Citation Guide

APA: Examples

APA: Examples

(7th ed.)

For NPS Theses, Papers, and Publications

To cite properly, apply the Essential Rules to the examples given below.

 

Blog

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Post

R: Author, A. A. or Screen Name. (Full date). Title of post in sentence case. Title of Blog in Title Case and Italics. URL

T: (Screen Name or Author, year)

R: Dubner, S. J. (2014, June 25). The quality-quantity tradeoff dilemma. Freakonomics. http://freakonomics.com/2014/06/25/the-quality-quantity-tradeoff-dilemma/

T: (Dubner, 2014)

Comment

R: Author, A. A. or Screen Name. (Full date). Re: Title of original blog post in sentence case [Comment on the blog post "Title of blog post in sentence case"]. URL

T: (Screen Name or Author, year)

R: MiddleKid. (2007, January 5). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Comment on the blog post "Has anyone seen my sanity?"]. http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/22/the-unfortunate-prerequisites/

T: (MiddleKid, 2007)

 

Book

Print Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore's dilemma: A natural history of four meals. Penguin.

T: (Pollan, 2006)

Two authors with edition number

R: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics (edition number). Publisher.

T: (Author A & Author B, year)

R: Strindberg, A., & Wärn, M. (2011). Islamism: Religion, radicalization and resistance (2nd ed.). John Wiley and Sons.

T: (Strindberg & Wärn, 2011)

Three authors

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. Publisher.

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Cordesman, A. H., Mausner, A., & Kasten, D. (2009). Winning in Afghanistan: Creating effective Afghan security forces. Center for Strategic and International Studies.

T(Cordesman et al., 2009, pp. 45–46)

Book Chapter in Edited Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author, two editors

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter in sentence case. In B. B. Editor & C. C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book in sentence case and italics (xx ed., pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter). Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Haynes, P. (2009). Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, and US foreign policy. In D. Moran and J. A. Russell (Eds.), Energy security and global politics: The militarization of resource management (2nd ed., pp. 62–74). Routledge.

T: (Haynes, 2009, p. 70)

Three authors, one editor

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of chapter in sentence case. In D. D. Editor (Ed.), Title of book in sentence case and italics (pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter).  Publisher.

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Cordesman, A. H., Mausner, A., & Kasten, D. (2009). Introduction. In J. Smith (Ed.), Winning in Afghanistan: Creating effective Afghan security forces (pp. 1–12). Center for Strategic and International Studies.

T (first citation): (Cordesman et al., 2009, pp. 2–3)

Electronic Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or URL

DOI preferred

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year, location information)

R: Bonds, M. E. (2014). Absolute music: The history of an idea. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199343638.003.0004

T: (Bonds, 2014, Chapter 7, para. 2)

From library database

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. Name of Database in Title Case.

T: (Author, year, location information)

R: Crabtree, J. & Chaplin, A. (2013). Bolivia: Processes of change. ProQuest.

T: (Crabtree & Chaplin, 2013)

With book provider

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics [E-reader version]. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: A. Krishnan. (2008). War as business: Technological change and military service contracting [Kindle DX version]. http://www.amazon.com

T: (Krishnan, 2008) 

  • When citing a direct quotation from an electronic book without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. The citation might include a chapter number, section heading, location number, or paragraph number within the section.
  • If present, include a DOI link only (not a URL) in references from a library database.

Class Notes, Slides, Lecture, Presentation, Workshop

  • Class notes include lecture notes, slides, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.
  • If slides, lecture, class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's/lecturer's name and type of medium (e.g., "class notes," "PowerPoint slides").
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Class Notes

Published

R: Instructor, A. A. (Year). Title of notes in sentence case and italics [Class notes for/on...]. Department, University. DOI or URL

T: (Instructor, year)

R: Johnson, J. (2017). Python NumPy tutorial [Class notes for CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition]. Department of Computer Science, Stanford University. http://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/

T: (Johnson, 2017)

Class Notes, Lecture, or Slides

Unpublished

R: Do not include in references list if not publicly available

T: (A. Author, class notes, Month and day of class, year)

R: None

T: (D. Bray, PowerPoint slides, March 26, 2017)

Lecture

Published

R: Author, A. A. (Year of presentation). Title of lecture in sentence case and italics [Lecture] or [Description of lecture in sentence case]. Venue, location. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Horse, B. B. (2020). Horseshoes and hand grenades: On the joys of approximation [Lecture]. Belmont Race Track, Elmont, NY, United States. http://horse.edu/

T: (Horse, 2020)

Presentation or Workshop

R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title of presentation in sentence case and italics [Presentation or Workshop]. Name of Event, Location. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Randall, L. (2002, July 19). Unification in warped extra dimensions and bulk holography [Presentation]. Holography in Action, Cambridge, MA, United States. http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/events/strings02/avt/randall/

T: (Randall, 2002)

 

Computer Program / Software

  • Cite the software you use in your research if it is not well known in your field.
  • Do not cite the software you use in your research if it is well known in your field. Simply name it in your text.
  • However, a citation is always required if paraphrasing or quoting material from a software program; this includes code, text, images, etc.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., & Author, D. D. or Company. (Year). Title in sentence case and italics (Version number) [Computer software]. Publisher. DOI or URL

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2005). Comprehensive meta-analysis (Version 2) [Computer software]. Biostat. http://www.meta-analysis.com/index.html

T: (Borenstein et al., 2005)

Hard copy

R: Author, A. A. or Company. (Year). Title in sentence case and italics (Version number) [Computer software]. Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Esolang, A. N. (2014). Obscure reference generator [Computer software]. E & K Press.

T: (Esolang, 2014)

 

Conference Paper / Proceedings

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Conference Proceedings

(online)

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., ... & Author, Z. Z. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics, starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Author A et al., year)

R: Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kass, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105,12593–12598. https://doi.org.10.1073/pnas.0805417105

T (first citation): (Herculano-Houzel et al., 2008, p. 12595)

Conference Proceedings

(print)

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., ... & Author, Z. Z. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. In A. A. Editor, B. B. Editor, C. C. Editor, . . . & Z. Z. Editor (Eds.) Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics (pp. x–xxx).

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Katz, I., Gabayan, K., & Aghajan, H. (2007). A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras. In J. Blanc-Talon, W. Philips, D. Popescu, & P. Scheunders (Eds.) Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 4678. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (pp. 97–108).

T: (Katz et al., 2007)

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., ... & Author, Z. Z. (Full date). Title of paper in sentence case and italics [Paper presentation]. Conference Name, Location. DOI or URL

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Teplin, L. A., McClelland, G. M., Abram, K. M., & Washburn, J. J. (2020, January 7). Early violent death in delinquent youth: A prospective longitudinal study [Paper presentation]. Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, United States.

T: (Teplin et al., 2005) 

Data Set / Database

  • For information retrieved from a database, provide enough information for your readers to replicate the data. In your text, include the name of the database or the source of the data, along with other descriptive information (such as the unit of observation, the years selected, the sample size, and/or other selection criteria).
  • Data that is unpublished and retrievable is available to your readers if they contact the given source.
  • Data that is unpublished and not retrievable is not available to the general public.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Published

R: Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title in sentence case and italics (Version number) [Data set]. Publisher. DOI or URL

T: (Author or Organization, year)

R: Suro, R. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing culture: A survey of Latinos on news media [Data set]. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewhispanic.org/
2004/04/19/changing-channels-and -crisscrossing-cultures/

T: (Suro, 2004)

Unpublished and retrievable

R: Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title in sentence case and italics (Version number) [Unpublished raw data] or [Unpublished raw data on...]. Source of data. DOI or URL

T: (Author or Organization, year)

R: Carotene, B. (2020). Changing chard and crisscrossing cucumbers [Unpublished raw data]. U.S. Department of Vegetable Statistics.

T: (Carotene, 2020)


R: Carotene, B. (2020). [Unpublished raw data on the benefits of eating vegetables that begin with the letter C]. U.S. Department of Vegetable Statistics. https://www.wallcrust.edu/fiberchunks

T: (Carotene, 2020)

Unpublished and not retrievable

An unpublished data set that is not retrievable by readers is treated as a personal communication and therefore not cited in references.

R: None

T: (Author First and Last Name, personal communication, full date)

R: None

T: (Kathy Kanteen, personal communication, December 18, 2019)

 

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Dictionary

R: Organization in Title Case. (n.d.). Entry in sentence case. In Reference work in sentence case and italics. Retrieved full date from URL

T: (Organization, n.d.)

R: Merriam-Webster. (n.d.) Metamorphosis. In Merriam-Webster dictionary. Retrieved July 6, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis

T: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)
Encyclopedia

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of entry in sentence case. In Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. URL

T: (Author, year)


For an organizational author, format as a dictionary entry (see above).

For a personal author, format as a chapter in an edited book.

R: Stewart, J. I. M. (2019). Rudyard Kipling. In Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Rudyard-Kipling

T: (Stewart, 2019)

 

Fact Sheet

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Fact Sheet

R: Department or Organization Name. (Year). Title of fact sheet in sentence case and italics [Fact sheet]. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Department of Labor. (2008). The construction industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) [Fact sheet]. http://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs1.htm

T (first citation): (Department of Labor [DOL], 2008)

T (subsequent citations): (DOL, 2008)

 

Government / Military Documents

  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Directive
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Directive

R: Organization. (Full date). Title of instruction in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Department [if different from the authoring organization]. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Department of Defense. (2005, December 19). Information assurance training, certification, and workforce management (DoD Directive 8570.01-M). http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/issuances/
dodm/857001m.pdf

T (first citation): (Department of Defense [DoD], 2005)

T (subsequent citations): (DoD, 2005)

Doctrine
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Joint Doctrine

R: Joint Chiefs of Staff. (Year). Title of joint doctrine in sentence case and italics (document identification number). DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Joint Chiefs of Staff. (2017). Countering air and missile threats (JP 3-01). http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_01_20172104.pdf

T (first citation): (Joint Chiefs of Staff [JCS], 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (JCS, 2017)

Field Manual / Military Regulation
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Field Manual / Military Regulation

R: Organization. (Full date). Title of instruction in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Department [if different from the authoring organization]. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Department of the Army. (1994). Sniper training (FM 23-10). http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf

T (first citation): (Department of the Army [DA], 1994)

T (subsequent citations): (DA, 1994)

Government Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

 

Government Report

CRS Report  

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of report in sentence case and italics (CRS Report No. xxxxxxx). Congressional Research Service. URL

T: (Author, year)

CRS Report

R: Erwin, M. C. (2011). Intelligence issues for Congress (CRS Report No. RL33539). Congressional Research Service. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf

T: (Erwin, 2011)

GAO Report

R: Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title of report in sentence case and italics (GAO-xx-xxx). Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

GAO Report

R: Berrick, C. A. (2009). Homeland security: DHS’s progress and challenges in key areas of maritime, aviation, and cybersecurity (GAO-10-106). Government Accountability Office.

T: (Berrick, 2009)

Strategy Document / Other Government Report

R: Name of Department. (Year). Title of document in sentence case and italics. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Name of Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

Strategy Document / Other Government Report

R: White House. (2015). National security strategy. https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Final-12-18-2017-0905.pdf

T: (White House, 2015)

Instruction
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Instruction

 

R: Organization. (Full date). Title of instruction in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Department [if different from the authoring organization]. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. (2019, May 5). Navy Safety and Occupational Health program for forces afloat (OPNAVINST 5100.19F). Department of the Navy. https://www.secnav.navy.mil/doni/Directives/05000%20General%20Management%20Security%20and%20Safety%20Services/05-100%20Safety%20and%20Occupational%20Health%20Services/5100.19F.pdf

T (first citation): (Office of the Chief of Naval Operations [CNO], 2019)

T (subsequent citations): (CNO, 2019)

Memorandum
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Memorandum

R: Author, A. A. (Full date of issuance). Title of memorandum in sentence case and italics [Memorandum]. Department. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Takai, T. (2013, March 28). Adoption of the national information exchange model within the Department of Defense [Memorandum]. Department of Defense. http://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20the%20DoD.pdf

T: (Takai, 2013)

Handbook

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

R: Name of Company. (Year). Title of handbook in sentence case and italics [Handbook]. DOI or URL

T: (Name of Company, year)

R: Western Spud. (1972). Transmission systems for potatoes (168th ed.) [Handbook]. http://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html

T: (Western Spud, 1972)

Print

R: Name of Company. (Year). Title of handbook in sentence case and italics [Handbook].

T: (Name of Company, year)

R: Western Electric. (1985). Transmission systems for communications (3rd ed.) [Handbook].

T: (Western Electric, 1985)

Journal Article

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
  • If present, include a DOI link only (not a URL) in references from a library database.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

DOI preferred

R: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL

T: (Author A & Author B, year)

R: Sanico, G., & Kakinaka, M. (2008). Terrorism and deterrence policy with transnational support. Defence & Peace Economics, 19(2), 153–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419

T: (Sanico & Kakinaka, 2008)


R: Catrantzos, N. (2010). No dark corners: A different answer to insider threats. Homeland Security Affairs, 6(2).  https://www.hsaj.org/articles/83

T: (Catrantzos, 2010)

Print

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article.

T: (Author, year)

R: Griffin, G. (2009). Managing peacekeeping communications. Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning, 3(4), 317–327.

T: (Griffin, 2009, pp. 324–325)

From a library database

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article. Name of Database in Title Case. DOI

T: (Author, year)

R: Giannopoulou,  Z. (2014). Prisoners of plot in José Saramago’s The Cave. Philosophy and Literature 38(2), 126–137. Project Muse.

T: (Giannopoulou, 2014)

Legal

Bill / Resolution
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Federal unenacted

R: Bill or Resolution Title in Title Case [if present], Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, xxx Cong. (year). DOI or URL

T: (Bill or Resolution Title in Title Case or Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, year)

or

In your text: Mention title of bill or resolution (Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, year)

R: H.R. 5936, 102nd Cong. (1992). 
https://www.congress.gov/bill/102nd-congress/house-bill/5936/cosponsors?r=254&overview=closed

T: (H.R. 5936, 1992)


R: Every Vote Counts Amendment, H.J. Res. 4, 110th Cong. (2007).

In your text: In the Every Vote Counts Amendment (H.J. Res. 4, 2007), Congress declared ...

Federal enacted, published in Congressional Record

R: Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, xxx Cong., volume Cong. Rec. page (year) (enacted). DOI or URL

T: (Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, year)

R: S. Res. 438, 114 Cong., 162 Cong. Rec. 2394 (2016) (enacted).

T: (S. Resolution 438, 2016)

Code of Federal Regulations
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Code of Federal Regulations

R: Name of Act in Title Case, title number C.F.R. part number or § section number (year compiled). DOI or URL

T: (Name of Act, year)

R: Renewable Energy Production Incentives, 10 C.F.R. 451 (2006). https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2006-title10-vol3/pdf/CFR-2006-title10-vol3.pdf

T: (Renewable Energy Production Incentives, 2006)

Congressional Hearing / Testimony within a Hearing
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Congressional Hearing 

Full Hearing

R: Title of hearing in sentence case and italics, xxx Cong. (year). DOI or URL

T: (Shortened Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, year)

R: Long-term sustainability of current defense plans: Hearing before the Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives, 111th Cong. 1 (2009). https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg47035/pdf/CHRG-111hhrg47035.pdf

T: (Long-term Sustainability, 2009)

Testimony within a Hearing

R: Title of testimony in sentence case and italics, xxx Cong. (year). DOI or URL

In your text: mention name and credentials/title of testifier.

T: (Shortened Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, year)

R: NASA infrastructure: Enabling discovery, enabling durability, U.S. House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, 113th Cong. 25 (2013). https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-113hhrg85276/html/CHRG-113hhrg85276.htm

In your text: John Armstrong, NASA lead engineer, noted in his statement before the House... 

T: (NASA Infrastructure, 2009)
Court Case Decision
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Lower court

(online)

R: Party Names, Case ID [includes first page of decision], pages or paragraphs cited (Court Abbreviation and year). DOI or URL

T: (Party Names in italics, year)

R: Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078, 1092–1104 (E.D. Wis. 1972). https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=16374362071956566586&q
=Lessard+v.+Schmidt&hl=en&as_sdt=2006&as_vis=1

T: (Lessard v. Schmidt, 1972)

Supreme Court

(print)

R: Party Names, Case ID [includes first page of decision], pages or paragraphs cited (year). DOI or URL

T: (Party Names in italics, year)

R: Winter v. NRDC, Inc., 129 S. Ct. 365 (2008).

T: (Winter v. NRDC, 2008)
Executive Order
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Executive Order

Basic format

R: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. page number (year compiled). DOI or URL

T: (Executive Order No. xxxxx, year compiled)

R: Exec. Order No. 13655, 3 C.F.R. 339 (2014). 
https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2014-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title3-vol1.pdf

T: (Executive Order No. 13655, 2014)

Executive Order

Extended format

R: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. page number (year compiled), reprinted in title number U.S.C. § section number app. at starting page of order–ending page of order (year reprinted).

T: (Executive Order No. xxxxx, year reprinted)

R: Exec. Order No. 11609, 3 C.F.R. 586 (1971–1975), reprinted as amended in 3 U.S.C. § 301 app. at 404–407 (1994).

T: (Executive Order No. 11609, 1994)
Federal Acquisition Regulation
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Federal Acquisition Regulation

R: F.A.R. subpart number, Title of Subpart in Title Case (year). URL

T: (F.A.R. subpart, year)

R: F.A.R. 8.5, Acquisition of Helium (2019). https://www.acquisition.gov/content/subpart-85-acquisition-helium

T: (F.A.R. 8.5, 2019)

Public Law
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Code

R: Title of Act in Title Case, title number U.S.C. § section number (year). DOI or URL

T: (Title of Act in Title Case, year)

R: National Environmental Policy Act, 42 U.S.C. § 4331 (1969).

T: (first citation): (National Environmental Policy Act [NEDA],1969)

T (subsequent citations): (NEDA, 1969)

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Statutes at Large

R: Title of Act in Title Case, Pub. L. No. xxx, volume Source page number (year published). DOI or URL

T: (Title of Act, year published)

R: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–336 § 2, 104 Stat. 328 (1991). http://library.clerk.house.gov/reference-files
/PPL_101_336_AmericansWithDisabilities.pdf

T: (Americans with Disabilities Act, 1991)

Magazine Article

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
  • If present, include a DOI link only (not a URL) in references from a library database.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

No author given

R: Title of article in sentence case. (Year, Month [and day if weekly or biweekly]). Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL

T: ("First Few Words of Article Title in Title Case," year)

R: So long easy money: Foreign drug firms face a severe profit squeeze. (2014, June 12). The Economist. https://www.economist.com/news/business/21604178-foreign-drug-firms-face-severe-profit-squeeze-so-long-easy-money

T: (“So Long,” 2014)

Author given

R: Author, A. A. (Year, Month [and day if weekly or biweekly]). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Beforebad, S. (2017, July 4). Cold spaghetti: To eat or not to eat? Pasta Dynamics, 547(7661), 30–31.

T: (Beforebad, 2017).

 

From a library database

R: Author, A. A. (Date). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article. Name of Database in Title CaseDOI

T: (Author, year)

R: Katz, F. (2020, January–March). You're grounded for life. Parenting Highlights Quarterly, 112(1), 2227. ProQuest. 

T: (Katz, 2020, p. 25)

 

Map

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Google Map / Earth

R: Google. (n.d.). [Description of map]. Retrieved Month and day, year, from URL

T: (Google, n.d.)

R: Google (n.d.). [Google Map of Monterey Bay]. Retrieved July 6, 2017, from
 https://www.google.com/maps/
place/Monterey+Bay/@36.7896106,-122.0843052,11z/
data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:
0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311

T: (Google, n.d.)

 

Multimedia

  • If the director is unknown or if it is useful, someone in a similar role can be credited to aid readers in retrieving the work, such as the producer, host, artist, uploader, etc.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Film

R: Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of film in sentence case and italics [Film]. Production Company. DOI or URL

T: (Director, year published)

R: Dick, K. (Director). (2012). The invisible war [Film]. Chain Camera Pictures. https://www.amazon.com/Invisible-War-Helen-Benedict/dp/B009G9YCB4

T: (Dick, 2012)

Podcast

R: Host, H. H. (Host) or Executive Producer, E. P. (Executive Producer). (Full date). Title of episode sentence case (No. #) [Audio podcast episode]. In Podcast title in sentence case and italics. Production company. URL

T: (Screen Name or Organization or Author or Producer, year)

R: McBracket, D. (Host). (2020, January 7). Taking the sigh out of citation (No. 846) [Audio podcast episode]. In Team Citation presents. Komodo Studios. https://www.komodo-studios.com/
podcasts/10486/firstnamelastlastnamefirst.html/

T: (McBracket, 2020)

Video

News video,  YouTube, or
any kind of streaming video

R: Screen Name or Organization or Author, A. A. or  Producer, A. A. (Full date). Title of video in sentence case and italics [Video]. Platform. URL

T: (Screen Name or Organization or Author or Producer, year)
R: Slater, D. (2017, August 31). US military sends warships, aircraft to Texas [Video]. CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2017/08/30/politics/texas-harvey-flooding-military-esponse/iid=ob_lockedrail_topeditorial

T: (CNN, 2017)

Newspaper Article

  • Use the leading word “the” when referencing newspaper names in list of references (The New York Times, not New York Times).
  • If present, include a DOI link only (not a URL) in references from a library database.
  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author given

R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brains agile. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11brod.html

T: (Brody, 2007)

No author given

R: Title of article in sentence case. (Full date). Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics. DOI or URL

T: ("First Few Words of Article Title in Title Case," year)

R: Toxic algae in San Luis Reservoir prompts warning from state. (2017, June 30). Monterey Herald. http://www.montereyherald.com/environment-and-nature/20170630/toxic-algae-in-san-luis-reservoir-prompts-warning-from-state

T: ("Toxic Algae," 2017)

From a library database

R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, page number or section number. Name of Database in Title CaseDOI

T: (Author, year)

R: Gordon, M. R. (2001, December 9). Shifting fronts, rising danger: The Afghanistan War evolves. The New York Times, A3. ProQuest.

T: (Gordon, 2001)

Patent

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Patent

R: Inventor, A. A. (Year issued). Title of patent in sentence case and italics (U.S. Patent No. xxxxxx). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. DOI or URL

T: (Inventor, year issued)

R: Bell, A. G. (1876). Improvement in telegraphy (U.S. Patent No. 174465). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://www.google.com/patents/US174465

T: (Bell, 1876)

 

Personal Communication, Interview, Email

  • Cite in text only.
     
  • Personal communication is material obtained directly from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.
     
  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email Including attachments, internal documents, documents posted to a listserv or internal server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Personal Communication

R: None

T: Include person's name, personal communication, Full date of communication

R: None

T: (J. Smith, personal communication, September 8, 2009)

or

T: According to Rebecca Risotto (personal communication, September 8, 2009)

Interview

R: None

T: Include name and title of interviewee as well as full date of interview.

R: None

T: (S. Jones, interview with author, June 1, 2012)

or

T: According to Sandi Jones (interview with author, June 1, 2012)

Email

(including attachments such as presentation slides, data sets, internal documents, etc.)

R: None

T: Include sender's name, email to author, Full date of email

R: None

T: (Q. Grumbupple, email to author, October 22, 1994)

or

T: According to Quentin Grumbupple (email to author, October 22, 1994) 

Photograph

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Photograph

R: Photographer, P. P. (Year). Title of photograph in sentence case and italics or [Description of photograph in sentence case]. Source. URL

T: (Photographer, year)

R: Harrison, T. (2018). [Kenya Defense Force's 1st Canine Regiment]. Military.com. https://www.military.com/off-duty/2018/12/30/best-military-photos-2018.html

T: (Harrison, 2018)

Report

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it is not freestanding, then format it as a webpage
     
  • When the author and publisher are the same, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.
     
  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Technical Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author given

(online)

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of technical report in sentence case and italics (Report No. xxx). Publisher or Organization. URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Tang, K. L., & Eignor, D. R. (2001). A study in the use of collateral statistical information in attempting to reduce TOEFL IRT item parameter estimation sample sizes (Report Nos. RR-01-11, TOEFL-TR-17). ETS. https://www.ets.org/research/policy_research_reports/
publications/report/2001/hsfb

T: (Tang & Eignor, 2001)

Organization as author

(online)

R: Organizational Author. (Year). Title of technical report in sentence case and italics (Report No. xxx). Publisher or Parent Organization [if different from organizational author]. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: National Toxicology Program. (2012). Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (Report No. TR-576). National Institutes of Health. https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm
/reports/longterm/tr500580/listedreports/tr576/index.html

T (first citation): (National Toxicology Program [NTP], 2012)

T (subsequent citations): (NTP, 2012)

Author given

(print)

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of technical report in sentence case and italics (Report No. xxx). Publisher or Organization.

T: (Author, year)

R: Jones, K. A., & Johnson, F. (2015). The absorption rate of E. coli in cats (Report No. 17-59). Veterinary Studies. 

T: (Jones & Johnson, 2015)

Think Tank Report / White Paper
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Think Tank Report / White Paper

(online)


List of Think Tanks, U.S. and Globally 

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., ... Author, Z. Z. or Organization. (year). Title of report in sentence case and italics (Report No. xxx). Publisher or Organization. DOI or URL

T: (Author et al. or Organization, year)

R: Dixon, L., Clancy, N., Miller, B. M., Hoegberg, S. Lewis, M. M., Bender, B., ... Choquette, S. R. (2017). The cost and affordability of flood insurance in New York City (Report No. RR1776-NYCEDC). RAND. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/
research_reports/RR1700/RR1776/RAND_RR1776.pdf

T: (Dixon et al., 2017)

Secondary Source

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Secondary Source

R: List the secondary source that quotes or discusses the material you are referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)


T: In your text, identify the primary source using the phrase "as cited in," followed by the secondary source.

or

T: If using a parenthetical citation, cite the primary source first, followed by the phrase "as cited in" and then the secondary source.

R: Nicholson, I. A. M. (2003). Inventing personality: Gordon Allport and the science of selfhood. American Psychological Association.


T: We can see this idea in the following passage from Allport’s diary (1926), as cited in Nicholson (2003): " ... " (p. 36).

or

T:  (Allport, 1926, as cited in Nicholson, 2003, p. 36)

 

Social Media

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc.

R: Author, A. A. or Organization or Screen Name [handle]. (Full date). Title of post or up to 20 words of the post in sentence case and italics or [Description of post in sentence case]. [Type of post]. Platform. URL

T: (Author or Organization or Screen
Name, year)

R: Enginewarmup [@owl-pellets]. (2020, January 7). Follow the rules when shortening tweets [Tweet]. Twitter.  https://twitter.com/owl-pellets/mouse-parts128987899

T: (Enginewarmup, 2020)


R: Babygiraffe [@babygiraffehaslastlaugh]. (2020, January 7). Mocking those visiting the zoo [Video]. Instagram. https://instagram.com/p/s340[jafmOujejl

T: (Babygiraffe, 2020)

 

Speech

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Speech

R: List the source that quotes or reprints the speech you are referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

T: Include name of speaker.

R: Smith, J. (Ed.). (2009). Well said! Great speeches in American history. E & K Publishing.

T: Martin Luther King, Jr. declared, “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed” (Smith, 2009).

Thesis / Dissertation

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

From an institutional archive

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case and italics [Type of document, Name of Institution]. Name of Institutional Archive. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Moon, T. D. (2009). Rising dragon: Infrastructure development and Chinese influence in Vietnam [Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School]. NPS Archive: Calhoun. http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4694

T: (Moon, 2009)


R: Rivera, J. (2010). Software system architecture modeling methodology for naval gun weapon systems [Doctoral dissertation, Naval Postgraduate School]. NPS Archive: Calhoun. http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10504

T: (Rivera, 2010)

From a commercial database

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case and italics (Identification number) [Type of document, Name of Institution]. Name of Database in Title Case. 

T: (Author, year)

R: Choi, M. (2008). Contesting imaginaires in death rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty (Publication No. 3300426) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

T: (Choi, 2008)

Unpublished / Informally Published Work

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations only when citing quoted material.
  • Unpublished works include work that is in progress, has been completed but not yet submitted for publication, or has been submitted but not yet accepted for publication.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Work not submitted for publication

(print)

R: Author, A. A. (Year produced). Title of manuscript in sentence case and italics [Unpublished manuscript].

T: (Author, year)

R: Horse, B. B. (1995). Back in the saddle [Unpublished manuscript].

T: (Horse, 1995)

Work submitted for publication

(online)

R: Author, A. A. (Year produced). Title of work in sentence case and italics [Manuscript submitted for publication]. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Horse, B. B. (1996). Back in the saddle 2: Back in the saddle [Manuscript submitted for publication]. http://horse.com/bits2bits

T: (Horse, 1996)

Work accepted for publication

(online)

R: Author, A. A. (in press). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number). DOI or URL

T: (Author, in press)

R: Briscoe, R. (in press). Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf

T: (Briscoe, in press)

 

 

Website / Webpage

  • Title of website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, The New York Times, not Reuters, Bloomberg, CNN, etc. These news organizations only have an online presence, whereas The New York Times has both an online and print counterpart.
  • If additional information is necessary for identification and retrieval of a reference, it may be included in brackets immediately after the title and any parenthetical information.
  • When citing a direct quotation from a website without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. A direct quotation might provide chapter number, section heading, and paragraph number within the section.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author given

R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title, section, or page name in sentence case and italics. Website Name in Title Case. URL

T: (Author, year, locator)

R: Roth, R. (2020, January 7). 75 years ago, the Doolittle Raid changed history. CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/
75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html

T: (Roth, 2020, para. 2)

Organization as author

R: Organization. (Full date). Title, section, or page name in sentence case and italics. Website Name in Title Case. URL

T: (Organization, year)

R: Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2020, January 7). Forging papers to sell fake art. https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art

T (first citation): (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], 2020)

T (subsequent citations): (FBI, 2020)

No date given

R: Author, A. A. or Organization. (n.d.). Title, section, or page name in sentence case and italics. Website Name in Title Case. Retrieved full date, from URL

T: (Author, n.d.)

R: Python, M. (n.d.). Finding a dead parrot on a silly walk. Ministry of Silly Walks. Retrieved January 7, 2020, from https://www.omgitsadeadparrot.com/feathers

T: (Python, n.d.)

Jane's example

R: Jane’s by IHS Markit. (Year). Title, section, or page name in sentence case and italics. URL

T: (Jane’s by IHS Markit, year)

R: Jane’s by IHS Markit. (2020). Mali: Executive summary. https://janes.ihs.com.libproxy.nps.edu/NorthAfrica/Display/1303746

T: (Jane’s by IHS Markit, 2020)

Wikipedia

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Wikipedia

R: Title of entry in sentence case. (n.d.). In Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Retrieved full date, from URL

T: ("Title of entry," n.d.)

R: Psychology. (n.d.) In Wikipedia. Retrieved May 17, 2011, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology

T: (“Psychology,” n.d.)

 

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Working Paper / Occasional Paper
R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of fact sheet in sentence case and italics [Working paper]. Institution or Company. DOI or URL
 
T: (Last Name, year)
R: Linguine, L. (2019). Anteaters and aardvarks: Power critters [Working paper]. Animal Rights Institute https://www.aanda.power/careers.html
 
T: (Linguine, 2014)