Citation Guide

APA: Examples

APA: Examples

(6th ed.)

For NPS Theses, Papers, and Publications

To cite properly, apply the Essential Rules to the examples given below.

 

Blog

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Blog Post

R: Author, A. A. or Screen Name (Full date). Title of post in sentence case [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL

T: (Screen Name or Author, year)

R: Dubner, S. J. (2014, June 25). The quality-quantity tradeoff dilemma [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://freakonomics.com/2014/06/25/the-quality-quantity-tradeoff-dilemma/

T: (Dubner, 2014)

Blog Comment

R: Author, A. A. or Screen Name (Full date). Re: Title of original blog post in sentence case [Blog comment]. Retrieved from URL

T: (Screen Name or Author, year)

R: MiddleKid. (2007, January 5). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Blog comment]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/22/the-unfortunate-prerequisites/

T: (MiddleKid, 2007)

 

Book

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.​
Print Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore's dilemma: A natural history of four meals. New York, NY: Penguin.

T: (Pollan, 2006)

Two authors with edition number

R: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics (edition number). Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author A & Author B, year)

R: Strindberg, A., & Wärn, M. (2011). Islamism: Religion, radicalization and resistance (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

T: (Strindberg & Wärn, 2011)

Three authors

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T (first citation): (Author A, Author B, & Author C, year)

T (subsequent citations): (Author A et al., year)

R: Cordesman, A. H., Mausner, A., & Kasten, D. (2009). Winning in Afghanistan: Creating effective Afghan security forces. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

T (first citation): (Cordesman, Mausner, & Kasten, 2009, p. 19)

T (subsequent citations): (Cordesman et al., 2009, pp. 45–46)
Book Chapter in Edited Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author, two editors

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter in sentence case. In B. B. Editor & C. C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book in sentence case and italics (pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter). Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Haynes, P. (2009). Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, and US foreign policy. In D. Moran and J. A. Russell (Eds.), Energy security and global politics: The militarization of resource management (pp. 62–74). New York, NY: Routledge.

T: (Haynes, 2009, p. 70)

Three authors, one editor

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of chapter in sentence case. In D. D. Editor (Ed.), Title of book in sentence case and italics (pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter). Place of Publication: Publisher.

T (first citation): (Author A, Author B, & Author C, year)

T (subsequent citations): (Author A et al., year)

R: Cordesman, A. H., Mausner, A., & Kasten, D. (2009). Introduction. In J. Smith (Ed.), Winning in Afghanistan: Creating effective Afghan security forces (pp. 1–12). Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

T (first citation): (Cordesman, Mausner, & Kasten, 2009, p. 11)

T (subsequent citations): (Cordesman et al., 2009, pp. 2–3)
Electronic Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

With URL

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Author, year, location information)

R: Crabtree, J., & Chaplin, A. (2013). Bolivia: Processes of change. Retrieved from
https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ebook-nps/
detail.action?docID=1183073

T: (Crabtree & Chaplin, 2013, Chapter 7, The Other Side of Town, para. 2)

With book provider

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics [E-reader version]. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Author, year)

R: A. Krishnan. (2008). War as business: Technological change and military service contracting [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com

T: (Krishnan, 2008) 

  • When citing a direct quotation from an electronic book without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. The citation might include a chapter number, section heading, location number, or paragraph number within the section.

Class Notes, PowerPoint Slides, Lectures, Presentations, Workshops

  • Class notes include lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.
     
  • If PowerPoint slides, lectures, class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's/lecturer's name and type of medium (e.g., "class notes," "PowerPoint slides").
     
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Class Notes

Published

R: Instructor, A. A. (Year). Title of notes in sentence case. Class notes for Class, Location of Institution. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Instructor, year)

R: Johnson, J. (2017). Python NumPy tutorial.  Class notes for CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA. Retrieved from http://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/

T: (Johnson, 2017)

Lecture, PowerPoint Slides, or Class Notes

Unpublished

R: Do not include in references list if not publicly available

T: (A. Author, class notes, Month and day of class, year)

R: None

T: (D. Bray, PowerPoint slides, March 26, 2017)

Lecture

Published

R: Author, A. A. (Year of presentation). Title of lecture in sentence case and italics [Lecture]. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Horse, B. B. (2017). Horseshoes and hand grenades: On the joys of approximation [Lecture]. Retrieved from http://horse.edu/

T: (Horse, 2017)

Presentation or Workshop

R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title of presentation in sentence case and italics. Presented at Venue, Location of Venue. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Randall, L. (2002, July 19). Unification in warped extra dimensions and bulk holography. Presented at Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Retrieved from http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/events/strings02/avt/randall/

T: (Randall, 2002)

 

Computer Program / Software

  • Citation is required only if the software is not well known.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

R: Rightsholder, A. A., Rightsholder, B. B., Rightsholder, C. C., & Rightsholder, D. D. (Year). Title of Obscure Software in Title Case [Computer software]. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: Include Rightholder[s] names (Year) Name of software in Title Case

R: Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2005). Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2) [Computer software]. Retrieved from http://www.meta-analysis.com/index.html

T: We used Borenstein, Hedges, Higgins, and Rothstein’s (2005) Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software to compile our results.

Hard copy

R: Rightsholder, A. A. (Year). Title of Obscure Software in Title Case [Computer software]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: Include Name of software in Title Case, Version number, Year

R: Esolang, A. N. (2014). Obscure Reference Generator [Computer software]. Washington, DC: E & K Press.

T: We used the Obscure Reference Generator (Version 2.1; Esolang, 2014) and Version 1.0 of Customized Synergy (2014) to complete our work.

 

Conference Paper / Proceedings

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Conference Proceedings

(online)

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., ... & Author, Z. Z. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics, starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T (first citation): (Author A, Author B, ... & Author Z, year)

T (subsequent citations): (Author A et al., year)

R: Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kass, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105,12593–12598. https://doi.org.10.1073/pnas.0805417105

T (first citation): (Herculano-Houzel, Collins, Wong, Kass, & Lent, 2008, p. 12595)

T (subsequent citations): (Herculano-Houzel et al., 2008, p. 12595)

Conference Proceedings

(print)

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., ... & Author, Z. Z. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. In A. A. Editor, B. B. Editor, C. C. Editor, . . . & Z. Z. Editor (Eds.) Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics (pp. x–xxx).

T: (Author A, Author B, & Author C, year)

R: Katz, I., Gabayan, K., & Aghajan, H. (2007). A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras. In J. Blanc-Talon, W. Philips, D. Popescu, & P. Scheunders (Eds.) Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 4678. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (pp. 97–108).

T: (Katz, Gabayan, & Aghajan, 2007)

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., ... & Author, Z. Z. (Year, Month). Title of article in sentence case. Paper presented at Title of Conference in Title Case, Location of Conference.

T (first citation): (Author A, Author B, . . . & Author Z, year)

T (subsequent citations): (Author A et al., year)

R: Teplin, L. A., McClelland, G. M., Abram, K. M., & Washburn, J. J. (2005, March). Early violent death in delinquent youth: A prospective longitudinal study. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA.

T (first citation): (Teplin, McClelland, Abram, & Washburn, 2005)

T (subsequent citations): (Teplin et al., 2005) 

Data Set / Database

  • For information retrieved from a database, provide enough information for your readers to replicate the data. Include in your text the name of the database or the data source, along with other descriptive information (such as the unit of observation, the years selected, the sample size, and/or other selection criteria). The database does not necessarily need to appear in your List of References.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Data Set / Database

R: Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title in sentence case and italics [Data set]. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Author or Organization, year)

R: Suro, R. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing culture: A survey of Latinos on news media [Data set]. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/
2004/04/19/changing-channels-and -crisscrossing-cultures/

T: (Suro, 2004)

Since an unpublished data set is irretrievable, it is treated as a personal communication and therefore not cited in references.

R: None

T: (Author First and Last Name, unpublished data)

R: None

T: (Kathy Kanteen, unpublished data)

 

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Dictionary

R: Title of entry in sentence case. (n.d.). In Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Retrieved Month and day, year, from URL

T: ("Title of entry," n.d.)

R: Metamorphosis. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster. Retrieved July 6, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis

T: ("Metamorphosis," n.d.)
Encyclopedia

R: Author, A. A. (year). Title of entry in sentence case. In Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Retrieved from URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Stewart, J. I. M. (2019). Rudyard Kipling. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Rudyard-Kipling

T: (Stewart, 2019)

 

Directive / Instruction

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
     
  • When the author and publisher are the same, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Directive

R: Department. (Full date). Title of directive in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Place of Publication: Author. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Department of Defense. (2005, December 19). Information assurance training, certification, and workforce management (DoD Directive 8570.01-M). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/issuances/
dodm/857001m.pdf

T (first citation): (Department of Defense [DoD], 2005)

T (subsequent citations): (DoD, 2005)

Instruction

R: Department. (Full date). Title of instruction in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Place of Publication: Author.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Department of Defense. (2012, April 16). Identification (ID) cards required by the Geneva Convention (DoD Instruction 1000.01). Washington, DC: Author.

T (first citation): (Department of Defense [DoD], 2012)

T (subsequent citations): (DoD, 2012)

 

Doctrine

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Joint Doctrine

R: Joint Chiefs of Staff. (Year). Title of joint doctrine in sentence case and italics (document identification number). DOI or Retrieved from URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Joint Chiefs of Staff. (2017). Countering air and missile threats (JP 3-01). Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_01_20172104.pdf

T (first citation): (Joint Chiefs of Staff [JCS], 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (JCS, 2017)

Fact Sheet

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Fact Sheet

R: Department. (Year). Title of fact sheet in sentence case [Fact sheet]. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Department of Labor. (2008). The construction industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs1.htm

T (first citation): (Department of Labor [DOL], 2008)

T (subsequent citations): (DOL, 2008)

 

Field Manual / Military Regulation

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Field Manual or Military Regulation

R: Department. (Year). Title of field manual in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Place of Publication: Author. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Department of the Army. (1994). Sniper training (FM 23-10). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf

T (first citation): (Department of the Army [DA], 1994)

T (subsequent citations): (DA, 1994)

 

Handbook

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

R: Name of Company. (Year). Title of handbook in sentence case and italics. Location of Company, State: Author. Retrieved from DOI or URL

T: (Name of Company, year)

R: Western Spud. (1972). Transmission systems for potatoes (168th ed.). Kinston-Slalom, ID: Author. Retrieved from http://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html

T: (Western Spud, 1972)

Print

R: Name of Company. (Year). Title of handbook in sentence case and italics. Location of Company, State: Author.

T: (Name of Company, year)

R: Western Electric. (1985). Transmission systems for communications (3rd ed.). Winston-Salem, NC: Author.

T: (Western Electric, 1985)

Journal Article

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 

DOI preferred

R: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article. https://doi.org.xxxxxxx

T: (Author A & Author B, year)

R: Sanico, G., & Kakinaka, M. (2008). Terrorism and deterrence policy with transnational support. Defence & Peace Economics, 19(2), 153–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419

T: (Sanico & Kakinaka, 2008)

From a subscription database (no DOI given)

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article. Retrieved from Name of database

T: (Author, year)

R: Giannopoulou,  Z. (2014). Prisoners of plot in José Saramago’s The Cave. Philosophy and Literature 38(2), 126–137. Retrieved from Project Muse

T: (Giannopoulou, 2014)

From an online journal

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number). Retrieved from URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Catrantzos, N. (2010). No dark corners: A different answer to insider threats. Homeland Security Affairs, 6(2). Retrieved from https://www.hsaj.org/articles/83

T: (Catrantzos, 2010)

From a print journal

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article.

T: (Author, year)

R: Griffin, G. (2009). Managing peacekeeping communications. Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning, 3(4), 317–327.

T: (Griffin, 2009, pp. 324–325)

Legal

Bill / Resolution
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Federal unenacted, untitled

(online)

R: Abbreviated bill or resolution source and number, xxx Cong. (Year published). DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: Bill or Resolution Source in Title Case and number (Year published) or (Abbreviated bill or resolution source and number, year)

R: H.R. 5936, 102nd Cong. (1992). Retrieved from
https://www.congress.gov/bill/102nd-congress/house-bill/5936/cosponsors?r=254&overview=closed

T: House Resolution 5936 (1992) or (H.R. 5936, 1992)

Federal
unenacted, titled

(print)

R: Name of Statute in Title Case, abbreviated bill or resolution source and number, xxx Cong. (Year published).

T: Mention name of bill or resolution (Abbreviated bill or resolution source and number, year published) 

R: Every Vote Counts Amendment, H.J. Res. 4, 110th Cong. (2007).

T: In the Every Vote Counts Amendment (H.J. Res. 4, 2007), Congress declared ...

Code of Federal Regulations
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Code of Federal Regulations

R: Name of Act in Title Case, title number and Source § section number (Year published). DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Name of Act, year published)

R: Renewable Energy Production Incentives, 10 C.F.R. § 451 (2006). Retrieved from
https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title10-vol3/xml/CFR-2006-title10-vol3-part451.xml

T: (Renewable Energy Production Incentives, 2006)

Congressional Hearing / Testimony within a Hearing
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Congressional Hearing 

Full hearing

(online)

R: Title of hearing in sentence case and italics, xxx Cong. (Year). DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Abbreviated Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, year)

R: Long-term sustainability of current defense plans: Hearing before the Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives, 111th Cong. 1 (2009). Retrieved from https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg47035/pdf/CHRG-111hhrg47035.pdf

T: (Long-term Sustainability, 2009)

Testimony within a Hearing

(print)

R: Title of hearing in sentence case and italics, xxx Cong. (Year of hearing) (testimony of Testifier, title).

T: (Abbreviated Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, year)

R: NASA infrastructure: Enabling discovery, enabling durability: Testimony before the Subcommittee on Space Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, 113th Cong. 25 (2013) (testimony of Paul K. Martin, NASA lead scientist).

T: (NASA Infrastructure, 2009)
Court Case Decision
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Lower court

(online)

R: Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Abbreviation and year). DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Name v. Name in italics, year)

R: Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972). Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=16374362071956566586&q
=Lessard+v.+Schmidt&hl=en&as_sdt=2006&as_vis=1

T: (Lessard v. Schmidt, 1972)

Supreme Court

(print)

R: Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Abbreviation and year)

T: (Name v. Name in italics, year)

R: Winter v. NRDC, Inc., 129 S. Ct. 365 (2008)

T: (Winter v. NRDC, 2008)
Executive Order
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Basic format

(online)

R: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. Page (Year). DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Executive Order No. xxxxx, year)

R: Exec. Order No. 13655, 3 C.F.R. 80451 (2013). Retrieved from
https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-31/pdf/2013-31445.pdf

T: (Executive Order No. 13655, 2013)

Extended format

(print)

R: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. Page (Year), reprinted in title number U.S.C. section app. at starting page of order–ending page of order (Year).

T: (Executive Order No. xxxxx, year)

R: Exec. Order No. 11609, 3 C.F.R. 586 (1971–1975), reprinted as amended in 3 U.S.C. 301 app. at 404–407 (1994).

T: (Executive Order No. 11609, 1994)
Federal Acquisition Regulation
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Federal Acquisition Regulation

R: Name of FAR part or subpart, FAR number (Year published). Retrieved from URL

T: (Name of FAR part or subpart, year published)

In your text: Be specific and name the portion of the subpart you are citing.

R: Acquisition of Helium, FAR 8.5 (2019). Retrieved from https://www.acquisition.gov/content/subpart-85-acquisition-helium

T: (Acquisition of Helium, 2019)

In your text: In FAR 8.502, it describes ...

Public Law
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Published in the U.S. Code

(print)

R: Title of Act in Title Case, U.S.C. section (Year).

T: Title of Act (Year) OR

T: (Title of Act, year)

R: National Environmental Policy Act, 42 U.S.C. § 4331 (1969).

T: (first citation): (National Environmental Policy Act [NEDA],1969)

T (subsequent citations): (NEDA, 1969)

OR

T: National Environmental Policy Act of 1969

Published in the U.S. Statutes at Large

(online)

R: Title of Act in Title Case, Public Law number, Stat. section (Year). DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: Title of Act OR

T: (Title of Act, year)

R: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101-336 § 2, 104 Stat. 328 (1991). Retrieved from http://library.clerk.house.gov/reference-files
/PPL_101_336_AmericansWithDisabilities.pdf

T: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 OR

T: (Americans with Disabilities Act, 1991)

Magazine Article

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

No author given

(online)

R: Title of article in sentence case. (Year, Month [and day if weekly or biweekly]). Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: ("First Few Words of Article Title in Title Case," year)

R: So long easy money: Foreign drug firms face a severe profit squeeze. (2014, June 12). The Economist. Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/news/business/21604178-foreign-drug-firms-face-severe-profit-squeeze-so-long-easy-money

T: (“So Long,” 2014)

Author given

(print)

R: Author, A. A. (Year, Month [and day if weekly or biweekly]). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article.

T: (Author, year)

R: Beforebad, S. (2017, July 4). Cold spaghetti: To eat or not to eat? Pasta Dynamics, 547(7661), 30–31.

T: (Beforebad, 2017).

 

 

Map

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Google Map

R: Google Maps. (n.d.). Title of map in sentence case. Retrieved Month and day, year, from URL

T: (Google Maps, n.d.)

R: Google Maps. (n.d.). Monterey Bay. Retrieved July 6, 2017, from
 https://www.google.com/maps/
place/Monterey+Bay/@36.7896106,-122.0843052,11z/
data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:
0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311

T: (Google Maps, n.d.)

Cartographer given

(online)

R: Map Source or Maker in Title Case. (Year). Title of map in sentence case [Type of map]. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Map Source or Maker in Title Case, year)

R: Lewis County Geographic Information Services (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic map]. Retrieved from http://maps.lewiscountywa.gov/maps/Demographics/census-popdens_2000.pdf

T: (Lewis County Geographic Information Services, 2002)

 

Memorandum, Official

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Memorandum, Official

R: Author, A. A. (Full date of issuance). Title of memorandum in sentence case and italics [Memorandum]. Place of Publication: Publisher. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Takai, T. (March 28, 2013). Adoption of the national information exchange model within the Department of Defense [Memorandum]. Washington, DC: Department of Defense. Retrieved from http://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20the%20DoD.pdf

T: (Takai, 2013)

Multimedia

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Motion Picture

R: Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of film in sentence case and italics [Medium]. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Producer & Director, year published)

R: Ziering, A. (Producer), & Dick, K. (Director). (2012). The invisible war [Streaming]. Retrieved from https://www.netflix.com/

T: (Ziering & Dick, 2012)

News video,  YouTube, or
any kind of streaming video or podcast

R: Screen Name or Organization or Author A. A.  or  Producer, A. A. (Full date). Title of multimedia  in sentence case and italics [Type of file]. Retrieved from URL

T: (Screen Name or Organization or Author or Producer, year)

R: McBracket, D. (Producer). (2019, February 15). Taking the sigh out of citation [Podcast]. Retrieved from https://www.knps.org/
podcasts/10486/firstnamelastlastnamefirst.html/

T: (McBracket, 2019)


R: CNN. (2017, August 31). US military sends warships, aircraft to Texas [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2017/08/30/politics/texas-harvey-flooding-military-esponse/iid=ob_lockedrail_topeditorial

T: (CNN, 2017)

Newspaper Article

  • Use the leading word “the” when referencing newspaper names in list of references (The New York Times, not New York Times).
  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author given

(online)

R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brains agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11brod.html

T: (Brody, 2007)

No author given

(online)

R: Title of article in sentence case. (Full date). Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: ("First Few Words of Article Title in Title Case," year)

R: Toxic algae in San Luis Reservoir prompts warning from state. (2017, June 30). Monterey Herald. Retrieved from http://www.montereyherald.com/environment-and-nature/20170630/toxic-algae-in-san-luis-reservoir-prompts-warning-from-state

T: ("Toxic Algae," 2017)

Author given

(print)

R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics.

T: (Author, year)

R: Gordon, M. R. (2001, December 9). Shifting fronts, rising danger: The Afghanistan War evolves. The New York Times.

T: (Gordon, 2001)

No author given

(print)

R: Title of article in sentence case. (Full date). Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics.

T: ("First Few Words of Article Title in Title Case," year)

R: 2 tunnels found under the border. (2014, April 5). Monterey Herald.

T: (“2 Tunnels Found,” 2014)

Patent

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Patent

R: Rightsholder, A. A. (Year issued). Patent number in sentence case and italics. Location of patent office: Patent office. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (U.S. Patent No. xxxxx, year issued)

R: Bell, A. G. (1876). U.S. Patent No. 174465. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/patents/US174465

T: U.S. Patent No. 174465 (1846)

or

T: (U.S. Patent No. 174465, 1846)

 

Personal Communication, Interview, Email

  • Cite in text only.
     
  • Personal communication is material obtained directly from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.
     
  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email Including attachments, internal documents, documents posted to a listserv or internal server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Personal Communication

R: None

T: Include person's name, personal communication, Full date of communication

R: None

T: (J. Smith, personal communication, September 8, 2009)

or

T: According to Rebecca Risotto (personal communication, September 8, 2009)

Interview

R: None

T: Include name and title of interviewee as well as full date of interview.

R: None

T: (S. Jones, interview with author, June 1, 2012)

or

T: According to Sandi Jones (interview with author, June 1, 2012)

Email

(including attachments such as presentation slides, data sets, internal documents, etc.)

R: None

T: Include sender's name, email to author, Full date of email

R: None

T: (Q. Grumbupple, email to author, October 22, 1994)

or

T: According to Quentin Grumbupple (email to author, October 22, 1994) 

Report

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it is not freestanding, then format it as a webpage
     
  • For reports retrieved online, identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement unless the publisher has been identified as the author or is apparent from the URL. See the CRS Report example.
     
  • When the author and publisher are the same, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.
     
  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Government Report / Document
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

CRS Report

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of report in sentence case and italics (CRS Report No. xxxxxxx). Retrieved from Congressional Research Service website: URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Erwin, M. C. (2011). Intelligence issues for Congress (CRS Report No. RL33539). Retrieved from Congressional Research Service website: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf

T: (Erwin, 2011)

GAO Report

R: Author, A. A. OR Organization. (Year). Title of report in sentence case and italics (GAO-xx-xxx). Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Berrick, C. A. (2009). Homeland security: DHS’s progress and challenges in key areas of maritime, aviation, and cybersecurity (GAO-10-106). Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office.

T: (Berrick, 2009)

Other Government Report

R: Name of Department. (Year). Title of document in sentence case and italics. Place of Publication: Publisher. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T (first citation): (Name of Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Department of State. (1948). Eastern Europe; The Soviet Union. Foreign relations of the United States, 1948. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/FRUS.FRUS1948v04

T (first citation): (Department of State [DOS], 1948)

T (subsequent citations): (DOS, 1948)

R: Obama, B. (2015). National security strategy. Washington, DC: White House.

T: (Obama, 2015)

Technical Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author given

(online)

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of technical report in sentence case and italics (Report No. xxx). Retrieved from Agency Name website: URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Tang, K. L., & Eignor, D. R. (2001). A study in the use of collateral statistical information in attempting to reduce TOEFL IRT item parameter estimation sample sizes (Report Nos. RR-01-11, TOEFL-TR-17). Retrieved from ETS website: https://www.ets.org/research/policy_research_reports/
publications/report/2001/hsfb

T: (Tang & Eignor, 2001)

Agency as publisher

(online)

R: Agency Name. (Year). Title of technical report in sentence case and italics (Report No. xxx). DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Author, year)

R: National Toxicology Program. (2012). Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (CASRN 15625-89-5) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice (Topical Application Studies) (Report No. TR-576). Retrieved from https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm
/reports/longterm/tr500580/listedreports/tr576/index.html

T (first citation): (National Toxicology Program [NTP], 2012)

T (subsequent citations): (NTP, 2012)

Author given

(print)

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of technical report in sentence case and italics (Report No. xxx). Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Jones, K. A., & Johnson, F. (2015). The absorption rate of E. coli in cats (Report No. 17-59). Madison, WI: Veterinary Studies.

T: (Jones & Johnson, 2015)

Think Tank Report / White Paper
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Think Tank Report / White Paper

(online)


List of Think Tanks, U.S. and Globally 

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., ... Author, Z. Z. or Organization. (year). Title of report in sentence case and italics (Report No. xxx). DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Author et al. or Organization, year)

R: Dixon, L., Clancy, N., Miller, B. M., Hoegberg, S. Lewis, M. M., Bender, B., ... Choquette, S. R. (2017). The cost and affordability of flood insurance in New York City (Report No. RR1776-NYCEDC). Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/
research_reports/RR1700/RR1776/RAND_RR1776.pdf

T: (Dixon et al., 2017)

Secondary Source

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Secondary Source

R: List the secondary source that quotes or discusses the material you are referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

T: Include citation of secondary source, using the appropriate in-text format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.

R: Nicholson, I. A. M. (2003). Inventing personality: Gordon Allport and the science of selfhood. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

T: We can see this principle at work in the following passage from Allport’s diary, as cited in Nicholson (2003): " ... " (p. 36).

 

Social Media

  • For guidance on most common social media types, see the APA Style Blog.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc.

R: Author, A. A. or Organization or Screen Name [handle]. (Full date). Title of post or shortened tweet text in sentence case [media platform and type]. Retrieved from URL

T: (Author or Organization or Screen
Name, year)

R: Enginewarmup [@Owl_pellets]. (2018, December 18). Use your good judgment when shortening tweets [Twitter]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/owl_pellets/poopies128987899

T: (Enginewarmup, 2018)


R: Babygiraffe [@babygiraffehaslastlaugh]. (2014, January 7). Mocking those visiting the zoo [Instagram video]. Retrieved from https://instagram.com/p/s340[jafmOujejl

T: (Babygiraffe, 2014)

 

Speech

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Speech

R: List the source that quotes or reprints the speech you are referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

T: Include name of speaker.

R: Smith, J. (Ed.). (2009). Well said! Great speeches in American history. Washington, DC: E & K Publishing.

T: Martin Luther King, Jr. declared, “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed” (Smith, 2009).

Thesis / Dissertation

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

From an institutional archive

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case and italics (Type of document). DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Moon, T. D. (2009). Rising dragon: Infrastructure development and Chinese influence in Vietnam (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4694

T: (Moon, 2009)


R: Rivera, J. (2010). Software system architecture modeling methodology for naval gun weapon systems (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10504

T: (Rivera, 2010)

From a commercial database

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case and italics (Type of document). Available from Database. (Identification number)

T: (Author, year)

R: Choi, M. (2008). Contesting imaginaires in death rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (AAT 3300426).

T: (Choi, 2008)

Print

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case and italics (Type of document). Name of Institution, Location.

T: (Author, year)

R: Crowell, F. (2015). Navy SEALS gone wild: Publicity, fame, and the loss of the quiet professional (Master’s thesis). Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA.

T: (Crowell, 2015)

Unpublished / Informally Published Work

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Unpublished Work

(print)

R: Author, A. A. (Year produced). Title of manuscript in sentence case and italics. Unpublished manuscript.

T: (Author, year)

R: Horse, B. B. (1995). Back in the saddle. Unpublished manuscript.

T: (Horse, 1995)

Work Submitted for Publication

(online)

R: Author, A. A. (Year produced). Title of manuscript in sentence case and italics. Manuscript submitted for publication. DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Horse, B. B. (1996). Back in the saddle 2: Back in the saddle. Manuscript submitted for publication. Retrieved from http://horse.com/bits2bits

T: (Horse, 1996)

Work Accepted for Publication

(online)

R: Author, A. A. (in press). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number). DOI or Retrieved from URL

T: (Author, in press)

R: Briscoe, R. (in press). Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Retrieved from http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf

T: (Briscoe, in press)

 

 

Website / Webpage

  • Title of website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
     
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, The New York Times, not Reuters, Bloomberg, CNN, etc. These news organizations only have an online presence, whereas The New York Times has both an online and print counterpart.
     
  • If additional information is necessary for identification and retrieval of a reference, it may be included in brackets immediately after the title and any parenthetical information.
     
  • When citing a direct quotation from a website without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. A direct quotation might provide chapter number, section heading, and paragraph number within the section.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author given

Name of website in URL

R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Retrieved from URL

T: (Author, year, para. xxx)

R: Roth, R. (2017, April 18). 75 years ago, the Doolittle Raid changed history. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/
75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html

T: (Roth, 2017, para. 2)

Author given

Name of website not in URL

R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Retrieved from Name of Website in Title Case website: URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Sushi, U. Q. (1995, Sept. 30). Absorption of cats in sushi. Retrieved from Sushi Lab website: http://www.wallcrust.com/hgtehrwOIASD.html

T: (Sushi, 1995)

Organization as author

Name of website in URL

R: Organization. (Full date). Title, section, or page name in sentence caseRetrieved from URL

T: (Organization, year)

R: Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2017, April 6). Forging papers to sell fake art. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art

T (first citation): (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (FBI, 2017)

Author given

No date given

R: Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Retrieved full date, from URL

T: (Author, n.d.)

R: Washington, G. (n.d.). About the Department of Defense (DoD). Retrieved April 18, 2017, from https://www.defense.gov/About/

T: (Washington, n.d.)

No date given

Name of website not in URL

R: Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Retrieved full date, from Name of Website in Title Case website: URL

T: (Author, n.d.)

R: Python, M. (n.d.). Finding a dead parrot on a silly walk. Retrieved August 6, 2017, from Ministry of Silly Walks website: http://www.omgitsadeadparrot.com/feathers

T: (Python, n.d.)

Jane's example

R: Jane’s by IHS Markit. (year). Title, section, or page name in sentence case. Retrieved from URL

T: (Jane’s by IHS Markit, year)

R: Jane’s by IHS Markit. (2016). Mali: Executive summary. Retrieved from https://janes.ihs.com.libproxy.nps.edu/NorthAfrica/Display/1303746

T: (Jane’s by IHS Markit, 2016)

Wikipedia

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Wikipedia

R: Title of entry in sentence case. (n.d.). In Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Retrieved full date, from URL

T: ("Title of entry," n.d.)

R: Psychology. (n.d.) In Wikipedia. Retrieved May 17, 2011, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology

T: (“Psychology,” n.d.)

 

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Working Paper / Occasional Paper
R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of working paper in sentence case and italics [Working paper]. Retrieved from Institution or Company. DOI or Retrieved from URL
 
T: (Last Name, year)
R: Linguine, L. (2014). Anteaters and aardvarks: Power critters [Working paper]. Retrieved from Animal Rights Institute website: www.aanda.power/careers.html
 
T: (Linguine, 2014)