Citation Styles

Chicago Notes & Bibliography / Turabian - Citation Examples

   Chicago Notes & Bibliography (17th ed.)     Turabian (9th ed.)

Essential Citation Rules

For NPS Theses, Papers, and Publications:

The Essential Rules go hand-in-hand with the citation examples. To cite properly, apply the Essential Rules to the examples given below.

 

ESSENTIAL
RULES

External Resources

Blog

  • Citations of blog entries are generally relegated to the notes; a frequently cited blog, however, may be included in the bibliography.
     
  • Blogs that are part of a larger publication such as a newspaper or website, give the name of the publication after the title of the blog and format appropriately (italicize newspaper titles; keep website names in non-italic type).
     
  • If the title does not contain the word "blog," add "(blog)" after the title.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Blog Post

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Post in Title Case,” Title of Blog in Title Case and Italics (blog), Full date, URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Post in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Post in Title Case.” Title of Blog in Title Case and Italics (blog), Full date. URL.

N: Eric Idle, “Just a Flesh Wound,” Hamster Moms (blog), Walk Street Journal, June 25, 2014, http://omgitsadeadparrot.com/2014/06/25/hamstermoms.

S: Idle, "Just a Flesh Wound.”

B: Idle, Eric. “Just a Flesh Wound.” Hamster Moms (blog). Walk Street Journal, June 25, 2014. http://omgitsadeadparrot.com/2014/06/25/hamstermoms.

Blog Comment

N: Screen Name or Author First and Last Name, Full date, comment on [full blog citation].

S: Screen Name or Author Last Name, comment on blog author last name.

B: None

N: MiddleKid, January 22, 2007, comment on P. Z. Myers, “The Unfortunate Prerequisites and Consequences of Partitioning Your Mind,” ScienceBlogs, January 22, 2007, http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/22/the-unfortunate-prerequisites/.

S: MiddleKid, comment on Myers.

B: None

 

Book

  • Always include page numbers in notes when available.
     
  • If the city of publication is not a major city or may be confused with another city of the same name, the abbreviation of the state, province, or (sometimes) country is usually added. Washington is traditionally followed by DC, but other major cities, such as Los Angeles and Baltimore, need no state abbreviation.
     
  • For works with a translator, follow the guidance for edited books but substitute "trans." for "ed." in the notes and "translated" for "edited" in the references.
Print Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author

N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

S: Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma, 100.

B: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

Two authors, with edition number

N: First1 Last1 and First2 Last2, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edition (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Names, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Last1, First1, and First2 Last2. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Anders Strindberg and Mats Wärn, Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2011), 14.

S: Strindberg and Wärn, Islamism, 10.

B: Strindberg, Anders, and Mats Wärn. Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.

Three authors

N: First1 Last1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Names, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Anthony H. Cordesman, Adam Mausner, and David Kasten, Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009), 50.

S: Cordesman, Mausner, and Kasten, Winning in Afghanistan, 76.

B: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009.

Book Chapter in Edited Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author, two editors

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, ed. Editor1 and Editor2 (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Name, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Chapter in Title Case." In Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edited by Editor1 and Editor2, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Peter Haynes, “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy,” in Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, ed. Daniel Moran and James A. Russell (New York: Routledge, 2009), 70.

S: Haynes, “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy,” 70.

B: Haynes, Peter. “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy.” In Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, edited by Daniel Moran and James A. Russell, 62–74. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Three authors, one editor

N: First1 Last1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, ed. Editor (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Names, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3. “Title of Chapter.” In Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edited by Editor, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Anthony H. Cordesman, Adam Mausner, and David Kasten, introduction to Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, ed. John Smith (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009), 4–5.

S: Cordesman, Mausner, and Kasten, Introduction, 7.

B: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. Introduction to Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, edited by John Smith, 1–12. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009.

  • No quotation marks needed for book sections with generic names, such as Introduction, Foreword, Preface, etc.
Electronic Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

With URL

N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s] or location or chapter number, DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year published. DOI or URL.

N: John Crabtree and Ann Chaplin, Bolivia: Processes of Change (London: Zed Books, 2013), 225, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ebook-nps/detail.action?docID=1183073.

S: Crabtree and Chaplin, Bolivia, 225.

B: Crabtree, John, and Ann Chaplin. Bolivia: Processes of Change. London: Zed Books, 2013. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ebook-nps/detail.action?docID=1183073.

With book provider

N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s] or location or chapter number, Book Provider.

S: Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. Book Provider.

N: Armin Krishnan, War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting (New York: Routledge, 2008), loc. 1066 of 1492, Kindle.

S: Krishnan, War as Business, loc. 584.

B: Krishnan, Armin. War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. New York: Routledge, 2008. Kindle.

  • When citing a direct quotation from an electronic book without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. The citation might include a chapter number, section heading, location number, or paragraph number within the section.

 

Class Notes, Lecture, Presentation, Workshop

  • Class notes include lecture notes, slides, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.
     
  • If class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's/lecturer's name and "class notes."
     
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
     
  • Always include page numbers in notes when available.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Class Notes
Published

N: Instructor First and Last Name, “Title of Notes in Title Case” (class notes, Class, Institution, Location of Institution, Full date), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Notes in Title Case.”

B: Instructor Last Name, Instructor First Name. “Title of Notes in Title Case.” Class notes for Class, Institution, Location of Institution, Full date. DOI or URL.

N: Justin Johnson, "Python NumPy Tutorial" (class notes, CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2017), http://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/.

S: Johnson, "Python NumPy Tutorial."

B: Johnson, Justin. "Python NumPy Tutorial." Class notes for CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2017. http://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/.

Lecture
Unpublished

N: Instructor First and Last Name, “Title of Lecture in Title Case” (lecture, Venue, Location of Venue, Full date).

S: Last Name, “Title of Lecture in Title Case.”

B: None

N: Don K. Bray, “Formatting a Thesis” (lecture, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, March 26, 2017).

S: Bray, “Formatting a Thesis.”

B: None

Lecture
Published

(online)

N: Speaker First and Last Name, “Title of Lecture in Title Case” (lecture, Venue, Location of Venue, Full date), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Lecture in Title Case.”

B: Speaker Last Name, Speaker First Name. “Title of Lecture in Title Case.” Lecture at Venue, Location of Venue, Full date. DOI or URL.

N: Belmont B. Horse, “Horseshoes and Hand Grenades: On the Joys of Approximation” (lecture, Barnes Event Center, Derby, KY, May 5, 2017), http://horse.com/.

S: Horse, “Horseshoes and Hand Grenades.”

B: Horse, Belmont B. “Horseshoes and Hand Grenades: On the Joys of Approximation.” Lecture at Barnes Event Center, Derby, KY, May 5, 2017. http://horse.com/.

Presentation or Workshop

N: Presenter First and Last Name, “Title of Presentation in Title Case” (type of presentation, Venue, Location of Venue, Full date), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Presentation in Title Case.”

B: Presenter Last Name, Presenter First Name. “Title of Presentation in Title Case.” Type of presentation at Venue, Location of Venue, Full date. DOI or URL.

N: Lisa Randall, “Unification in Warped Extra Dimensions and Bulk Holography” (presentation, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, July 19, 2002), http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/events/strings02/avt/randall/.

S: Randall, “Unification in Warped Extra Dimensions and Bulk Holography.”

B: Randall, Lisa. “Unification in Warped Extra Dimensions and Bulk Holography.” Presentation at Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, July 19, 2002. http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/events/strings02/avt/randall/.

Computer Program / Software

  • Citation is required only if the software is not well known.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Computer Program / Software

N: Company or Creator First and Last Name, Title of Software in Title Case, version number, Place of Publication, year, accessed Full date, DOI or URL.

S: Creator Last Name, Title of Software in Title Case.

B: Company or Creator Last Name, Creator First Name. Title of Software in Title Case, version number. Place of Publication, year published. Accessed Full date. DOI or URL.

N: Matthew Borenstein et al., Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2, Englewood, NJ, 2005, accessed February 3, 2016, http://www.meta-analysis.com.

S: Borenstein et al., Comprehensive Meta-Analysis.

B: Borenstein, Matthew, Lion Hedges, Jonah Higgins, and Hy Rothstein. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2. Englewood, NJ, 2005. Accessed February 3, 2016. http://www.meta-analysis.com.

Conference Paper / Proceedings

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Conference Proceedings

(online)

N: Author 1 First and Last Name, Author 2 First and Last Name, ... and Author N First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” in Title of Proceedings or Collection Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month or Season year): page[s], DOI or URL.

S: Author 1 Last Name et al., “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Author 1 Last Name, Author 1 First Name, Author 2 First and Last Name, ... and Author N First and Last Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” In Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month or Season year published): starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL.

N: Suzana Herculano-Houzel, Christine E. Collins, Peiyan Wong, Jon H. Kass, and Roberto Lent, “The Basic Nonuniformity of the Cerebral Cortex,” in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, no. 34 (August 2008): 12593–12596, http://www.pnas.org/content/105/34/12593.

S: Herculano-Houzel et al., “The Basic Nonuniformity of the Cerebral Cortex.”

B: Herculano-Houzel, Suzana, Christine E. Collins, Peiyan Wong, Jon H. Kass, and Roberto Lent. “The Basic Nonuniformity of the Cerebral Cortex.” In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, no. 34 (August 2008): 12593–12598. http://www.pnas.org/content/105/34/12593.

Conference Proceedings

(print)

N: First1 Last1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” in Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, ed. Editor1 et al., Series Name in Title Case, vol. xxx (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Names, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3. “Title of Chapter in Title Case.” In Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, edited by Editor1, Editor2, Editor3, and Editor4, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. Series Name in Title Case, vol. xxx. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Itai Katz, Kevin Gabayan, and Hamid Aghajan, “A Multi-touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras,” in Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 9th International Conference, ed. Jacques Blanc-Talon et al., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4678 (Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2007), 98.

S: Katz, Gabayan, and Aghajan, “A Multi-touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras,” 106.

B: Katz, Itai, Kevin Gabayan, and Hamid Aghajan. “A Multi-touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras.” In Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 9th International Conference, edited by Jacques Blanc-Talon, Wilfried Philips, Dan Popescu, and Paul Scheunders, 97–108. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4678. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2007.

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

N: First1 Last1, First2 Last2, First3 Last3, and First4 Last4, “Title of Paper in Title Case” (paper presented at Name of Conference, Location of Conference, Full date).

S: Last Names, “Title of Paper in Title Case.”

B: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, First3 Last3, and First4 Last4. “Title of Paper in Title Case.” Paper presented at Name of Conference, Location of Conference, Full date.

N: Linda A. Teplin et al., “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study” (paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005).

S: Teplin et al., “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth.”

B: Teplin, Linda A., Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, and Jason J. Washburn. “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005.

Data Set / Database

  • Include the date in a short citation of unpublished data only if multiple data sets have been received from the same source.
     
  • Since an unpublished data set is irretrievable, it is treated as a personal communication and therefore not cited in references.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Data Set

Published

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Data Set in Title Case,” Organization, Full date, DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Data Set in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Data Set in Title Case.” Organization, Month and day published, year. DOI or URL.

N: Roberto Suro, “Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture: A Survey of Latinos on News Media,” Pew Hispanic Center, April 19, 2004, http://www.pewhispanic.org/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/.

S: Suro, “Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture.”

B: Suro, Roberto. “Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture: A Survey of Latinos on News Media.” Pew Hispanic Center, April 19, 2004. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/.

Data Set

Unpublished

N: Author First and Last Name, unpublished data, Month and day of correspondence, year.

S: Last Name, unpublished data, Full date.

B: None

N: Rebecca Kanteen, unpublished data, May 11, 1993.

S: Kanteen, unpublished data, May 11, 1993. 

B: None

Database

N: Title of Database in Title Case (record locator; accessed Full date), DOI or URL.

S: Title of Database in Title Case.

B: Title of Database in Title Case (record locator; accessed Full date). DOI or URL.

N: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (object name IRAS F00400+4059; accessed October 6, 2009), http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/.

S: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database.

B: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (object name IRAS F00400+4059; accessed October 6, 2009). http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/.

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

  • If the source is an online version of a print reference work, italicize the title; do not italicize the titles of online-only sources.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

N: Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics, s.v. “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun,” accessed or modified date, URL.

S: Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics, “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun.”

B: None

N: Merriam-Webster, s.v. “metamorphosis,” accessed July 6, 2017, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis.

S: Merriam-Webster, “metamorphosis.”

B: None

Directive / Instruction

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Directive

N: Department, Title of Directive in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year), DOI or URL.

S: Department, Title of Directive in Title Case and Italics.

B: Department. Title of Directive in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year published. DOI or URL.

N: Department of Defense, Information Assurance Training, Certification, and Workforce Management, DoD Directive 8570.01-M (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2005), http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/
issuances/dodm/857001m.pdf.

S: Department of Defense, Information Assurance Training, Certification, and Workforce Management.

B: Department of Defense. Information Assurance Training, Certification, and Workforce Management. DoD Directive 8570.01-M. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2005. http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/
issuances/dodm/857001m.pdf.

Instruction

N: Department, Title of Instruction in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number (Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year), page[s].

S: Department, Title of Instruction in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Department. Title of Instruction in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year.

N: Department of Defense, Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, DoD Instruction 1000.01 (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012), 36.

S: Department of Defense, Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, 4.

B: Department of Defense. Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention. DoD Instruction 1000.01. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012.

Doctrine

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Joint Doctrine

N: Department, Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year), DOI or URL.

S: Department, Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics.

B: Department. Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year. DOI or URL.

N: Joint Chiefs of Staff, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, JP 1 (Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2017), https://fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp1.pdf.

S: Joint Chiefs of Staff, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States.

B: Joint Chiefs of Staff. Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States. JP 1. Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2017. https://fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp1.pdf.

Fact Sheet

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Fact Sheet

N: “Title of Fact Sheet in Title Case,” Department, year, DOI or URL.

S: Department, “Title of Fact Sheet in Title Case.”

B: Department. “Title of Fact Sheet in Title Case,” year. DOI or URL.

N: “The Construction Industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA),” Department of Labor, 2008, https://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs1.htm.

S: Department of Labor, “The Construction Industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act.”

B: Department of Labor. “The Construction Industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA),” 2008. https://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs1.htm.

Field Manual / Military Regulation

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Field Manual  / Military Regulation

N: Department, Title of Field Manual in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year), DOI or URL.

S: Department, Title of Field Manual in Title Case and Italics.

B: Department. Title of Field Manual in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year of issuance. DOI or URL.

N: Department of the Army, Sniper Training, FM 23-10 (Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1995), http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf.

S: Department of the Army, Sniper Training.

B: Department of the Army. Sniper Training. FM 23-10. Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1995. http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf.

Handbook

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

(online)

N: Name of Company, Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics (Location of Company, State, year), DOI or URL.

S: Name of Company, Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics.

B: Name of Company. Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics. Location of Company, State, year. DOI or URL.

N: Western Spud, Transmission Systems for Potatoes, 168th ed. (Kinston-Slalom, ID, 1972), http://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html.

S: Western Spud, Transmission Systems for Potatoes.

B: Western Spud. Transmission Systems for Potatoes, 168th ed. Kinston-Slalom, ID, 1972. http://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html.

(print)

N: Name of Company, Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics (Location of Company, State, year), page[s].

S: Name of Company, Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Name of Company. Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics. Location of Company, State, year.

N: Western Electric, Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed. (Winston-Salem, NC, 1985), 77.

SWestern Electric, Transmission Systems for Communications, 77.

B: Western Electric. Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed. Winston-Salem, NC, 1985.

Journal Article

  • Always include page numbers in notes when available.
     
  • Journals without volume numbers have a comma between the journal title and issue number.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

DOI preferred

N: Author 1 First and Last Name and Author 2 First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year): page[s], DOI.

S: Last Names, “Title of Article in Title Case," page[s].

B: Author 1 Last Name, Author 1 First Name, Author 2 First and Last Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year): starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI.

N: Grace F. Sanico and Makoto Kakinaka, “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support,” Defence and Peace Economics 19, no. 2 (April 2008): 156, https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419.

S: Sanico and Kakinaka, “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support," 158.

B: Sanico, Grace F., and Makoto Kakinaka. “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support.” Defence and Peace Economics 19, no. 2 (April 2008): 153–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419.

From a subscription database

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year): page[s], Name of database.

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case," page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year): starting page of article–ending page of article. Name of database.

N: William W. Newmann, “Reorganizing for National Security and Homeland Security,” Public Administration Review 62, no. 1 (September 2002): 128, ProQuest.

S: Newmann, “Reorganizing for National Security and Homeland Security," 130.

B: Newmann, William W. “Reorganizing for National Security and Homeland Security.” Public Administration Review 62, no. 1 (September 2002): 126–37. ProQuest.

From an online journal

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year), DOI or URL.

S: Last Names, “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author 1 First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year). DOI or URL.

N: Nick Catrantzos, “No Dark Corners: A Different Answer to Insider Threats,” Homeland Security Affairs 6, no. 2 (May 2010), https://www.hsaj.org/articles/83.

S: Catrantzos, “No Dark Corners.”

B: Catrantzos, Nick. “No Dark Corners: A Different Answer to Insider Threats.” Homeland Security Affairs 6, no. 2 (May 2010). https://www.hsaj.org/articles/83.

From a print journal

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year): page[s].

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year published): starting page of article–ending page of article.

N: Geb Griffin, “Managing Peacekeeping Communications,” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3, no. 4 (August 2009): 325.

S: Griffin, “Managing Peacekeeping Communications.”

B: Griffin, Geb. “Managing Peacekeeping Communications.” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3, no. 4 (August 2009): 317–27.

Legal

  • Legal publications use notes for documentation and few include bibliographies. For a full discussion of legal and public documents, including examples, see 14.269–305.
Bill / Resolution
Source Type Style Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Bill / Resolution

Federal unenacted, untitled

(online)

Chicago

N: Abbreviated bill or resolution source and number, xxx Cong. (year published), DOI or URL.

S: Abbreviated bill or resolution source and number.

B: None

N: H.R. 5936, 102nd Cong. (1992), https://www.congress.gov/bill/102nd-congress/house-bill/5936/cosponsors?r=254&overview=closed.

S: H.R. 5936.

B: None

Turabian

N: Abbreviated bill or resolution source and number, xxx Cong., xxx sess. (year), DOI or URL.

S: Abbreviated bill or resolution source and number.

B: U.S. Congress, Chamber. Abbreviated Source. xxx Cong., xxx sess. (year). DOI or URL.

N: H. Res [or H.R.] 5936, 102nd Cong., 2nd sess. (1992), https://www.congress.gov/bill/102nd-congress/house-bill/5936/cosponsors?r=254&overview=closed.

S: H.R. 5936.

B: U.S. Congress, House. H. Res [or H.R.] 5936. 102nd Cong., 2nd sess (1992).  https://www.congress.gov/bill/102nd-congress/house-bill/5936/cosponsors?r=254&overview=closed.

Bill / Resolution

Federal unenacted, titled

(print)

Chicago

N: Title of Bill or Resolution in Title Case, abbreviated bill or resolution source and number, xxx Cong. (year).

S: Title of Bill or Resolution in Title Case.

B: None

N: Every Vote Counts Amendment, H.J. Res. 4, 110th Cong. (2007).

S: Every Vote Counts Amendment.

B: None

Turabian

N: Title of Bill or Resolution in Title Case, Abbreviated Source, xxx Cong., xxx sess., Congressional Record volume number, no. xxx, daily ed. (Full date): page[s].

S: Title of Bill or Resolution in Title Case.

B: U.S. Congress. Chamber. Title of Bill or Resolution in Title Case. Abbreviated Source. xxx Cong., xxx sess. Congressional Record volume number, no. xxx, daily ed. (Full date): page[s].

N: No Taxpayer Funding for Abortion Act, H. Res. 237, 112th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 157, no. 59, daily ed. (May 4, 2011): H3014.

S: No Taxpayer Funding for Abortion Act.

B: U.S. Congress, House. No Taxpayer Funding for Abortion Act. H. Res. 237. 112th Cong., 1st sess. Congressional Record 157, no. 59, daily ed. (May 4, 2011): H3014.

Code of Federal Regulations
Source Type Style Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Code of Federal Regulations Chicago

N: Title of Act in Title Case, title number and Source § section number (year), DOI or URL (if retrieved online).

S: Title of Act in Title Case.

B: None

N: Renewable Energy Production Incentives, 10 C.F.R. § 451 (2006), https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title10-vol3/xml/CFR-2006-title10-vol3-part451.xml.

S: Renewable Energy Production Incentives.

B: None

Turabian

N: “Title of Act in Title Case,” Department, Code of Federal Regulations, title xxx (year comp.): section, URL.

S: Department, “Title of Act in Title Case.”

B: Department. “Title of Act in Title Case.” Code of Federal Regulations, title xxx (year comp.): section. URL.

N: “Renewable Energy Production Incentives,” Department of Energy, Code of Federal Regulations, title 10 (2006 comp.): 451, https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title10-vol3/xml/CFR-2006-title10-vol3-part451.xml.

S: Department of Energy, “Renewable Energy Production Incentives.”

B: Department of Energy. “Renewable Energy Production Incentives.” Code of Federal Regulations, title 10 (2006 comp.): 451. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title10-vol3/xml/CFR-2006-title10-vol3-part451.xml.

Congressional Hearing / Testimony within a Hearing
Source Type Style Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Congressional Hearing 

Full hearing

(online)

Chicago

N: Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, xxx Cong. (year of hearing), DOI or URL.

S: Abbreviated Chamber, Abbreviated Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics.

B: None

 

N: Long-term Sustainability of Current Defense Plans: Hearing before the Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives, 111th Cong. 1 (2009), https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg47035/pdf/CHRG-111hhrg47035.pdf.

S: H.R., Long-term Sustainability.

B: None

Congressional Hearing

Full hearing

(print)

Turabian

N: Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, Chamber or Bill or Resolution Number, Title of Bill or Resolution, day xxx [for multi-day hearings], xxx Cong., xxx sess., full date, page number[s].

S: Abbreviated Chamber, Abbreviated Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, page number[s].

B: U.S. Congress. Chamber. Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics. Bill or Resolution Number, Title of Bill or Resolution [if applicable]. xxx Cong., xxx sess., full date.

N: Famine in Africa: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, Senate, 99th Cong., 1st sess., January 17, 1985, 2.

S: S., Famine in Africa, 2.

B: U.S. Congress. Senate. Famine in Africa: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations. 99th Cong., 1st sess., January 17, 1985.


N: NAFTA Weasel Tariffs: A Hearing before the Committee on Mammal Transference, H.R. 1777, Ermine's Ermits Act of 1964, day 87, 88th Cong., 4th sess., December 1, 1964, 936.

S: H.R. 1777, NAFTA Weasel Tariffs, 936. 

B: U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. NAFTA Weasel Tariffs: A Hearing before the Committee on Mammal Transference. H.R. 1777, Ermine's Ermits Act of 1964. 88th Cong., 4th sess., December 1, 1964. 

Testimony within a Hearing

(print)

Chicago

N: Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, xxx Cong. (year of hearing) (testimony of Testifier, title).

S: Testifier, testimony on Abbreviated Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics.

B: None

N: NASA Infrastructure: Enabling Discovery, Enabling Durability: Testimony before the Subcommittee on Space Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, 113th Cong. 25 (2013) (statement of Paul K. Martin, NASA lead scientist).

S: Martin, testimony on NASA Infrastructure.

B: None

Turabian

In your text: Include the name and title of the testifier.

N: Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, Chamber or Bill or Resolution Number, Title of Bill or Resolution, day xxx [for multi-day hearings], xxx Cong., xxx sess., full date, page number[s].

S: Abbreviated Chamber, Abbreviated Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, page number[s].

B: U.S. Congress. Chamber. Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics. Bill or Resolution Number, Title of Bill or Resolution [if applicable]. xxx Cong., xxx sess., full date.

In your text: In his earlier testimony before Congress, Takeo Ischi, the USDA's Chief Chicken Yodeler, had warned against the possible consequences of expanding the department's yodeling initiative to the roseate spoonbill without sufficient research into species-specific responses to human quasi-melodic vocalizations.1

N: Dangers of Yodeling: Hearing before the Committee on Avian Relations, Senate, 99th Cong., 1st sess., January 17, 1985, 29.

S: S., Dangers of Yodeling, 9.

B: U.S. Congress. Senate. Dangers of Yodeling: Hearing before the Committee on Avian Relations. 99th Cong., 1st sess., January 17, 1985.

  • Turabian does not include testifier information in citations of congressional testimonies; cite the full hearing as per the example and, if needed, identify particular testifiers in your text.
Court Case Decision
Source Type Style Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Court Case Decision

Lower court

(online)

Chicago

N (page cited): Plaintiff v. Defendant, Volume Reporter Starting Page of Decision, Page Cited (Court Abbreviation and year of decision), DOI or URL.

N (whole decision): Plaintiff v. Defendant, Volume Reporter Starting page of decision (Court Abbreviation and year of decision), DOI or URL

S (page cited): Plaintiff or Nongovernmental Party in italics, Volume Reporter at Page Cited.

S (whole decision): Plaintiff or Nongovernmental Party in italics, Volume Reporter Starting Page of Decision.

B: None

 

N (page cited): United States v. Christmas, 222 F.3d 141, 145 (4th Cir. 2000), https://wallcrust/whosueschristmas/?onlypotatoes.

N (whole decision): Profit Sharing Plan v. Mbank Dallas, N.A., 683 F. Supp. 592 (N.D. Tex. 1988). https://wallcrust/bigbank.

S (page cited): Christmas, 222 F.3d at 145.

S (whole decision): Profit Sharing Plan 683 F. Supp. 592.

B: None

Turabian

N: Plaintiff v. Defendant in italics, Volume Reporter Starting Page of Decision (Court Abbreviation and year of decision), DOI or URL.

S: Plaintiff or Nongovernmental Party in italics, page cited.

B: None

N: United States v. Christmas, 222 F.3d 141 (4th Cir. 2000), https://wallcrust/whosueschristmas/onlypotatoes.

SChristmas, 145.

B: None

Court Case Decision

Supreme Court

(print)

Chicago

N (page cited): Plaintiff v. Defendant, Volume Reporter Starting Page of Decision, Page Cited (year of decision).

N (whole decision): Plaintiff v. Defendant, Volume Reporter Starting page of decision (year of decision).

S (page cited): Plaintiff or Nongovernmental Party in italics, Volume Reporter at Page Cited.

S (whole decision): Plaintiff or Nongovernmental Party in italics, Volume Reporter Starting Page of Decision.

B: None

N (page cited): Winter v. NRDC, Inc., 129 S. Ct. 365, 380 (2008).

N (whole decision): Winter v. NRDC, Inc., 129 S. Ct. 365 (2008)

(page cited): Winter, 129 S. Ct. at 370.

S (whole decision): Winter, 129 S. Ct. 365.

B: None

Turabian

N: Plaintiff v. Defendant in italics, Volume Reporter Starting page of decision (year of decision).

S: Plaintiff or Nongovernmental Party in italics, page cited.

B: None

N: Winter v. NRDC, Inc., 129 S. Ct. 365 (2008)

S: Winter, 370.

B: None

  • Short forms include case names reduced to the name of only one party (usually the plaintiff or the nongovernmental party).
Executive Order
Source Type Style Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Executive Order

Basic format

(online)

Chicago

N: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. # (year published), DOI or URL.

S: Exec. Order No. xxxxx.

B: None

N: Exec. Order No. 13655, 3 C.F.R. 80451 (2013), https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-31/pdf/2013-31445.pdf.

S: Exec. Order No. 13655.

B: None

Executive Order

Extended format

(print)

N: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. # (year), reprinted in title number U.S.C. section app. at starting page of order–ending page of order (year).

SExec. Order No. xxxxx.

B: None

N: Exec. Order No. 11609, 3 C.F.R. 586 (1971–1975), reprinted as amended in 3 U.S.C. 301 app. at 404–407 (1994).

S: Exec. Order No. 11609.

B: None

Executive Order

(print)

Turabian

N: President First and Last Name, Executive Order xxxxx, “Title of Executive Order in Title Case,” Code of Federal Regulations, title 3 (year comp.): page.

SLast Name, Executive Order xxxxx.

B: President Last Name, First Name. Executive Order xxxxx. “Title of Executive Order in Title Case.” Code of Federal Regulations, title 3 (year comp.): page.

N: William J. Clinton, Executive Order 13067, “Blocking Sudanese Government Property and Prohibiting Transactions with Sudan,” Code of Federal Regulations, title 3 (1997 comp.): 230.

S: Clinton, Executive Order 13067.

B: Clinton, William J. Executive Order 13067. “Blocking Sudanese Government Property and Prohibiting Transactions with Sudan.” Code of Federal Regulations, title 3 (1997 comp.): 230.

Public Law
Source Type Style Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Statutes at Large

(online)

Chicago

N: Title of Act, Pub. L. number, Stat. section (year published). DOI or URL.

S: Title of Act.

B: None

N: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–336 § 2, 104 Stat. 328 (1991). http://library.clerk.house.gov/reference-files/PPL_101_336_AmericansWithDisabilities.pdf.

S: Americans with Disabilities Act.

B: None

Turabian

N: Title of Act, Public Law number, U.S. Statutes at Large volume (year published): pages, DOI or URL.

S: Title of Act.

B: None

 

N: Homeland Security Act of 2002, Public Law 107-296, U.S. Statutes at Large 116 (2002): 2163–64, https://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/
assets/hr_5005_enr.pdf.

S: Homeland Security Act.

B: None

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Code

(print)


Chicago

N: Title of Act, U.S.C. section (year published).

S: Title of Act.

B: None

N: National Environmental Policy Act, 42 U.S.C. § 4331 (1969).

S: National Environmental Policy Act.

B: None

Turabian

N: Title of Act, Public Law number, U.S. Statutes at Large volume (year published): pages, codified at U.S. Code xxx (year) §§ xx et seq.

S: Title of Act.

B: None

N: Homeland Security Act of 2002, Public Law 107-296, U.S. Statutes at Large 116 (2002): 2163–64, codified at U.S. Code 6 (2002) §§ 101 et seq.

S: Homeland Security Act.

B: None

CNB Magazine Article - Memorandum

Magazine Article

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

(online)

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, Full date, DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case.” 

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics. Full date. DOI or URL.

N: Geronimo Preposterous, "Mai Tais and Milkshakes: A Fast Ride to the ER," Libation Incidents Monthly, February 1, 2017, http://pollock.trashcan.com/2017/02/22/mtmer.

S: Preposterous, "Mai Tais and Milkshakes."

B: Preposterous, Geronimo. "Mai Tais and Milkshakes: A Fast Ride to the ER." Libation Incidents Monthly, February 1, 2017. http://pollock.trashcan.com/2017/02/22/mtmer.

 

(print)

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case," Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, Full date, page[s].

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case.” 

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics. Full date.

N: Geronimo Preposterous, "Martinis and Mackerel: From Seafood to See Food," Libation Incidents Monthly, March 1, 2017, 223.

S: Preposterous, "Martinis and Mackerel."

B: Preposterous, Geronimo. "Martinis and Mackerel: From Seafood to See Food." Libation Incidents Monthly, March 1, 2017.

Map

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Google Map

N: “Title of Page/Search in Title Case,” Google Maps, accessed Full date, URL.

S: “Title of Page/Search in Title Case.”

B: Google Maps. “Title of Map in Title Case.” Accessed Full date. URL.

N: “Monterey Bay Map,” Google Maps, accessed January 4, 2014, https://www.google.com/maps/place/Monterey+Bay/@36.7896106,-
122.0843052,11z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311.

S: “Monterey Bay Map.”

B: Google Maps. “Monterey Bay Map.” Accessed January 4, 2014. https://www.google.com/maps/place/Monterey+Bay/@36.7896106,-
122.0843052,11z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311.

Map

Cartographer
given

(online)

N: “Title of Map,” Map Source or Maker in Title Case, accessed Full date, DOI or URL.

S: Map Source or Maker in Title Case, “Title of Map.”

B: Map Source or Maker in Title Case. “Title of Map in Title Case.” Accessed Full date. DOI or URL.

N: “Population Density, 2000 U.S. Census,” Lewis County Geographic Information Services, accessed January 4, 2014, http://maps.lewiscountywa.gov/maps/Demographics/census-popdens_2000.pdf.

S: Lewis County Geographic Information Services, “Population Density, 2000 U.S. Census.”

B: Lewis County Geographic Information Services. “Population Density, 2000 U.S. Census.” Accessed January 4, 2014. http://maps.lewiscountywa.gov/maps/Demographics/census-popdens_2000.pdf.

Memorandum, Official

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Memorandum,  Official

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Memo in Title Case” (official memorandum, Place of Issuance: Department, year), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Memo in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Memo in Title Case.” Official memorandum. Place of Issuance: Department, year. DOI or URL.

N: Teresa M. Takai, “Adoption of the National Information Exchange Model within the Department of Defense” (official memorandum, Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2013), http://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20the%20DoD.pdf.

S: Takai, “Adoption of the National Information Exchange Model."

B: Takai, Teresa M. “Adoption of the National Information Exchange Model within the Department of Defense.” Official memorandum. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2013. http://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20
the%20DoD.pdf.

Multimedia

  • See 14.267 for more examples.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Motion Picture

N: Title of Film in Title Case and Italics, directed by Director (year originally released; Place of Publication: Publisher, year published of the copy you are using), medium or DOI or URL.

S: Title of Film in Title Case and Italics.

B: Director Last Name, Director First Name, dir. Title of Film in Title Case and Italics. Year originally released; Place of Publication: Publisher, year published of the copy you are using. Medium or DOI or URL.

N: The Invisible War, directed by Kirby Dick (2012; Los Angeles, CA: Docurama, 2012), http://www.netflix.com.

S: The Invisible War.

B: Dick, Kirby, dir. The Invisible War. 2012; Los Angeles, CA: Docurama, 2012. http://www.netflix.com.

News video,

YouTube, or
any kind of streaming video or podcast

N: Speaker First Name and Last Name, “Title of Podcast in Title Case,” date, in Name of Podcast in Title Case and Italics, produced by Producer First and Last Name, podcast, medium, length of podcast, URL, in  URL.

S: Speaker Last Name, “Title of Online Podcast in Title Case.”

B: Speaker First Name and Last Name. “Title of Podcast in Title Case.” Full date. In Name of Podcast in Title Case and Italics. Produced by Producer First and Last Name. Podcast. Medium, length of podcast. URL.

N: Mattecca Piekton and Rebekathy Norken, “Taking the Sigh Out of Citation,” February 15, 2019, in KNPS Presents: Citing Is Exciting!, produced by Dragon McBracket, podcast, MP3 audio, 2:47:11, https://www.knps.org/podcasts/
10486/firstnamelastlastnamefirst.html/.

S: Piekton and Norken, “Taking the Sigh Out of Citation.” 

R: Piekton, Mattecca, and Rebekathy Norken. “Taking the Sigh Out of Citation.” Produced by Dragon McBracket. In KNPS Presents: Citing Is Exciting!, February 15, 2019. Podcast, MP3 audio, 2:47:11. https://www.knps.org/podcasts/10486/
firstnamelastlastnamefirst.html/.

N: “Title of Online Multimedia in Title Case,” type of multimedia, length of multimedia, posted by Author or Organization or Screen Name, Full date of posting, URL.

SLast Name or Organization or Screen Name, “Title of Online Multimedia in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name or Organization or Screen Name. “Title of Video in Title Case.” Type of video, length of video. Month and day of posting, year of posting. URL.

N: “US Military Sends Warships, Aircraft to Texas,” CNN, video, 1:31, August 31, 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2017/08/30/politics/texas-harvey-flooding-military-response/?iid=ob_lockedrail_topeditorial.

S: “US Military Sends Warships, Aircraft to Texas.”

B: CNN. “US Military Sends Warships, Aircraft to Texas.” Video, 1:31. August 31, 2017. http://www.cnn.com/
2017/08/30/politics/texas-harvey-flooding-military-response/?iid=ob_lockedrail_topeditorial.

Newspaper Article

  • Do not use the leading word “the” when referencing newspaper names (New York Times, not The New York Times).
     
  • Always include page numbers in notes when available.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author given

(online)

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Full date, DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Full date. DOI or URL.

N: Jane E. Brody, “Mental Reserves Keep Brains Agile,” New York Times, December 11, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11brod.html.

S: Brody, “Mental Reserves Keep Brains Agile.”

B: Brody, Jane E. “Mental Reserves Keep Brains Agile.” New York Times, December 11, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11brod.html. 

No author given

(online)

N: “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Full date, DOI or URL.

S: “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Full date. DOI or URL. 

N: “Toxic Algae in San Luis Reservoir Prompts Warning from State,” Monterey Herald, June 30, 2017, http://www.montereyherald.com/environment-and-nature/20170630/toxic-algae-in-san-luis-reservoir-prompts-warning-from-state.

S: “Toxic Algae.”

B: Monterey Herald. “Toxic Algae in San Luis Reservoir Prompts Warning from State.” June 30, 2017. http://www.montereyherald.com/environment-and-nature/20170630/toxic-algae-in-san-luis-reservoir-prompts-warning-from-state. 

Author given

(print)

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Full date, page[s].

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Full date. 

N: Michael R. Gordon, “Shifting Fronts, Rising Danger: The Afghanistan War Evolves,” New York Times, December 9, 2001, A1.

S: Gordon, “Shifting Fronts," A1.

B: Gordon, Michael R. “Shifting Fronts, Rising Danger: The Afghanistan War Evolves.” New York Times, December 9, 2001.

No author given

N: “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Full date.

S: “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Full date. 

N: “Cats, Otters, and Giraffes Frolic in Monterey Bay Together Eating Pizza,” Monterey Herald, January 7, 2019, 5.

S: “Cats, Otters, and Giraffes Frolic,” 5.

B: Monterey Herald. “Cats, Otters, and Giraffes Frolic in Monterey Bay Together Eating Pizza,” January 7, 2019.

Patent

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Patent

N: Rightsholder First and Last Name, Title of patent in sentence case, U.S. Patent xxxxxxx, filed Month and day of filing, year of filing, and issued Month and day of issuance, year, DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, Title of patent in sentence case.

B: Rightsholder Last Name, Rightsholder First Name. Title of patent in sentence case. U.S. Patent xxxxxxx, filed Month and day of filing, year of filing, and issued Month and day of issuance, year. DOI or URL.

N: Alexander Graham Bell, Improvement in telegraphy, U.S. Patent 174465, filed February 14, 1876, and issued March 7, 1876, https://www.google.com/patents/US174465.

S: Bell, Improvement in telegraphy.

B: Bell, Alexander Graham. Improvement in telegraphy. U.S. Patent 174465, filed February 14, 1876, and issued March 7, 1876. https://www.google.com/patents/US174465.

Personal Communication, Interview, Email

  • Personal communication is material obtained from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.

  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email, internal documents, documents posted to a listserv or internal server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access. 

  • Personal communications, interviews, and emails may be described in your text (see "Interview," for example) or cited in notes (see "Personal Communication" or "Email"). Either format is acceptable; please be consistent within your text.

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Personal Communication

N: Interlocutor Name, type of communication, Full date of communication.

S: None

B: None

N: Flo Katz, personal communication, September 8, 2009.

S: None

B: None 

 

Interview

In your text: Include name and title of interviewee as well as full date of interview.

S: None

B: None

In your text: On August 9, 2017, the author/the team/we spoke with Paul Shapiro (professor of potato behavioral science) regarding the effects of gamma rays on chip crispiness.

S: None

B: None 

Email

Including attachments such as presentation slides, data sets, internal documents

N: Sender, email message to author, Full date of communication.

S: None

B: None

N: Quentina Grumbupple, email message to author, October 22, 1994.

S: None

B: None

Report

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it does not meet these criteria, then format it as a webpage.
     
  • Always include page numbers in notes when available.
Government Report / Document
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

CRS Report  

N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Report in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Place of Publication: Congressional Research Service, year published), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, Title of Report in Title Case and Italics.

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Congressional Research Service, year published. DOI or URL.

N: Marshall C. Erwin, Intelligence Issues for Congress, CRS Report No. RL33539 (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2013), https://fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf.

S: Erwin, Intelligence Issues for Congress.

B: Erwin, Marshall C. Intelligence Issues for Congress. CRS Report No. RL33539. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2013. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf.

GAO Report

N: Author First Name Author Last Name, Title of Report in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Place of Publication: Publisher, year published), page[s].

S: Last Name, Title of Report in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher, year published.

N: Cathleen A. Berrick, Homeland Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity, GAO-10-106 (Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office, 2009), 7–9.

S: Berrick, Homeland Security, 8.

B: Berrick, Cathleen A. Homeland Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity. GAO-10-106. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office, 2009.

Other Government Report

N: Author First and Last Name or Department, Title of Report in Title Case and Italics (Place of Publication: Publisher, year). DOI or URL.

S: Author Last Name or Department, Title of Report in Title Case and Italics.

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name or Department. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. DOI or URL. 

N: Barack Obama, National Security Strategy (Washington, DC: White House, 2015), http://nssarchive.us/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/2015.pdf.

S: Obama, National Security Strategy.

B: Obama, Barack. National Security Strategy. Washington, DC: White House, 2015. http://nssarchive.us/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/2015.pdf.

N: Author First and Last Name or Department. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics, vol. xxx (Place of Publication: Publisher, year).

S: Last Name, Title of Report in Title Case and Italics.

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name or Department. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Vol. xxx. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Department of State, Eastern Europe; The Soviet Union, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1948, vol. IV (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1948), http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?id=FRUS.FRUS1948v04.

S: Department of State, Eastern Europe; The Soviet Union.

B: Department of State. Eastern Europe; The Soviet Union. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1948. Vol. IV. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1948. http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?id=FRUS.FRUS1948v04.

Technical Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author given

(online)

N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics, Report No. xxxxxxx (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics.

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics. Report No. xxxxxxx. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. DOI or URL.

N: K. Linda Tang and Daniel R. Eignor, A Study in the Use of Collateral Statistical Information in Attempting to Reduce TOEFL IRT Item Parameter Estimation Sample Sizes, Report Numbers RR-01-11, TOEFL-TR-17 (Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 2001), https://www.ets.org/research/policy_research_reports/
publications/report/2001/hsfb.

S: Tang and Eignor, A Study in the Use of Collateral Statistical Information.

B: Tang, K. Linda, and Daniel R. Eignor. A Study in the Use of Collateral Statistical Information in Attempting to Reduce TOEFL IRT Item Parameter Estimation Sample Sizes. Report Numbers RR-01-11, TOEFL-TR-17. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 2001. https://www.ets.org/research/policy_research_reports/publications/report/2001/hsfb.

Agency as publisher

(online)

N: Agency Name, Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics, Report No. xxxxxxx (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), DOI or URL.

S: Agency Name, Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics.

B: Agency Name. Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics. Report No. xxxxxxx. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. DOI or URL.

N: National Toxicology Program, Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate (CASRN 15625-89-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice (Topical Application Studies), Report No. TR-576 (Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, 2012), https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm/reports/longterm/tr500580/listedreports/tr576/index.html.

S: National Toxicology Program, Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate.

B: National Toxicology Program. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate (CASRN 15625-89-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice (Topical Application Studies). Report No. TR-576. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, 2012. https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm/reports/longterm/tr500580/listedreports/tr576/index.html.

Author given

(print)

N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics, Report No. xxxxxxx (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Name, Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics.

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics. Report No. xxxxxxx. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Toussaint Ratsifandrihamanana and Pradeep Sharma, The Absorption Rate of E. coli in Cats, Report No. 17-59 (Madison, WI: Veterinary Studies, 2015), 18.

S: Ratsifandrihamanana and Sharma, The Absorption Rate of E. coli in Cats.

B: Ratsifandrihamanana, Toussaint, and Pradeep Sharma. The Absorption Rate of E. coli in Cats. Report No. 17-59. Madison, WI: Veterinary Studies, 2015.

Think Tank Report / White Paper
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Think Tank Report / White Paper

(online)


List of Think Tanks, U.S. and Globally 

N: Author 1 First and Last Name et al., Title of Report in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name et al., Title of Report in Title Case and Italics.

B: Author 1 Last Name, Author 1 First Name, Author 2 First and Last Name, ... Author 7 First and Last Name et al. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. DOI or URL.

N: Lloyd Dixon et al., The Cost and Affordability of Flood Insurance in New York City, RR 1776-NYCEDC (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2017), https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_ reports/RR1700/RR1776/RAND_RR1776.pdf.

S: Dixon et al., The Cost and Affordability of Flood Insurance.

B: Dixon, Lloyd, Noreen Clancy, Benjamin M. Miller, Sue Hoegberg, Michael M. Lewis, Bruce Bender, and Samara Ebinger. The Cost and Affordability of Flood Insurance in New York City. RR 1776-NYCEDC. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2017. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/?RR1700/RR1776/RAND_RR1776.pdf.

Secondary Source

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Secondary Source

In your text: Include primary and secondary source information for clarity.

N: To cite a source from a secondary source (“quoted in …”) is generally to be discouraged, since authors are expected to have examined the works they cite. If an original source is unavailable, however, both the original and the secondary source must be listed.

S: Use quoted source for shortened citation.

B: List the secondary source that quotes or discusses the material you are referring to (cite using the appropriate bibliography format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In this example, Costello is quoting Zukofsky’s poem.

In your text: We can see this principle at work in the following passage from Zukofsky’s poem, quoted in Costello: "…"1

N: Louis Zukofsky, “Sincerity and Objectification,” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

S: Zukofsky, “Sincerity and Objectification," 78.

B: Costello, Bonnie. Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

 

Social Media

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Social Media

Facebook,
Instagram,
​Twitter, etc.

N: Author or Organization (handle if not Facebook), "Title of post or shortened tweet text in sentence case," Platform, full date, timestamp for tweets only, URL.

S: Author or Organization, "Title of post or shortened tweet."

B: None

N: Babygiraffe (@babygiraffehaslastlaugh), "My tongue is longer than my face," Twitter, December 11, 2019, 3:34 a.m., https://twitter.com/babygiraffehaslastlaugh/status/4983572308457410.

S: Babygiraffe, "My tongue is longer."

B: None

 

Speech

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Speech

In your text: Include name of speaker.

N: Follow source type.

S: Follow source type.

B: List the source that quotes or reprints the speech you are referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: Martin Luther King, Jr., declared, “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed.”1

N: Jacob Smith, ed. Well Said! Great Speeches in American History (Washington, DC: E & K Publishing. 2009), 27.

S: Smith, Well Said!, 33.

B: Smith, Jacob, ed. Well Said! Great Speeches in American History. Washington, DC: E & K Publishing. 2009.

Thesis / Dissertation

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

From an institutional archive

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case,” (master’s thesis or PhD diss., Institution, year published), page[s], DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case.” Master’s thesis or PhD diss., Institution, year published. DOI or URL.

N: Thomas D. Moon, “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam” (master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2009), 48–56, http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4694.

S: Moon, “Rising Dragon,” 55.

B: Moon, Thomas D. “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam.” Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4694.


N: Joey Rivera, “Software System Architecture Modeling Methodology for Naval Gun Weapon Systems” (PhD diss., Naval Postgraduate School, 2010), 77, http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10504.

S: Rivera, “Software System Architecture,” 22.

B: Rivera, Joey. “Software System Architecture Modeling Methodology for Naval Gun Weapon Systems.” PhD diss., Naval Postgraduate School, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10504.

From a commercial database

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case,” (master’s thesis or PhD diss., Institution, year published), page[s], Database (document identification number).

S: Last Name, “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case," page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case.” Master’s thesis or PhD diss., Institution, year published. Database (document identification number).

N: Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008), 89–99, ProQuest (AAT 3300426).

S: Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires,” 89.

B: Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008. ProQuest (AAT 3300426).

Unpublished / Informally Published Work

  • For works accepted for publication, follow the appropriate style for the source type, using “forthcoming” in place of the date. The example given is for a journal article.
     
  • Always include page numbers in notes when available.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Unpublished Work

(print)

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Work in Title Case” (unpublished [type of work], Full date viewed), page[s].

S: Last Name, “Title of Work in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Work in Title Case.” Unpublished [type of work], Full date viewed.

N: Belmont B. Horse, “Back in the Saddle” (unpublished memoir, May 3, 1995), 995.

S: Horse, “Back in the Saddle.” 995.

B: Horse, Belmont B. “Back in the Saddle.” Unpublished memoir, May 3, 1995.

Unpublished Work

(online)

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Work in Title Case” (unpublished [type of work], Full date of modification), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Work in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Work in Title Case.” Unpublished [type of work], last modified Full date modified. DOI or URL.

N: Belmont B. Horse, “Back in the Saddle 2: Back in the Saddle” (unpublished screenplay, last modified December 24, 1996), http://horse.com/bits2bits.

S: Horse, “Back in the Saddle 2.”

B: Horse, Belmont B. “Back in the Saddle 2: Back in the Saddle.” Unpublished screenplay, last modified December 24, 1996. http://horse.com/bits2bits.

Work Accepted for Publication

(online)

N: Follow style for source type.

S: Follow style for source type.

B: Follow style for source type.

N: Robert Briscoe, “Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (forthcoming), http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf.

S: Briscoe, “Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception.”

B: Briscoe, Robert. “Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (forthcoming). http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf.

 

Website / Webpage

  • Title of website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
     
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, New York Times, not Reuters or CNN.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author and publication date given

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case,” Organization, full date, URL.

S: Name, “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Organization. Full date. URL.

N: Richard Roth, “75 Years Ago, the Doolittle Raid Changed History,” CNN, last modified April 18, 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html.

S: Roth, “75 Years Ago, the Doolittle Raid Changed History.”

B: Roth, Richard. “75 Years Ago, the Doolittle Raid Changed History.” CNN. Last modified April 18, 2017. http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/
us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html.

No author given

Organization as author

N: “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case,” Organization, full date given on page, URL.

S: Organization, “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.”

B: Organization. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Full date given on page. URL.

N: “Forging Papers to Sell Fake Art,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, April 6, 2017, https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art.

S: Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Forging Papers to Sell Fake Art.”

B: Federal Bureau of Investigation. “Forging Papers to Sell Fake Art.” April 6, 2017. https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art.

No date given

No author given

Organization as author

N: “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case,” Organization, accessed date, URL.

S: Organization, “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.”

B: Organization. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Accessed date. URL.

N: “About the Department of Defense (DoD),” Department of Defense, accessed April 18, 2017, https://www.defense.gov/About/.

S: Department of Defense, “About the Department of Defense (DoD).”

B: Department of Defense. “About the Department of Defense (DoD).” Accessed April 18, 2017. https://www.defense.gov/About/.

Jane's example

N: “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case,” Jane’s by IHS Markit, full date given on page or full date of access, URL.

S: “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.”

B: Jane’s by IHS Markit. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Full date given on page or full date of access. URL.

N: “Mali: Executive Summary,” Jane’s by IHS Markit, May 31, 2017, http://janes.ihs.com/Janes/Display/1303746.

S: “Mali: Executive Summary.”

B: Jane’s by IHS Markit. “Mali: Executive Summary.” Jane’s. May 31, 2017. http://janes.ihs.com/Janes/Display/1303746.

 

Wikipedia

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
     
  • Do not italicize the titles of online-only sources such as Wikipedia.
     
  • Follow this style for entries in other Wikis.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Wikipedia

N: Wikipedia, s.v. “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun,” accessed or modified date, URL.

S: Wikipedia, “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun.”

B: WikipediaS.v. “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun.” Accessed or modified date. URL.

N: Wikipedia, s.v. “psychology,” last modified July 8, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology.

S: Wikipedia, “psychology.”

B: Wikipedia. S.v. “psychology.” Last modified July 8, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology.

 

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry          See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)
Working Paper / Occasional Paper
N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Working Paper in Title Case” (working paper, Institution or Company, year), page[s], DOI or URL.
 
S: Last Name, “Title of Working Paper in Title Case.”
 
B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Working Paper in Title Case.” Working paper, Institution or Company, year. DOI or URL.
N: Lila Linguine, “Anteaters and Aardvarks: Power Critters” (working paper, Animal Rights Institute, 2014), 22, https://www.aanda.power/careers.html.
 
S: Linguine, “Anteaters and Aardvarks.”
 
B: Linguine, Lila. “Anteaters and Aardvarks: Power Critters.” Working paper, Animal Rights Institute, 2014. https://www.aanda.power/careers.html.