stewart, J. I. M. (2019). Rudyard Kipling. In Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Rudyard-Kipling

T: (Stewart, 2019)

 

Fact Sheet

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry    T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Fact Sheet

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R: Department or Organization Name. (Year). Title of fact sheet in sentence case and italics [Fact sheet]. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Department of Labor. (2008). The construction industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) [Fact sheet]. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/whd/fact-sheets/1-flsa-construction

T (first citation): (Department of Labor [DOL], 2008)

T (subsequent citations): (DOL, 2008)

 

Government / Military Document

  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Directive
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Directive

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R: Organization. (Full date). Title of instruction in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Department [if different from the authoring organization]. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Department of Defense. (2005, December 19). Information assurance training, certification, and workforce management (DOD Directive 8570.01-M). https://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/issuances/
dodm/857001m.pdf

T (first citation): (Department of Defense [DOD], 2005)

T (subsequent citations): (DOD, 2005)

Doctrine
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Doctrine

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R: Joint Chiefs of Staff. (Year). Title of joint doctrine in sentence case and italics (document identification number). DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Joint Chiefs of Staff. (2017). Countering air and missile threats (JP 3-01). https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/jp3_01_pa.pdf

T (first citation): (Joint Chiefs of Staff [JCS], 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (JCS, 2017)

Field Manual / Military Regulation
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Field Manual / Military Regulation

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R: Organization. (Full date). Title of instruction in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Department [if different from the authoring organization]. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Department of the Army. (1994). Sniper training (FM 23-10). https://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf

T (first citation): (Department of the Army [DA], 1994)

T (subsequent citations): (DA, 1994)

Government Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

 

Government Report

CRS Report  

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of report in sentence case and italics (CRS Report No. xxxxxxx). Congressional Research Service. URL

T: (Author, year)

CRS Report  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Erwin, M. C. (2013). Intelligence issues for Congress (CRS Report No. RL33539). Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf

T: (Erwin, 2013)

GAO Report

R: Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title of report in sentence case and italics (GAO-xx-xxx). Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

GAO Report  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Berrick, C. A. (2009). Homeland security: DHS’s progress and challenges in key areas of maritime, aviation, and cybersecurity (GAO-10-106). Government Accountability Office.

T: (Berrick, 2009)

Strategy Document / Other Government Report

R: Name of Department. (Year). Title of document in sentence case and italics. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Name of Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

Strategy Document / Other Government Report  Zotero Opens in new window

R: White House. (2017). National security strategy of the United States of America. https://permanent.fdlp.gov/lps90878/2017/NSSFinal121820170905.pdf

T: (White House, 2017)

Instruction
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Instruction

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R: Organization. (Full date). Title of instruction in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Department [if different from the authoring organization]. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. (2019, May 5). Navy Safety and Occupational Health program for forces afloat (OPNAVINST 5100.19F). Department of the Navy. https://www.secnav.navy.mil/doni/Directives/05000%20General%20Management%20Security%20and%20Safety%20Services/05-100%20Safety%20and%20Occupational%20Health%20Services/5100.19F.pdf

T (first citation): (Office of the Chief of Naval Operations [CNO], 2019)

T (subsequent citations): (CNO, 2019)

Memorandum
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Memorandum

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R: Author, A. A. (Full date of issuance). Title of memorandum in sentence case and italics [Memorandum]. Department. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Takai, T. M. (2013, March 28). Adoption of the national information exchange model within the Department of Defense [Memorandum]. Department of Defense. https://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20the%20DoD.pdf

T: (Takai, 2013)

Handbook

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry    T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Name of Company. (Year). Title of handbook in sentence case and italics [Handbook]. DOI or URL

T: (Name of Company, year)

R: Western Spud. (1972). Transmission systems for potatoes (168th ed.) [Handbook]. https://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html

T: (Western Spud, 1972)

Print

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R: Name of Company. (Year). Title of handbook in sentence case and italics [Handbook].

T: (Name of Company, year)

R: Western Electric. (1985). Transmission systems for communications (3rd ed.) [Handbook].

T: (Western Electric, 1985)

Journal Article

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
  • If present, include a DOI link only (not a URL) in references from a library database.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry    T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

DOI preferred

R: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

T: (Author A & Author B, year)

DOI or URL  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Sanico, G. F., & Kakinaka, M. (2008). Terrorism and deterrence policy with transnational support. Defence & Peace Economics, 19(2), 153–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419

T: (Sanico & Kakinaka, 2008)


R: Catrantzos, N. (2010). No dark corners: A different answer to insider threats. Homeland Security Affairs, 6(2).  https://www.hsaj.org/articles/83

T: (Catrantzos, 2010)


From library database  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Giannopoulou, Z. (2014). Prisoners of plot in José Saramago’s The Cave. Philosophy and Literature, 38(2), 332–349. Project MUSE

T: (Giannopoulou, 2014)

Print

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article.

T: (Author, year)

R: Griffin, G. (2009). Managing peacekeeping communications. Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning, 3(4), 317–327.

T: (Griffin, 2009, pp. 324–325)

Legal

Bill / Resolution
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Federal enacted, published in Congressional Record

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, xxx Cong., volume Cong. Rec. page (year) (enacted). DOI or URL

T: (Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, year)

R: S. Res. 438, 114th Cong., 162 Cong. Rec. 2394 (2016) (enacted).

T: (S. Res. 438, 2016)

Federal unenacted

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Bill or Resolution Title in Title Case [if present], Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, xxx Cong. (year). DOI or URL

T: (Bill or Resolution Title in Title Case or Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, year)

or

In your text: Mention title of bill or resolution (Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, year)

R: Managed Competition Act of 1992, H.R. 5936, 102nd Cong. (1992). 
https://www.congress.gov/bill/102nd-congress/house-bill/5936/cosponsors?r=254&overview=closed

T: (H.R. 5936, 1992)


R: Every Vote Counts Amendment, H.J. Res. 4, 110th Cong. (2007).

In your text: In the Every Vote Counts Amendment (H.J. Res. 4, 2007), Congress declared . . . 

Code of Federal Regulations
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Code of Federal Regulations

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R: Name of Act in Title Case, title number C.F.R. part number or § section number (year compiled). DOI or URL

T: (Name of Act, year)

R: Renewable Energy Production Incentives, 10 C.F.R. 451 (2006). https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2006-title10-vol3/pdf/CFR-2006-title10-vol3.pdf

T: (Renewable Energy Production Incentives, 2006)

Congressional Hearing
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Full Hearing

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Title of hearing in sentence case and italics, xxx Cong. (year). DOI or URL

T: (Shortened Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, year)

R: Long-term sustainability of current defense plans: Hearing before the Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives, 111th Cong. (2009). https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg47035/pdf/CHRG-111hhrg47035.pdf

T: (Long-term Sustainability, 2009)

Testimony within a Hearing

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R: Title of testimony in sentence case and italics, xxx Cong. (year) (testimony of xxx). DOI or URL

In your text: mention name and credentials/title of testifier.

T: (Shortened Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, year)

R: NASA infrastructure: Enabling discovery and ensuring capability, U.S. House Committee on Science, Space, and TechnologySubcommittee on Space, 113th Cong. (2013) (testimony of Paul Martin).  https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-113hhrg85276/html/CHRG-113hhrg85276.htm

In your text: NASA inspector general Paul Martin noted in his statement before the House . . .

T: (NASA Infrastructure, 2013)
Court Case Decision
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Lower court

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Party Names, Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter, first page of decision], pages or paragraphs cited (Court Abbreviation and year). DOI or URL

T: (Party Names in italics, year)

R: Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078, 1092–1104 (E.D. Wis. 1972). https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=16374362071956566586&q
=Lessard+v.+Schmidt&hl=en&as_sdt=2006&as_vis=1

T: (Lessard v. Schmidt, 1972)

Supreme Court

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Party Names, Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter, first page of decision], pages or paragraphs cited (year). DOI or URL

T: (Party Names in italics, year)

R: Blystone v. Pennsylvania, 494 U.S. 299, 301 (1990). https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/494/299/

T: (Blystone v. Pennsylvania, 1990)
Executive Order
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry    T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Executive Order

Basic format

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. page number (year compiled). DOI or URL

T: (Executive Order No. xxxxx, year compiled)

R: Exec. Order No. 13655, 3 C.F.R. 339 (2014). 
https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2014-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title3-vol1.pdf

T: (Executive Order No. 13655, 2014)

Executive Order

Extended format

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. page number (year compiled), reprinted in title number U.S.C. § section number app. at starting page of order–ending page of order (year reprinted).

T: (Executive Order No. xxxxx, year reprinted)

R: Exec. Order No. 11609, 3 C.F.R. 586 (1971–1975), reprinted as amended in 3 U.S.C. § 301 app. at 404–407 (1994).

T: (Executive Order No. 11609, 1994)
Federal Acquisition Regulation
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Federal Acquisition Regulation

Zotero Opens in new window

R: FAR subpart number, Title of Subpart in Title Case (year). URL

T: (FAR subpart, year)

R: FAR 8.5, Acquisition of Helium (2019). https://www.acquisition.gov/content/subpart-85-acquisition-helium

T: (FAR 8.5, 2019)

Public Law
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Code

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Title of Act in Title Case, title number U.S.C. § section number (year). DOI or URL

T: (Title of Act in Title Case, year)

R: National Environmental Policy Act, 42 U.S.C. § 4331 (1969).

T: (first citation): (National Environmental Policy Act [NEPA],1969)

T (subsequent citations): (NEPA, 1969)

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Statutes at Large

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Title of Act in Title Case, Pub. L. No. xxx, volume Source page number (year published). DOI or URL

T: (Title of Act, year published)

R: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–336, 104 Stat. 327 (1990). https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/STATUTE-104/STATUTE-104-Pg327

T: (Americans with Disabilities Act, 1991)

Magazine Article

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
  • If present, include a DOI link only (not a URL) in references from a library database.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

DOI preferred

R: Title of article in sentence case. (Year, Month [and day if weekly or biweekly]). Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

T: ("First Few Words of Article Title in Title Case," year)

DOI or URL, No author  Zotero Opens in new window

R: So long, easy money: Foreign drug firms face a severe profit squeeze. (2014, June 14). The Economist. https://www.economist.com/news/business/21604178-foreign-drug-firms-face-severe-profit-squeeze-so-long-easy-money

T: (“So Long,” 2014)


From library database  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Katz, F. (2020, January–March). You're grounded for life. Parenting Highlights Quarterly, 112(1), 2227. ProQuest

T: (Katz, 2020, p. 25)

Print

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year, Month [and day if weekly or biweekly]). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article.

T: (Author, year)

R: Beforebad, S. (2017, July 4). Cold spaghetti: To eat or not to eat? Pasta Dynamics, 547(7661), 30–31.

T: (Beforebad, 2017).

 

 

Map

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry    T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Google Map / Earth

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Google. (n.d.). [Description of map]. Retrieved Month and day, year, from URL

T: (Google, n.d.)

R: Google. (n.d.). [Google Map of Monterey Bay]. Retrieved July 6, 2017, from
 https://www.google.com/maps/
place/Monterey+Bay/@36.7896106,-122.0843052,11z/
data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:
0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311

T: (Google, n.d.)

 

Multimedia

  • If the director is unknown or if it is useful, someone in a similar role can be credited to aid readers in retrieving the work, such as the producer, host, artist, uploader, etc.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Film

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of film in sentence case and italics [Film]. Production Company. DOI or URL

T: (Director, year published)

R: Dick, K. (Director). (2012). The invisible war [Film]. Chain Camera Pictures. https://www.amazon.com/Invisible-War-Helen-Benedict/dp/B009G9YCB4

T: (Dick, 2012)

Podcast

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Host, H. H. (Host) or Executive Producer, E. P. (Executive Producer). (Full date). Title of episode sentence case (No. #) [Audio podcast episode]. In Podcast title in sentence case and italics. Production company. URL

T: (Screen Name or Organization or Author or Producer, year)

R: McBracket, D. (Host). (2020, January 7). Taking the sigh out of citation (No. 846) [Audio podcast episode]. In Team Citation presents. Komodo Studios. https://www.komodo-studios.com/
podcasts/10486/firstnamelastlastnamefirst.html

T: (McBracket, 2020)

Video

News, YouTube, or
any kind of streaming video

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Screen Name or Organization or Author, A. A. or  Producer, A. A. (Full date). Title of video in sentence case and italics [Video]. Platform. URL

T: (Screen Name or Organization or Author or Producer, year)
R: CNN. (2017, August 31). US military sends warships, aircraft to Texas [Video]. http://www.cnn.com/2017/08/30/politics/texas-harvey-flooding-military-esponse/iid=ob_lockedrail_topeditorial

T: (CNN, 2017)

Newspaper Article

  • Use the leading word “the” when referencing newspaper names in list of references (The New York Times, not New York Times).
  • If present, include a DOI link only (not a URL) in references from a library database.
  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

DOI preferred

R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics. DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

T: (Author, year)

DOI or URL, Author given  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brains agile. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11brod.html

T: (Brody, 2007)


DOI or URL, No author  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Toxic algae in San Luis Reservoir prompts warning from state. (2017, June 30). Monterey Herald. https://www.montereyherald.com/environment-and-nature/20170630/toxic-algae-in-san-luis-reservoir-prompts-warning-from-state

T: ("Toxic Algae," 2017)


From library database  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Gordon, M. R. (2001, December 9). Shifting fronts, rising danger: The Afghanistan War evolves. The New York Times, ProQuest

T: (Gordon, 2001)

Patent

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry    T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Patent

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Inventor, A. A. (Year issued). Title of patent in sentence case and italics (U.S. Patent No. xxxxxx). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. DOI or URL

T: (Inventor, year issued)

R: Bell, A. G. (1876). Improvement in telegraphy (U.S. Patent No. 174465A). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://www.google.com/patents/US174465

T: (Bell, 1876)

 

Personal Communication

  • Cite in text only.
     
  • Personal communication is material obtained directly from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.
     
  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email Including attachments, internal documents, documents posted to a listserv or internal server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry    T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Email

(including attachments such as presentation slides, data sets, internal documents, etc.)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: None

T: Include sender's name, email to author, Full date of email)

R: None

T: (Q. Grumbupple, email to author, October 22, 1994)

or

T: According to Quentin Grumbupple (email to author, October 22, 1994) 

Interview

Zotero Opens in new window

R: None

T: Include name and title of interviewee as well as full date of interview.

R: None

T: (S. Jones, Director of . . . , interview with author, June 1, 2012)

or

In your text: According to Sandi Jones, Director of . . . (interview with author, June 1, 2012)

Personal Communication

Zotero Opens in new window

R: None

T: Include person's name, personal communication, Full date of communication

R: None

T: (J. Smith, personal communication, September 8, 2009)

or

In your text: According to Rebecca Risotto (personal communication, September 8, 2009)

Photograph

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Photograph

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Photographer, P. P. (Year). Title of photograph in sentence case and italics or [Description of photograph in sentence case]. Source. URL

T: (Photographer, year)

R: Harrison, T. (2018). [Kenya Defense Force's 1st Canine Regiment]. Military.com. https://www.military.com/off-duty/2018/12/30/best-military-photos-2018.html

T: (Harrison, 2018)

Report

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it is not freestanding, then format it as a webpage.
     
  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Research Report / Think Tank Report / White Paper
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Research Report / Think Tank Report / White Paper

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., . . . Author, Z. Z. or Organization. (year). Title of report in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Publisher or Organization. DOI or URL

T: (Author et al. or Organization, year)

R: Dixon, L., Clancy, N., Miller, B. M., Hoegberg, S., Lewis, M. M., Bender, B., . . . Choquette, S. R. (2017). The cost and affordability of flood insurance in New York City (Report No. RR1776-NYCEDC). RAND. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1776.html

T: (Dixon et al., 2017)
Technical Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author given

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of technical report in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Publisher or Organization. URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Tang, K. L., & Eignor, D. R. (2001). A study in the use of collateral statistical information in attempting to reduce TOEFL IRT item parameter estimation sample sizes (Report Nos. RR-01-11, TOEFL-TR-17). ETS. https://www.ets.org/research/policy_research_reports/
publications/report/2001/hsfb

T: (Tang & Eignor, 2001)

Organization as author

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Organizational Author. (Year). Title of technical report in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Publisher or Parent Organization [if different from organizational author]. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: National Toxicology Program. (2012). Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (technical grade) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice (dermal studies) (Report No. TR-576). National Institutes of Health. https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/tr576abs

T (first citation): (National Toxicology Program [NTP], 2012)

T (subsequent citations): (NTP, 2012)

Author given

(print)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of technical report in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Publisher or Organization.

T: (Author, year)

R: Jones, K. A., & Johnson, F. (2015). The absorption rate of E. coli in cats (Report No. 17-59). Veterinary Studies. 

T: (Jones & Johnson, 2015)

Secondary Source

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Secondary Source

Zotero Opens in new window

R: List the secondary source that quotes or discusses the material you are referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)


In your text: In your text, identify the primary source using the phrase "as cited in," followed by the secondary source.

or

T: If using a parenthetical citation, cite the primary source first, followed by the phrase "as cited in" and then the secondary source.

R: Nicholson, I. A. M. (2003). Inventing personality: Gordon Allport and the science of selfhood. American Psychological Association.


In your text: We can see this idea in the following passage from Allport’s diary (1926), as cited in Nicholson (2003): " . . . " (p. 36).

or

T:  (Allport, 1926, as cited in Nicholson, 2003, p. 36)

 

Social Media

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc.

R: Author, A. A. or Organization or Screen Name [handle]. (Full date). Title of post or up to 20 words of the post in sentence case and italics or [Description of post in sentence case]. [Type of post]. Platform. URL

T: (Author or Organization or Screen
Name, year)

Instagram  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Babygiraffe [@babygiraffehaslastlaugh]. (2020, January 7). Mocking those visiting the zoo [Video]. Instagram. https://instagram.com/p/s340[jafmOujejl

T: (Babygiraffe, 2020)


Twitter  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Enginewarmup [@owl-pellets]. (2020, January 7). Follow the rules when shortening tweets [Tweet]. Twitter.  https://twitter.com/owl-pellets/mouse-parts128987899

T: (Enginewarmup, 2020)

 

Speech

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Speech

Zotero Opens in new window

R: List the source that quotes or reprints the speech you are referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: Include name of speaker.

R: Smith, J. (Ed.). (2009). Well said! Great speeches in American history. E & K Publishing.

In your text: Martin Luther King, Jr. declared, “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed” (Smith, 2009).

Thesis / Dissertation

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

From a commercial database

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case and italics (Identification number) [Type of document, Name of Institution]. Name of Database in Title Case

T: (Author, year)

R: Choi, M. (2008). Contesting imaginaires in death rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty (Publication No. 3300426) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global

T: (Choi, 2008)

From an institutional archive

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case and italics [Type of document, Name of Institution]. Name of Institutional Archive. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

Dissertation  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Rivera, J. (2010). Software system architecture modeling methodology for naval gun weapon systems [Doctoral dissertation, Naval Postgraduate School]. NPS Archive: Calhoun. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/10504

T: (Rivera, 2010)


Thesis  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Moon, T. D. (2009). Rising dragon: Infrastructure development and Chinese influence in Vietnam [Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School]. NPS Archive: Calhoun. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/4694

T: (Moon, 2009)

Unpublished / Informally Published Work

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
     
  • Unpublished works include work that is in progress, has been completed but not yet submitted for publication, or has been submitted but not yet accepted for publication.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry     T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Work accepted for publication

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (in press). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number). DOI or URL

T: (Author, in press)

R: Briscoe, R. (in press). Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf

T: (Briscoe, in press)

Work not submitted for publication

(print)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year produced). Title of manuscript in sentence case and italics [Unpublished manuscript].

T: (Author, year)

R: Horse, B. B. (1995). Back in the saddle [Unpublished manuscript].

T: (Horse, 1995)

Work submitted for publication

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year produced). Title of work in sentence case and italics [Manuscript submitted for publication]. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Horse, B. B. (1996). Back in the saddle 2: Back in the saddle [Manuscript submitted for publication]. https://horse.com/bits2bits

T: (Horse, 1996)

 

Website / Webpage

  • Title of website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
     
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, The New York Times, not Reuters, Bloomberg, CNN, etc. These news organizations only have an online presence, whereas The New York Times has both an online and print counterpart.
     
  • If additional information is necessary for identification and retrieval of a reference, it may be included in brackets immediately after the title and any parenthetical information.
     
  • When citing a direct quotation from a website without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. A direct quotation might provide chapter number, section heading, and paragraph number within the section only if available.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author given, date given

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title, section, or page name in sentence case and italics. Website Name in Title Case. URL

T: (Author, year, locator)

R: Roth, R. (2017, April 18). 75 years ago, the Doolittle Raid changed history. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html

T: (Roth, 2017, para. 2)

Organization as author, date given

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Organization. (Full date). Title, section, or page name in sentence case and italics. URL

T: (Organization, year)

R: Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2017, April 6). Forging papers to sell fake art. https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art

T (first citation): (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (FBI, 2017)

No date given

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. or Organization. (n.d.). Title, section, or page name in sentence case and italics. Website Name in Title Case. Retrieved full date, from URL

T: (Author, n.d.)

R: Python, M. (n.d.). Finding a dead parrot on a silly walk. Ministry of Silly Walks. Retrieved January 7, 2020, from https://www.omgitsadeadparrot.com/feathers

T: (Python, n.d.)

Janes example

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Janes. (Year). Title, section, or page name in sentence case and italics. URL

T: (Janes, year)

R: Janes. (2020). Mali: Executive summary. https://customer.janes.com/

T: (Janes, 2020)

Wikipedia

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Wikipedia

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Title of entry in sentence case. (n.d.). In Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Retrieved full date, from URL

T: ("Title of entry," n.d.)

R: Psychology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved May 17, 2011, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology

T: (“Psychology,” n.d.)

 

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of fact sheet in sentence case and italics [Working paper]. Institution or Company. DOI or URL
 
T: (Last Name, year)
R: Linguine, L. (2019). Anteaters and aardvarks: Power critters [Working paper]. Animal Rights Institute. https://www.aanda.power/careers.html
 
T: (Linguine, 2019)