Citation Guide

Chicago Notes & Bibliography: Citation Examples + Rules

Chicago Notes & Bibliography (17th ed.): Citation Examples & Essential Rules

      For NPS theses, papers, and publications: to cite properly, follow the citation examples and apply the essential rules.

The Chicago Manual of Style leaves a great deal unspecified and up to interpretation. The NPS Citation Guide streamlines and simplifies Chicago’s guidance; your professors, coaches, and processors may interpret or explain Chicago’s guidelines slightly differently. Ultimately, the responsibility for clear attribution of source material lies with you, the author.

Citation Examples

Essential Rules

 

If you do not see an example that matches your source type or the rule that you need, consult the Additional Resources for your style.


Citation Examples


arXiv

  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

arXiv

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N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Work in Title Case,” arXiv, year, page[s], DOI or URL.
 
S: Last Name, “Title of Work in Title Case,” page[s]. 
 
B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Work in Title Case.” arXiv. year. DOI or URL.
N: Simon Montfort, “Key Predictors for Climate Policy Support and Political Mobilization: The Role of Beliefs and Preferences,” arXiv, 2023, 14, https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2306.10144.
 
S: Montfort, “Key Predictors for Climate Policy Support,” 14.
 
B: Montfort, Simon. “Key Predictors for Climate Policy Support and Political Mobilization: The Role of Beliefs and Preferences.” arXiv. 2023. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2306.10144.

Blog

  • Citations of blog entries are generally relegated to the notes; a frequently cited blog, however, may be included in the bibliography.
  • Blogs that are part of a larger publication such as a newspaper or website, give the name of the publication after the title of the blog and format appropriately (italicize newspaper titles; keep website names in non-italic type).
  • If the title does not contain the word "blog," add "(blog)" after the title.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the blog name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Blog Post

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N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Post in Title Case,” Title of Blog in Title Case and Italics (blog), Full date, URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Post in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Post in Title Case.” Title of Blog in Title Case and Italics (blog). Full date. URL.

N: Eric Idle, “Just a Flesh Wound,” Hamster Moms (blog), June 25, 2014, http://omgitsadeadparrot.com/2014/06/25/hamstermoms.

S: Idle, "Just a Flesh Wound.”

B: Idle, Eric. “Just a Flesh Wound.” Hamster Moms (blog). June 25, 2014. http://omgitsadeadparrot.com/2014/06/25/hamstermoms.

Blog Comment

N: Screen Name or Author First and Last Name, Full date, comment on [full blog citation].

S: Screen Name or Author Last Name, comment on blog author last name.

B: None

N: MiddleKid, January 22, 2007, comment on P. Z. Myers, “The Unfortunate Prerequisites and Consequences of Partitioning Your Mind,” ScienceBlogs, January 22, 2007, http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/22/the-unfortunate-prerequisites/.

S: MiddleKid, comment on Myers.

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Book

  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
  • If the city of publication is not a major city or may be confused with another city of the same name, the abbreviation of the state, province, or (sometimes) country is usually added. Washington is traditionally followed by DC, but other major cities, such as Los Angeles and Baltimore, need no state abbreviation.
  • For works with a translator, follow the guidance for edited books but substitute "trans." for "ed." in the notes and "translated" for "edited" in the references.
Audiobook
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Audiobook

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N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, read by [Reader Name] (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), locator, Audiobook Provider in Title Case.

S: Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, locator.

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Read by [Reader Name]. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. Audiobook Provider in Title Case, total length.

N: Cheryl Strayed, Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail, read by Bernadette Dunne (New York: Random House Audio, 2012), loc. 7:05:22, Audible.

S: Strayed, Wild, loc. 00:25:56.

B: Strayed, Cheryl. Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail. Read by Bernadette Dunne. New York: Random House Audio, 2012. Audible, 13:06:00.

Chapter in Edited Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author, two editors

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, ed. Editor1 and Editor2 (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Name, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Chapter in Title Case." In Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edited by Editor1 and Editor2, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Peter Haynes, “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy,” in Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, ed. Daniel Moran and James A. Russell (New York: Routledge, 2009), 70.

S: Haynes, “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy,” 70.

B: Haynes, Peter. “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy.” In Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, edited by Daniel Moran and James A. Russell, 62–74. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Three authors, one editor

From the introduction, forward, preface, etc.

Zotero Opens in new window

N: First1 Last1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” in Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, ed. Editor (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Names, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3. “Title of Chapter.” In Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edited by Editor, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Anthony H. Cordesman, Adam Mausner, and David Kasten, introduction to Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, ed. John Smith (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009), 4–5.

S: Cordesman, Mausner, and Kasten, Introduction, 7.

B: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. Introduction to Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, edited by John Smith, 1–12. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009.

  • No quotation marks needed for book sections with generic names, such as Introduction, Foreword, Preface, etc.
Electronic Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or URL, from a book provider or library database

DOI preferred

N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s] or location or chapter number, DOI or URL or Name of Database or Book Provider in Title Case

S: Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year published. DOI or URL or Name of Database Name or Book Provider in Title Case

DOI or URL  Zotero Opens in new window

N: Mark Evan Bonds, Absolute Music: The History of an Idea (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), chap. 3, https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199343638.003.0004.

S: Bonds, Absolute Music, 35.

B: Bonds, Mark Evan. Absolute Music: The History of an Idea. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199343638.001.0001.


From a book provider  Zotero Opens in new window

N: Armin Krishnan, War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting (New York: Routledge, 2008), loc. 1066 of 1492, Kindle.

S: Krishnan, War as Business, loc. 584.

B: Krishnan, Armin. War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. New York: Routledge, 2008. Kindle.


From a library database  Zotero Opens in new window

N: John Crabtree and Ann Chaplin, Bolivia: Processes of Change (London: Zed Books, 2013), 150, ProQuest.

S: Crabtree and Chaplin, Bolivia, 150.

B: Crabtree, John, and Ann Chaplin. Bolivia: Processes of Change. London: Zed Books, 2013. ProQuest.

  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Print Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Name, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

S: Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma, 100.

B: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

Two authors, with edition number

Zotero Opens in new window

N: First1 Last1 and First2 Last2, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edition (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Names, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Last1, First1, and First2 Last2. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Anders Strindberg and Mats Wärn, Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2011), 14.

S: Strindberg and Wärn, Islamism, 10.

B: Strindberg, Anders, and Mats Wärn. Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.

Three authors

Zotero Opens in new window

N: First1 Last1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Names, Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Anthony H. Cordesman, Adam Mausner, and David Kasten, Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009), 50.

S: Cordesman, Mausner, and Kasten, Winning in Afghanistan, 76.

B: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009.

Class Notes, Lecture, Presentation, Workshop

  • Class notes include lecture notes, slides/PowerPoints, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.
  • If class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's/lecturer's name and "class notes."
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Class Notes 
Published

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N: Instructor First and Last Name, “Title of Notes in Title Case” (class notes for Class, Institution, Location of Institution, Full date), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Notes in Title Case.”

B: Instructor Last Name, Instructor First Name. “Title of Notes in Title Case.” Class notes for Class, Institution, Location of Institution, Full date. DOI or URL.

N: Justin Johnson, "Python NumPy Tutorial" (class notes for CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2017), https://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/.

S: Johnson, "Python NumPy Tutorial."

B: Johnson, Justin. "Python NumPy Tutorial." Class notes for CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2017. https://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/.

Lecture
Published

(online)

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N: Speaker First and Last Name, “Title of Lecture in Title Case” (lecture, Venue, Location of Venue, Full date), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Lecture in Title Case.”

B: Speaker Last Name, Speaker First Name. “Title of Lecture in Title Case.” Lecture at Venue, Location of Venue, Full date. DOI or URL.

N: Belmont B. Horse, “Horseshoes and Hand Grenades: On the Joys of Approximation” (lecture, Barnes Event Center, Derby, KY, May 5, 2017), https://horse.com/.

S: Horse, “Horseshoes and Hand Grenades.”

B: Horse, Belmont B. “Horseshoes and Hand Grenades: On the Joys of Approximation.” Lecture at Barnes Event Center, Derby, KY, May 5, 2017. https://horse.com/.

Lecture 
Unpublished

N: Instructor First and Last Name, “Title of Lecture in Title Case” (lecture, Venue, Location of Venue, Full date).

S: Last Name, “Title of Lecture in Title Case.”

B: None

N: Don K. Bray, “Formatting a Thesis” (lecture, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, March 26, 2017).

S: Bray, “Formatting a Thesis.”

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Presentation or Workshop

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Presenter First and Last Name, “Title of Presentation in Title Case” (type of presentation, Venue, Location of Venue, Full date), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Presentation in Title Case.”

B: Presenter Last Name, Presenter First Name. “Title of Presentation in Title Case.” Type of presentation at Venue, Location of Venue, Full date. DOI or URL.

N: Lisa Randall, “Unification in Warped Extra Dimensions and Bulk Holography” (presentation, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, July 19, 2002), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MaH1FP-4ix4.

S: Randall, “Unification in Warped Extra Dimensions and Bulk Holography.”

B: Randall, Lisa. “Unification in Warped Extra Dimensions and Bulk Holography.” Presentation at Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, July 19, 2002. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MaH1FP-4ix4.

Computer Program / Software

  • Citation is required only if the software is not well known.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Computer Program / Software

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Company or Creator First and Last Name, Title of Software in Title Case, version number (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), accessed Full date, DOI or URL.

S: Creator Last Name, Title of Software in Title Case.

B: Company or Creator Last Name, Creator First Name. Title of Software in Title Case, version number. Place of Publication, year published. Accessed Full date. DOI or URL.

N: Matthew Borenstein et al., Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2 (Englewood, NJ: Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, 2005), accessed February 3, 2016, http://www.meta-analysis.com.

S: Borenstein et al., Comprehensive Meta-Analysis.

B: Borenstein, Matthew, Lion Hedges, Jonah Higgins, and Hy Rothstein. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2. Englewood, NJ: Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, 2005. Accessed February 3, 2016. http://www.meta-analysis.com.

Conference Paper / Proceedings

  • Per CMOS, "A paper included in the published proceedings of a meeting may be treated like a chapter in a book (see 14.120). If published in a journal, it is treated as an article (see 14.168–87)."
  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Conference Proceedings

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author 1 First and Last Name, Author 2 First and Last Name, . . . and Author N First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” in Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s], DOI or URL.

S: Author 1 Last Name et al., “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Author 1 Last Name, Author 1 First Name, Author 2 First and Last Name, . . . and Author N First and Last Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” In Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. DOI or URL.


How to cite multiple authors

N: James W. Morentz et al., “Unified Incident Command and Decision Support (UICDS) a Department of Homeland Security Initiative in Information Sharing,” in 2009 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security (Boston: IEEE, 2009), 182, https://doi.org/10.1109/THS.2009.5168032.

S: Morentz et al., “Unified Incident Command and Decision Support,” 183.

B: Morentz, James W., Christopher Doyle, Lawrence Skelly, and Nabil Adam. “Unified Incident Command and Decision Support (UICDS) a Department of Homeland Security Initiative in Information Sharing.” In 2009 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security, 182–87. Boston: IEEE, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/THS.2009.5168032.

Conference Proceedings

(print)

Zotero Opens in new window

N: First1 Last1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” in Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, ed. Editor1 et al., Series Name in Title Case, vol. xxx (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Names, “Title of Chapter in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3. “Title of Chapter in Title Case.” In Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, edited by Editor1, Editor2, Editor3, and Editor4, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. Series Name in Title Case, vol. xxx. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Itai Katz, Kevin Gabayan, and Hamid Aghajan, “A Multi-touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras,” in Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 9th International Conference, ed. Jacques Blanc-Talon et al., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4678 (Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2007), 98.

S: Katz, Gabayan, and Aghajan, “A Multi-touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras,” 106.

B: Katz, Itai, Kevin Gabayan, and Hamid Aghajan. “A Multi-touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras.” In Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 9th International Conference, edited by Jacques Blanc-Talon, Wilfried Philips, Dan Popescu, and Paul Scheunders, 97–108. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4678. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2007.

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

Zotero Opens in new window

N: First1 Last1, First2 Last2, First3 Last3, and First4 Last4, “Title of Paper in Title Case” (paper presented at Name of Conference, Location of Conference, Full date).

S: Last Names, “Title of Paper in Title Case.”

B: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, First3 Last3, and First4 Last4. “Title of Paper in Title Case.” Paper presented at Name of Conference, Location of Conference, Full date.

N: Linda A. Teplin et al., “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study” (paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005).

S: Teplin et al., “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth.”

B: Teplin, Linda A., Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, and Jason J. Washburn. “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, March 2005.

Data Set / Database

  • Include the date in a short citation of unpublished data only if multiple data sets have been received from the same source.
  • Since an unpublished data set is irretrievable, it is treated as a personal communication and therefore not cited in references.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Data Set

Published

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Data Set in Title Case,” Organization, Full date, DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Data Set in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Data Set in Title Case.” Organization, Month and day published, year. DOI or URL.

N: Roberto Suro, “Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture: A Survey of Latinos on News Media,” Pew Research Center, April 19, 2004, https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/.

S: Suro, “Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture.”

B: Suro, Roberto. “Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture: A Survey of Latinos on News Media.” Pew Research Center, April 19, 2004. https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/.

Data Set

Unpublished

N: Author First and Last Name, unpublished data, Month and day of correspondence, year.

S: Last Name, unpublished data, Full date.

B: None

N: Rebecca Kanteen, unpublished data, May 11, 1993.

S: Kanteen, unpublished data, May 11, 1993. 

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Database

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Name of Database in Title Case (record locator; accessed Full date), DOI or URL.

S: Name of Database in Title Case.

B: Name of Database in Title Case (record locator; accessed Full date). DOI or URL.

N: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (object name IRAS F00400+4059; accessed October 6, 2009), http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/.

S: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database.

B: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (object name IRAS F00400+4059; accessed October 6, 2009). http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/.

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

  • If the source is an online version of a print reference work, italicize the title; do not italicize the titles of online-only sources.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Author given

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Entry in Title Case,” in Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics, ed. Editor (Publisher, year), page[s] if present, DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Entry in Title Case,” page[s] if present.

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Entry in Title Case." In Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics, edited by Editor, starting page of entry–ending page of entry if present. Publisher, year. DOI or URL.

N: Buck Buckbuck, "Butter Chicken," in The Fowl Encyclopedia, ed. Brooke Bagahk (Eleven Spice Culinary Institute, 2023), https://wallcrust.com/fowl/butterchicken/rice.

S: Buckbuck, "Butter Chicken."

B: Buckbuck, Buck. "Butter Chicken." In The Fowl Encyclopedia, edited by Brooke Bagahk. Eleven Spice Culinary Institute, 2023. https://wallcrust.com/fowl/butterchicken/rice.

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Organization as author

N: Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics, s.v. “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun,” accessed or modified date, URL.

S: Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics, “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun.”

B: None

N: Merriam-Webster, s.v. “metamorphosis,” accessed July 6, 2017, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis.

S: Merriam-Webster, “metamorphosis.”

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Fact Sheet

  • Fact sheets can be webpages or stand-alone documents (like a report). Determine the source type and follow the appropriate format.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Fact Sheet

N: Follow source type.

S: Follow source type.

B: Follow source type.

N: Follow source type.

S: Follow source type.

B: Follow source type.

Government / Military Document

  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Directive
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Directive

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Department, Title of Directive in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year), DOI or URL.

S: Department, Title of Directive in Title Case and Italics.

B: Department. Title of Directive in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year published. DOI or URL.

N: Department of Defense, Information Assurance Training, Certification, and Workforce Management, DOD Directive 8570.01-M (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2005), 21, http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/
issuances/dodm/857001m.pdf.

S: Department of Defense, Information Assurance Training, Certification, and Workforce Management, 23.

B: Department of Defense. Information Assurance Training, Certification, and Workforce Management. DOD Directive 8570.01-M. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2005. http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/
issuances/dodm/857001m.pdf.

Doctrine
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Doctrine

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Department, Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year), DOI or URL.

S: Department, Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics.

B: Department. Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year. DOI or URL.

N: Joint Chiefs of Staff, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, JP 1 (Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2017), I-7, https://fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp1.pdf.

S: Joint Chiefs of Staff, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, I-9.

B: Joint Chiefs of Staff. Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States. JP 1. Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2017. https://fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp1.pdf.

Field Manual  / Military Regulation
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Field Manual  / Military Regulation

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Department, Title of Field Manual in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year), DOI or URL.

S: Department, Title of Field Manual in Title Case and Italics.

B: Department. Title of Field Manual in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year of issuance. DOI or URL.

N: Department of the Army, Sniper Training, FM 23-10 (Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1995), 5-11, http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf.

S: Department of the Army, Sniper Training, 4-7.

B: Department of the Army. Sniper Training. FM 23-10. Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1995. http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf.

Government Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

 

Government Report

CRS Report

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Report in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Place of Publication: Congressional Research Service, year published), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, Title of Report in Title Case and Italics.

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Congressional Research Service, year published. DOI or URL.

CRS Report

N: Marshall C. Erwin, Intelligence Issues for Congress, CRS Report No. RL33539 (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2013), 49, https://fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf.

S: Erwin, Intelligence Issues for Congress, 32.

B: Erwin, Marshall C. Intelligence Issues for Congress. CRS Report No. RL33539. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2013. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf.

GAO Report

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First Name Author Last Name, Title of Report in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Place of Publication: Publisher, year published), page[s].

S: Last Name, Title of Report in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher, year published.

GAO Report

N: Cathleen A. Berrick, Homeland Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity, GAO-10-106 (Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office, 2009), 7–9.

S: Berrick, Homeland Security, 8.

B: Berrick, Cathleen A. Homeland Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity. GAO-10-106. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office, 2009.

Strategy Document / Other Government Report

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name or Department, Title of Report in Title Case and Italics (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), DOI or URL.

S: Author Last Name or Department, Title of Report in Title Case and Italics.

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name or Department. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. DOI or URL. 

Strategy Document / Other Government Report

N: Joseph R. Biden Jr., National Security Strategy of the United States of America (Washington, DC: White House, 2022), 4–6, https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/Biden-Harris-Administrations-National-Security-Strategy-10.2022.pdf.

S: Biden Jr., National Security Strategy, 22.

B: Biden Jr., Joseph R. National Security Strategy of the United States of America. Washington, DC: White House, 2022. https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/Biden-Harris-Administrations-National-Security-Strategy-10.2022.pdf.


N: Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Military Strategy of the United States of America (Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2015), 11, https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Publications/National_Military_Strategy_2015.pdf.

S: Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Military Strategy, 16–17.

B: Joint Chiefs of Staff. National Military Strategy of the United States of America. Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2015. https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Publications/National_Military_Strategy_2015.pdf.


N: Department of Defense, Summary of the 2018 National Defense Strategy of the United States of America (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2018), 7, https://dod.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/2018-National-Defense-Strategy-Summary.pdf.

S: Department of Defense, National Defense Strategy, 10.

B: Department of Defense. Summary of the 2018 National Defense Strategy of the United States of America. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2018. https://dod.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/2018-National-Defense-Strategy-Summary.pdf.

Instruction
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Instruction

Zotero Opens in new window

 

N: Department, Title of Instruction in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number (Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year), page[s].

S: Department, Title of Instruction in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Department. Title of Instruction in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher = Department, year.

N: Department of Defense, Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, DOD Instruction 1000.01 (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012), 36.

S: Department of Defense, Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention, 4.

B: Department of Defense. Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention. DOD Instruction 1000.01. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012.

Memorandum
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Memorandum

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Memo in Title Case” (official memorandum, Place of Issuance: Department, year), DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Memo in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Memo in Title Case.” Official memorandum. Place of Issuance: Department, year. DOI or URL.

N: Teresa M. Takai, “Adoption of the National Information Exchange Model within the Department of Defense” (official memorandum, Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2013), http://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20the%20DoD.pdf.

S: Takai, “Adoption of the National Information Exchange Model."

B: Takai, Teresa M. “Adoption of the National Information Exchange Model within the Department of Defense.” Official memorandum. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2013. http://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20
the%20DoD.pdf.

Handbook

  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Name of Company, Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics (Location of Company, State: Name of Company, year), page[s], DOI or URL.

S: Name of Company, Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics.

B: Name of Company. Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics. Location of Company, State: Name of Company, year. DOI or URL.

N: Western Spud, Transmission Systems for Potatoes, 168th ed. (Kinston-Slalom, ID: Western Spud, 1972), 169,  http://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html.

S: Western Spud, Transmission Systems for Potatoes, 186.

B: Western Spud. Transmission Systems for Potatoes. 168th ed. Kinston-Slalom, ID: Western Spud, 1972. http://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html.

Print

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Name of Company, Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics (Location of Company, State: Name of Company,  year), page[s].

S: Name of Company, Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Name of Company. Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics. Location of Company, State: Name of Company,  year.

N: Western Electric, Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed. (Winston-Salem, NC: Western Electric, 1985), 77.

SWestern Electric, Transmission Systems for Communications, 77.

B: Western Electric. Transmission Systems for Communications. 3rd ed. Winston-Salem, NC: Western Electric, 1985.

Journal Article

  • Always include page numbers in notes when available.
  • Journals without volume numbers have a comma between the journal title and issue number.
  • For online journal references, use a DOI. If no DOI is present, use the name of database.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

DOI preferred

N: Author 1 First and Last Name and Author 2 First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year): page[s], DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case.

S: Last Names, “Title of Article in Title Case," page[s].

B: Author 1 Last Name, Author 1 First Name, Author 2 First and Last Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year): starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or Name of Database in Title Case.


How to cite multiple authors

DOI or URL  Zotero Opens in new window

N: Grace F. Sanico and Makoto Kakinaka, “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support,” Defence and Peace Economics 19, no. 2 (April 2008): 156, https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419.

S: Sanico and Kakinaka, “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy," 158.

B: Sanico, Grace F., and Makoto Kakinaka. “Terrorism and Deterrence Policy with Transnational Support.” Defence and Peace Economics 19, no. 2 (April 2008): 153–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419.


From a library database  Zotero Opens in new window

N: William W. Newmann, “Reorganizing for National Security and Homeland Security,” Public Administration Review 62, no. 1 (September 2002): 128, ProQuest. 

S: Newmann, “Reorganizing for National Security," 130. 

B: Newmann, William W. “Reorganizing for National Security and Homeland Security.” Public Administration Review62, no. 1 (September 2002): 126–37. ProQuest. 

Print

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year): page[s].

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number, no. xxx (Month and year published): starting page of article–ending page of article.

N: Ged Griffin, “Managing Peacekeeping Communications,” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3, no. 4 (August 2009): 325.

S: Griffin, “Managing Peacekeeping Communications.”

B: Griffin, Ged. “Managing Peacekeeping Communications.” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3, no. 4 (August 2009): 317–27.

Legal

  • Legal publications use notes for documentation; few include bibliographies. For a full discussion of legal and public documents, including examples, see CMOS 14.269–305.
Bill / Resolution
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Bill / Resolution

Federal unenacted

N: Title of Bill or Resolution in Title Case, Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, xxx Cong. (year).

S: Title of Bill or Resolution in Title Case.

B: None

N: Every Vote Counts Amendment, H.J. Res. 4, 110th Cong. (2007). 

S: Every Vote Counts Amendment.

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.
Code of Federal Regulations
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Code of Federal Regulations

N: Title of Act in Title Case, title number C.F.R. part or § section number (year), DOI or URL.

S: Title of Act in Title Case.

B: None

N: Renewable Energy Production Incentives, 10 C.F.R. 451 (2006), https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2006-title10-vol3/xml/CFR-2006-title10-vol3-part451.xml.

S: Renewable Energy Production Incentives.

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.
Congressional Hearing
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Full Hearing

N: Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, xxx Cong. (year), DOI or URL.

S: Abbreviated Chamber, Shortened Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics.

B: None

 

N: Long-term Sustainability of Current Defense Plans: Hearing before the Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives, 111th Cong. 1 (2009), https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg47035/pdf/CHRG-111hhrg47035.pdf.

S: H.R., Long-term Sustainability.

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Testimony within a Hearing

N: Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, xxx Cong. (year of hearing) (statement of Testifier, title).

S: Testifier, testimony on Shortened Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics.

B: None

N: NASA Infrastructure: Enabling Discovery, Enabling Durability: Testimony before the Subcommittee on Space Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, 113th Cong. 25 (2013) (statement of Paul K. Martin, NASA lead scientist).

S: Martin, testimony on NASA Infrastructure.

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.
Court Case Decision
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Court Case Decision

Lower Court

Page cited

N: Party Names, Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter(s), the ordinal series number of the reporter (if applicable)] opening page of the decision, page[s] cited, (the abbreviated name of the court (if not indicated by the reporter) and the date together in parentheses), DOI or URL.

S: Plaintiff or Nongovernmental Party in italics, Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter(s), the ordinal series number of the reporter (if applicable)] at page[s] cited.

B: None

Page cited

N (page cited): United States v. Christmas, 222 F.3d 141, 145 (4th Cir. 2000), https://wallcrust/whosueschristmas/onlypotatoes.

S (page cited): Christmas, 222 F.3d at 145.

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Whole decision

N: Party Names, Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter(s), the ordinal series number of the reporter (if applicable), first page of the decision, the abbreviated name of the court (if not indicated by the reporter) and the date together in parentheses], DOI or URL

S: Plaintiff or Nongovernmental Party in italics, Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter(s), the ordinal series number of the reporter (if applicable), first page of the decision].

B: None

Whole decision

N (whole decision): Profit Sharing Plan v. Mbank Dallas, N.A., 683 F. Supp. 592 (N.D. Tex. 1988), https://wallcrust/bigbank.

S (whole decision): Profit Sharing Plan, 683 F. Supp. 592.

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Court Case Decision

Supreme Court

Page cited

N: Party Names, Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter, first page of decision, actual page[s] cited] (year).

S: Plaintiff or Nongovernmental Party in italics, Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter] at page[s] cited.

B: None

Page cited

N: Winter v. NRDC, Inc., 129 S. Ct. 365, 370 (2008).

(page cited): Winter, 129 S. Ct. at 370.

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Whole decision

N: Party Names, Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter, first page of decision] (year).

SPlaintiff or Nongovernmental Party in italics, Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter, first page of decision].

B: None

Preferably cite to the United States Reports (abbreviated U.S.). If case is not yet published, you may cite to the Supreme Court Reporter (S. Ct.). CMOS 14.277

Whole decision

N: Citizens United v. Federal Election Comm'n, 558 U.S. 310 (2010).

S: Citizens United, 558 U.S. 310.

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.
  • Short forms include case names reduced to the name of only one party (usually the plaintiff or the nongovernmental party).
Executive Order
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Executive Order

Code of Federal Regulations

Basic format

N: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. page number (year compiled), DOI or URL.

S: Exec. Order No. xxxxx.

B: None

N: Exec. Order No. 13655, 3 C.F.R. 339 (2014), https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2014-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title3-vol1.pdf.

S: Exec. Order No. 13655.

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Executive Order

Code of Federal Regulations

Extended format

N: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. page number (year compiled), reprinted in title number U.S.C. § section number app. at starting page of order–ending page of order (year reprinted).

SExec. Order No. xxxxx.

B: None

N: Exec. Order No. 11609, 3 C.F.R. 586 (1971–1975), reprinted as amended in 3 U.S.C. § 301 app. at 404–407 (1994).

S: Exec. Order No. 11609.

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Executive Order

Federal Register

N: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, volume Fed. Reg. page number (year), DOI or URL.

S: Exec. Order No. xxxxx.

B: None

N: Exec. Order No. 14074, 87 Fed. Reg. 32945 (2022), https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2022/05/31/2022-11810/advancing-effective-accountable-policing-and-criminal-justice-practices-to-enhance-public-trust-and.

S: Exec. Order No. 14074.

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.
Public Law
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Statutes at Large

N: Title of Act in Title Case, Pub. L. No. xxx, volume Source page number (year published). DOI or URL.

S: Title of Act.

B: None

N: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–336 § 2, 104 Stat. 328 (1991). http://library.clerk.house.gov/reference-files/PPL_101_336_AmericansWithDisabilities.pdf.

S: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Code

N: Title of Act in Title Case, title number U.S.C. § section (year published).

S: Title of Act.

B: None

N: National Environmental Policy Act, 42 U.S.C. § 4331 (1969).

S: National Environmental Policy Act.

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Magazine Article

  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
  • For online magazine references, use a DOI. If no DOI is present, use the URL or name of database.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the magazine name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, Full date, page[s], DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case.

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case.” 

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics. Full date. DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case.

DOI or URL

N: Geronimo Preposterous, "Mai Tais and Milkshakes: A Fast Ride to the ER," Libation Incidents Monthly, February 1, 2017, 18, http://pollock.trashcan.com/2017/02/22/mtmer.

S: Preposterous, "Mai Tais and Milkshakes," 45.

B: Preposterous, Geronimo. "Mai Tais and Milkshakes: A Fast Ride to the ER." Libation Incidents Monthly, February 1, 2017. http://pollock.trashcan.com/2017/02/22/mtmer.


From a library database

N: Geronimo Preposterous, "Mojitos and Mussels: New Frontiers in Smoothie Formulation,"Libation Incidents Monthly, January 1, 2020, 623, EBSCO. 

S: Preposterous, "Mojitos and Mussels," 608. 

B: Preposterous, Geronimo. "Mojitos and Mussels: New Frontiers in Smoothie Formulation." Libation Incidents Monthly, January 1, 2020. EBSCO. 

Print

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case," Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, Full date, page[s].

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case.” 

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics. Full date.

N: Geronimo Preposterous, "Martinis and Mackerel: From Seafood to See Food," Libation Incidents Monthly, March 1, 2017, 223.

S: Preposterous, "Martinis and Mackerel," 266.

B: Preposterous, Geronimo. "Martinis and Mackerel: From Seafood to See Food." Libation Incidents Monthly, March 1, 2017.

Map

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Cartographer
given

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Title of Map in Title Case and Italics, Map Source or Maker in Title Case, accessed Full date, DOI or URL.

S: Map Source or Maker in Title Case, Title of Map in Title Case and Italics.

B: Map Source or Maker in Title Case. Title of Map in Title Case and Italics. Accessed Full date. DOI or URL.

N: Population Density, 2000 U.S. Census, Lewis County Geographic Information Services, accessed January 4, 2014, http://maps.lewiscountywa.gov/maps/Demographics/census-popdens_2000.pdf.

S: Lewis County Geographic Information Services, Population Density, 2000 U.S. Census.

B: Lewis County Geographic Information Services. Population Density, 2000 U.S. Census. Accessed January 4, 2014. http://maps.lewiscountywa.gov/maps/Demographics/census-popdens_2000.pdf.

Google Map

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Title of page/search in sentence case, Google Maps, accessed Full date, URL.

S: Title of page/search in sentence case.

B: Google Maps. Title of page/search in sentence case. Accessed Full date. URL.

N: Monterey Bay map, Google Maps, accessed January 4, 2014, https://www.google.com/maps/place/Monterey+Bay/@36.7896106,-
122.0843052,11z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311.

S: Monterey Bay map.

B: Google Maps. Monterey Bay map. Accessed January 4, 2014. https://www.google.com/maps/place/Monterey+Bay/@36.7896106,-
122.0843052,11z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311.

Multimedia

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Film

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Title of Film in Title Case and Italics, directed by Director (year originally released; Place of Publication: Publisher, year published of the copy you are using), medium or DOI or URL.

S: Title of Film in Title Case and Italics.

B: Director Last Name, Director First Name, dir. Title of Film in Title Case and Italics. Year originally released; Place of Publication: Publisher, year published of the copy you are using. Medium or DOI or URL.

N: The Invisible War, directed by Kirby Dick (2012; Los Angeles, CA: Docurama, 2012), http://www.netflix.com.

S: The Invisible War.

B: Dick, Kirby, dir. The Invisible War. 2012; Los Angeles, CA: Docurama, 2012. http://www.netflix.com.

 

Podcast

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Speaker First Name and Last Name, “Title of Podcast in Title Case,” date, in Name of Podcast in Title Case and Italics, produced by Producer First and Last Name, podcast, medium, length of podcast, URL, in  URL.

S: Speaker Last Name, “Title of Online Podcast in Title Case.”

B: Speaker First Name and Last Name. “Title of Podcast in Title Case.” Full date. In Name of Podcast in Title Case and Italics. Produced by Producer First and Last Name. Podcast. Medium, length of podcast. URL.

N: Mattecca Piekton and Rebeka Norken, “Taking the Sigh Out of Citation,” February 15, 2019, in KNPS Presents: Citing Is Exciting!, produced by Dragon McBracket, podcast, audio, 2:47:11, https://www.knps.org/podcasts/
10486/firstnamelastlastnamefirst.html/.

S: Piekton and Norken, “Taking the Sigh Out of Citation.” 

R: Piekton, Mattecca, and Rebeka Norken. “Taking the Sigh Out of Citation.” Produced by Dragon McBracket. In KNPS Presents: Citing Is Exciting!, February 15, 2019. Podcast, audio, 2:47:11. https://www.knps.org/podcasts/10486/
firstnamelastlastnamefirst.html/.

Video

News, YouTube, or
any kind of streaming video

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Creator or Screen Name or Organization, “Title of Video in Title Case,” video, length of video, Website or Platform [if different from author], full date of posting, URL.

SLast Name or Screen Name or Organization, “Title of Video in Title Case.”

B: Creator Last Name, Creator First Name or Screen Name or Organization. “Title of Video in Title Case.” Video, length of video, Website or Platform [if different from author], full date of posting. URL.

N: CNN, "US Military Sends Warships, Aircraft to Texas,” video, 1:31, August 31, 2017, https://www.cnn.com/2017/08/30/politics/texas-harvey-flooding-military-response/.

S: CNN, “US Military Sends Warships.”

B: CNN. “US Military Sends Warships, Aircraft to Texas.” Video, 1:31, August 31, 2017. https://www.cnn.com/2017/08/30/politics/texas-harvey-flooding-military-response/


N: Associated Press, "Biden-Zelenskyy Hold Joint News Conference in Washington," video, 36:30, YouTube, December 21, 2022, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GGJI2A2-G4A.

S: Associated Press, "Biden-Zelenskyy Hold Joint News Conference."

B: Associated Press. "Biden-Zelenskyy Hold Joint News Conference in Washington." Video, 36:30, YouTube, December 21, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GGJI2A2-G4A.

Newspaper Article

  • Do not use the leading word “the” when referencing newspaper names (New York Times, not The New York Times).
  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
  • For online newspaper references, use a DOI. If no DOI is present, use a URL or name of database.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the newspaper name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

Author given

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Full date, page[s] or Section Name, DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case.

S: Last Name, “Title of Article in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Full date. DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case.

From a library database  Zotero Opens in new window

N: Michael R. Gordon, “Shifting Fronts, Rising Danger: The Afghanistan War Evolves,” New York Times, December 9, 2001, A1, ProQuest.

S: Gordon, “Shifting Fronts," A1.

B: Gordon, Michael R. “Shifting Fronts, Rising Danger: The Afghanistan War Evolves.” New York Times, December 9, 2001. ProQuest.

Online

No author given

N: “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, Full date, page[s] or Section Name, DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case.

S: Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, “Title of Article in Title Case.”

B: Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Full date. DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case.

DOI  Zotero Opens in new window

N: “CMU Scientists Identify Spread of Invasive Species,” Midland Daily News, November 30, 2014,12, https://doi.org/10.1233/45678.

S: Midland Daily News, "CMU Scientists,” 14.

B: Midland Daily News. “CMU Scientists Identify Spread of Invasive Species.” November 30, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1233/45678.


URL  Zotero Opens in new window

N: “Toxic Algae in San Luis Reservoir Prompts Warning from State,” Monterey Herald, June 30, 2017, 4,  http://www.montereyherald.com/environment-and-nature/20170630/toxic-algae-in-san-luis-reservoir-prompts-warning-from-state.

S: Monterey Herald, "Toxic Algae,” 6.

B: Monterey Herald. “Toxic Algae in San Luis Reservoir Prompts Warning from State.” June 30, 2017. http://www.montereyherald.com/environment-and-nature/20170630/toxic-algae-in-san-luis-reservoir-prompts-warning-from-state. 

Patent

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Patent

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Rightsholder First and Last Name, Title of patent in sentence case, U.S. Patent xxxxxxx, filed Month and day of filing, year of filing, and issued Month and day of issuance, year, DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, Title of patent in sentence case.

B: Rightsholder Last Name, Rightsholder First Name. Title of patent in sentence case. U.S. Patent xxxxxxx, filed Month and day of filing, year of filing, and issued Month and day of issuance, year. DOI or URL.

N: Seroun Kesh, Dust cover for dog, U.S. Patent 3150641, filed September 4, 1963, and issued September 29, 1964, https://ppubs.uspto.gov/dirsearch-public/print/downloadPdf/3150641.

S: Kesh, Dust cover for dog.

B: Kesh, Seroun. Dust cover for dog. U.S. Patent 3150641, filed September 4, 1963, and issued September 29, 1964. https://ppubs.uspto.gov/dirsearch-public/print/downloadPdf/3150641.

Personal Communication

  • Personal communication is material obtained from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.
  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email, internal documents, documents posted to a listserv or internal server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access. 
  • Personal communications, interviews, and emails may be described in your text (see "Interview," for example) or cited in notes (see "Personal Communication" or "Email"). Either format is acceptable; please be consistent within your text.
  • If a personal name is not given, include an occupation or position instead. Example: N: Lieutenant commander, USN, personal communication, April 11, 2022.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Email

Including attachments such as presentation slides, data sets, internal documents

N: Sender, email message to author, Full date of communication.

S: None

B: None

N: Quentina Grumbupple, email message to author, October 22, 1994.

S: None

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.
Interview

In your text: Include name and title of interviewee as well as full date of interview.

B: None

In your text: On August 9, 2017, the author/the team/we spoke with Paul Shapiro (professor of potato behavioral science) regarding the effects of gamma rays on chip crispiness.

B: None 

No in-text citation or reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Personal Communication

N: Interlocutor Name, type of communication, Full date of communication.

S: None

B: None

N: Flo Katz, personal communication, September 8, 2009.

S: None

B: None 

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Secondary / Indirect Source

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Secondary / Indirect Source

Zotero Opens in new window

In your text: Include primary and indirect source information for clarity.

N: To cite a source from a indirect source (“quoted in . . . ”) is generally to be discouraged, since authors are expected to have examined the works they cite. If an original source is unavailable, however, both the original and the indirect source must be listed.

S: Use quoted source for shortened citation.

B: List the indirect source that quotes or discusses the material you are referring to (cite using the appropriate reference format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In this example, Costello is quoting Zukofsky’s poem.

In your text: We can see this principle at work in the following passage from Zukofsky’s poem, quoted in Costello: " . . . "1

N: Louis Zukofsky, “Sincerity and Objectification,” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

S: Zukofsky, “Sincerity and Objectification," 78.

B: Costello, Bonnie. Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Report

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it does not meet these criteria, then format it as a webpage.
  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Research Report / Think Tank Report / White Paper
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Research Report / Think Tank Report / White Paper

(online)

N: Author 1 First and Last Name et al., Title of Report in Title Case and Italics, document identification number or Series Title in Title Case (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s], DOI or URL.

S: Last Name et al., Title of Report in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Author 1 Last Name, Author 1 First Name, Author 2 First and Last Name, . . . Author 7 First and Last Name et al. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number or Series Title in Title Case. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. DOI or URL.

Note: If you have a DOI or URL, you may omit the series title.


How to cite multiple authors

Report  Zotero Opens in new window

N: Lloyd Dixon et al., The Cost and Affordability of Flood Insurance in New York City, RR 1776-NYCEDC (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2017), 29, https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1776.html.

S: Dixon et al., The Cost and Affordability of Flood Insurance, 29.

B: Dixon, Lloyd, Noreen Clancy, Benjamin M. Miller, Sue Hoegberg, Michael M. Lewis, Bruce Bender, and Samara Ebinger. The Cost and Affordability of Flood Insurance in New York City. RR 1776-NYCEDC. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2017. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1776.html.


Report in a series  Zotero Opens in new window

N: Alan De Brauw, Rural Youth: Determinants of Migration throughout the World, IFAD Research Series 55 (Rome, Italy: International Fund for Agricultural Development, 2019), 60, https://doi.org/10.22004/ag.econ.301820.

S: De Brauw, Rural Youth, 40.

B: De Brauw, Alan. Rural Youth: Determinants of Migration throughout the World. IFAD Research Series 55. Rome, Italy: International Fund for Agricultural Development, 2019. https://doi.org/10.22004/ag.econ.301820.

Technical Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author given

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s], DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics, page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. DOI or URL.


How to cite multiple authors

N: K. Linda Tang and Daniel R. Eignor, A Study in the Use of Collateral Statistical Information in Attempting to Reduce TOEFL IRT Item Parameter Estimation Sample Sizes, Report Numbers RR-01-11, TOEFL-TR-17 (Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 2001), 10, https://www.ets.org/research/policy_research_reports/publications/report/2001/hsfb.

S: Tang and Eignor, A Study in the Use of Collateral Statistical Information, 11.

B: Tang, K. Linda, and Daniel R. Eignor. A Study in the Use of Collateral Statistical Information in Attempting to Reduce TOEFL IRT Item Parameter Estimation Sample Sizes. Report Numbers RR-01-11, TOEFL-TR-17. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 2001. https://www.ets.org/research/policy_research_reports/publications/report/2001/hsfb.

Agency as author

Organization as publisher

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Agency Name, Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s], DOI or URL.

S: Agency Name, Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics.

B: Agency Name. Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Organization as Publisher, year. DOI or URL.

N: National Toxicology Program, Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate (CASRN 15625-89-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice (Topical Application Studies), Report No. TR-576 (Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, 2012), 22, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23385646/.

S: National Toxicology Program, Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate, 44.

B: National Toxicology Program. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate (CASRN 15625-89-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice (Topical Application Studies). Report No. TR-576. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, 2012. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23385646/.

Author given

(print)

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics, document identification number (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page[s].

S: Last Name, Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics.

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

N: Toussaint Ratsifandrihamanana and Pradeep Sharma, The Absorption Rate of E. coli in Cats, Report No. 17-59 (Madison, WI: Veterinary Studies, 2015), 18.

S: Ratsifandrihamanana and Sharma, The Absorption Rate of E. coli in Cats, 88.

B: Ratsifandrihamanana, Toussaint, and Pradeep Sharma. The Absorption Rate of E. coli in Cats. Report No. 17-59. Madison, WI: Veterinary Studies, 2015.

Social Media

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Social Media

Facebook,
Instagram,
​Twitter, etc.

N: Author or Organization (handle if not Facebook), "Title of post or shortened tweet text in sentence case," Platform, full date, timestamp for tweets only, URL.

S: Author or Organization, "Title of post or shortened tweet."

B: None

N: Babygiraffe (@babygiraffehaslastlaugh), "My tongue is longer than my face," Twitter, December 11, 2019, 3:34 a.m., https://twitter.com/babygiraffehaslastlaugh/status/4983572308457410.

S: Babygiraffe, "My tongue is longer."

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Speech

  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Speech

Zotero Opens in new window

In your text: Include name of speaker.

N: Follow source type.

S: Follow source type.

B: List the source that quotes or reprints the speech you are referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: Martin Luther King, Jr., declared, “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed.”1

N: Jacob Smith, ed. Well Said! Great Speeches in American History (Washington, DC: E & K Publishing. 2009), 27.

S: Smith, Well Said!, 33.

B: Smith, Jacob, ed. Well Said! Great Speeches in American History. Washington, DC: E & K Publishing. 2009.

Thesis / Dissertation

  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

From a commercial database

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case” (master’s thesis or PhD diss., Institution, year published), page[s], Database.

S: Last Name, “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case," page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case.” Master’s thesis or PhD diss., Institution, year published. Database.

N: Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008), 89–99, ProQuest.

S: Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires,” 89.

B: Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008. ProQuest.

From an institutional archive such as the NPS Archive: Calhoun

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case” (master’s thesis or PhD diss., Institution, year published), page[s], DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case.” Master’s thesis or PhD diss., Institution, year published. DOI or URL.

Dissertation  Zotero Opens in new window

N: Joey Rivera, “Software System Architecture Modeling Methodology for Naval Gun Weapon Systems” (PhD diss., Naval Postgraduate School, 2010), 112, https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/10504.

S: Rivera, “Software System Architecture,” 153.

B: Rivera, Joey. “Software System Architecture Modeling Methodology for Naval Gun Weapon Systems.” PhD diss., Naval Postgraduate School, 2010. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/10504.


Thesis  Zotero Opens in new window

N: Thomas D. Moon, “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam” (master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2009), 48–56, https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/4694.

S: Moon, “Rising Dragon,” 55.

B: Moon, Thomas D. “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam.” Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2009. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/4694.

Unpublished / Informally Published Work

  • For works accepted for publication, follow the appropriate style for the source type, using “forthcoming” in place of the date. The example given is for a journal article.
  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Unpublished Work

Accepted for publication

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Follow style for source type.

S: Follow style for source type.

B: Follow style for source type.

N: Robert Briscoe, “Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (forthcoming), 23, http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf.

S: Briscoe, “Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception,” 24.

B: Briscoe, Robert. “Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (forthcoming). http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf.

Unpublished Work

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Work in Title Case” (unpublished [type of work], Full date of modification), page[s],  DOI or URL.

S: Last Name, “Title of Work in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Work in Title Case.” Unpublished [type of work], last modified Full date modified. DOI or URL.

N: Belmont B. Horse, “Back in the Saddle 2: Back in the Saddle” (unpublished screenplay, last modified December 24, 1996), 25, https://horse.com/bits2bits.

S: Horse, “Back in the Saddle 2,” 44.

B: Horse, Belmont B. “Back in the Saddle 2: Back in the Saddle.” Unpublished screenplay, last modified December 24, 1996. https://horse.com/bits2bits.

Unpublished Work

(print)

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Work in Title Case” (unpublished [type of work], Full date viewed), page[s].

S: Last Name, “Title of Work in Title Case,” page[s].

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Work in Title Case.” Unpublished [type of work], Full date viewed.

N: Belmont B. Horse, “Back in the Saddle” (unpublished memoir, May 3, 1995), 995.

S: Horse, “Back in the Saddle,” 995.

B: Horse, Belmont B. “Back in the Saddle.” Unpublished memoir, May 3, 1995.

Website / Webpage

  • The title of a website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, New York Times, not Reuters, Bloomberg, CNN, etc. These news organizations only have an online presence, whereas the New York Times has both an online and print counterpart.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the organization name.
  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author and publication date given

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case,” Organization, full date, URL.

S: Name, “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.”

B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Organization. Full date. URL.

N: Richard Roth, “75 Years Ago, the Doolittle Raid Changed History,” CNN, last modified April 18, 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html.

S: Roth, “75 Years Ago, the Doolittle Raid Changed History.”

B: Roth, Richard. “75 Years Ago, the Doolittle Raid Changed History.” CNN. Last modified April 18, 2017. http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/
us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html.

No author given

Organization as author

Zotero Opens in new window

N: “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case,” Organization, full date given on page, URL.

S: Organization, “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.”

B: Organization. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Full date given on page. URL.

N: “Forging Papers to Sell Fake Art,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, April 6, 2017, https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art.

S: Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Forging Papers to Sell Fake Art.”

B: Federal Bureau of Investigation. “Forging Papers to Sell Fake Art.” April 6, 2017. https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art.

No author given

No date given

Organization as author

Zotero Opens in new window

N: “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case,” Organization, accessed date, URL.

S: Organization, “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.”

B: Organization. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Accessed date. URL.

N: “About the Department of Defense (DOD),” Department of Defense, accessed April 18, 2017, https://www.defense.gov/About/.

S: Department of Defense, “About the Department of Defense (DOD).”

B: Department of Defense. “About the Department of Defense (DOD).” Accessed April 18, 2017. https://www.defense.gov/About/.

Janes example

Zotero Opens in new window

N: “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case,” Janes, full date given on page or full date of access, URL.

S: Janes, “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.”

B: Janes. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Full date given on page or full date of access. URL.

N: “Mali: Country Overview,” Janes, last updated October 30, 2023, https://customer.janes.com/CountryIntelligence/Countries/Country_986.

S: Janes, “Mali: Country Overview.”

B: Janes. “Mali: Country Overview.” Last updated October 30, 2023. https://customer.janes.com/CountryIntelligence/Countries/Country_986.

Wikipedia

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
  • Do not italicize the titles of online-only sources such as Wikipedia.
  • Follow this style for entries in other Wikis.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Wikipedia

N: Wikipedia, s.v. “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun,” accessed or modified date, URL.

S: Wikipedia, “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun.”

B: None

N: Wikipedia, s.v. “psychology,” last modified July 8, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology.

S: Wikipedia, “psychology.”

B: None

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

  • Follow guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
N = Footnote     S = Shortened Citation     B = Bibliography / List of References entry     See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

Zotero Opens in new window

N: Author First and Last Name, “Title of Working Paper or Occasional Paper in Title Case” (paper type, Institution or Company, year), page[s], DOI or URL.
 
S: Last Name, “Title of Working Paper or Occasional Paper in Title Case.”
 
B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Working Paper or Occasional Paper in Title Case.” Paper type, Institution or Company, year. DOI or URL.
N: Lila Linguine, “Anteaters and Aardvarks: Power Critters” (working paper, Animal Rights Institute, 2014), 22, https://www.aanda.power/careers.html.
 
S: Linguine, “Anteaters and Aardvarks,” 8.
 
B: Linguine, Lila. “Anteaters and Aardvarks: Power Critters.” Working paper, Animal Rights Institute, 2014. https://www.aanda.power/careers.html.

 


Essential Rules


Accessed Dates

Only include date accessed if the source material has no date.

Author Names: Honorifics

Do not include honorifics (Dr., Col., Professor, etc.) when citing author names. Including these titles in the body of your document is acceptable.

Identifying Authors of Official Documents

For the National Security Strategy, cite the president as the author.

For other official documents, the author is the organization immediately responsible for creating the document. In the example below, the author is the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and the publisher is the Department of the Navy.

Identifying organizational authors

 

In the example above, the author is NOT an umbrella organization, signatory, or any of the following:

  • Chief of Naval Operations
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations
  • W. F. Moran
  • Department of Defense
  • Navy Pentagon
  • R. P. Burke
  • United States of America​

Do not include acronyms for organizations listed as authors in the List of References or footnotes:

  • YES: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.
  • NO: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO or OCNO).
  • NO: CNO or OCNO.

Bibliography vs. List of References

What is the difference between them?

  • A List of References includes all works cited in a text
  • A Bibliography lists all works cited and consulted

The NPS Thesis Processing Office prefers a List of References for the following: 

  • Thesis
  • Capstone project report
  • MBA report
  • Dissertation

For papers, check with your professors for their preference.

Capitalization: Title Case vs. Sentence case

Title Case Sentence case
Love among the Ruins: A Memoir of Life and Love in Hamburg, 1945 Love among the ruins: A memoir of life and love in Hamburg, 1945

Capitalize everything except:

  • conjunctions (and, but, or, etc.)
  • prepositions (to, of, on, among, between, etc.)
  • articles (a, an, the)

Capitalize only:

  • the first words in titles and subtitles
  • proper nouns

 

Note: Always format the information in your citations (titles, author names, etc.) according to the requirements of the citation style you are using, regardless of how it appears in the original source.

Country Names with Government Organizations

When naming government organizations, be consistent: for example, either Department of Defense or U.S. Department of Defense. If citing organizations from multiple countries, ensure that it is clear which organization is associated with which country—for example, Australian Department of Defence, South African Department of Defence, Sri Lanka Ministry of Defence, Singapore Ministry of Defence.

Figures / Images / Graphs

A citation is required if you did not wholly create the figure—i.e., if you used someone else's image or data. A citation is not needed when all elements of the figure are your own creation.

  • If you use the figure exactly as it appears in the source, use
    “Source: ___.”
  • If you alter the original figure or use someone else's image or data to create the figure, use “Adapted from ___.”

 

Figures image box

Figure 1.    A Figure with a Citation in Chicago Notes and Bibliography Style1


Footnote Examples

Source: Ged Griffin, “Managing Peacekeeping Communications,” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3, no. 4 (2009): 325.

or

Adapted from Ged Griffin, “Managing Peacekeeping Communications,” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 3, no. 4 (2009): 325.


Footnote Placement & Signal Phrases

Where in the sentence does my footnote go?
 

  • Single footnotes go at the end of a sentence, after the punctuation, like this.1
  • “If the sentence ends with a quotation, the quotation marks go outside the punctuation, then the footnote is placed after the quotation marks, like this.”2
  • Please do not insert any spaces before a footnote; please do put a space between a footnote and the beginning of the next sentence.

 

Multiple Citations in a Single Sentence
 

When citing more than one source in a single sentence, there are two options:

  • Place a single footnote at the end of the sentence, outside the punctuation, and include all citations in this one footnote, separated by semicolons. CMOS 14.57
  • Place each footnote at the end of the clause containing the information it cites. CMOS 14.26

In the paragraph below, the reference numbers are highlighted in yellow and the signal phrases are highlighted in blue. Note that the second sentence is common knowledge, whereas the final sentence does not need a citation because it is the opinion of the author. (See "How Often to Cite?")

In a Journal of Restaurant Marketing article, restaurateur Shawna Jackson contends that a restaurant’s color scheme influences how hungry its patrons are.1 Consider popular fast-food restaurants, which often use red and yellow in their advertising and décor. According to a study by Roberta Chen and David Lopez, restaurant customers feel energized in red and yellow environments, which encourages them to order more food.2  The same study indicates that patrons felt relaxed in blue and purple environments, which causes them to “spend more time considering the menu options and eat at a slower pace.”3 Although blue décor can give a restaurant a casual, laid-back feel, industry experts believe this color can negatively affect profit.4 Accordingly, it is difficult to identify a popular restaurant chain that decorates with calmer hues.

* Note: no page number is necessary in footnote 1 because the sentence describes the source’s general argument rather than data or analysis from a specific location in the source.

1 Shawna Jackson, “Color’s Effect on Restaurant Patrons,” Journal of Restaurant Marketing 13, no. 4 (April 1999).

2 Roberta Chen and David Lopez, Color Me Hungry: How to Decorate Your Restaurant to Increase Profit and Patronage (New York: Routledge, 2009), 3.

3 Chen and Lopez, 29.

4 Jackson, “Color’s Effect on Restaurant Patrons,” 18; Chen and Lopez, Color Me Hungry, 74–76.

How Often to Cite?

The Chicago Manual of Style advises that “footnotes should be placed where you need them. . . . Whenever you can imagine the reader asking ‘Says who’ you should add a note.” Clarity is your goal as a writer, and what constitutes clear attribution in any given context will depend to some extent on the particulars of your text. Nevertheless, the following are some reliable rules of thumb:

  • Use a footnote (even if you also use a signal phrase) the first time you quote, paraphrase, or otherwise use material from a source in your paragraph.
  • Always use footnotes for direct quotes.
  • Use footnotes, signal phrases, or sentence flow to indicate ongoing use of this same material.
  • Be sure to use a footnote again when drawing upon information from a different location in the source (see rules for including page numbers).

Ibid. and Shortened Citations

Chicago prefers shorter citations, but ibid. is still allowed when the footnote is identical to the one right before it. See CMOS 14.34Be consistent. Use either ibid. or shorter citations.


There are four forms of notes:
 

  • Full citation for first appearance. Use when introducing a source (when citing it for the first time only).
     
  • Short citations for subsequent appearances: Author or Organization name, Shortened Title, page number. Use when reintroducing a source (citing it again after citing something else).

    • When citing multiple sources with the same author and same title, include the date in the short citation to differentiate them.
       
  • Shorter citations contain only author or organization name and page number. Use instead of ibid. when continuing to cite a source (after a full or short citation).

    • Shorter citations must occur in an unbroken chain: if you switch to a different source, use a short citation to reintroduce.
       
  • Ibid. (not preferred)

Example Footnotes List:

 

Note Explanation
11 Toni Morrison, Beloved (New York: Vintage, 2004), 3. full citation on first appearance
12 Morrison, 18. shorter citation indicating continued use of Beloved
13 Morrison, 18. shorter citation indicating continued use of Beloved
14 Toni Morrison, Song of Solomon (New York: Vintage, 2004), 45. full citation on first appearance
15 Morrison, 47. shorter citation indicating continued use of Song of Solomon
16 Morrison, Beloved, 52. short citation reintroducing Beloved, a source already cited in full
17 Morrison, 55. shorter citation indicating continued use of Beloved
18 Morrison, Song of Solomon, 324–25. short citation reintroducing Song of Solomon, a source already cited in full
19 Morrison, 238. shorter citation indicating continued use of Song of Solomon
20 Morrison, 239. shorter citation indicating continued use of Song of Solomon
21 Morrison, Song of Solomon, 240; Beloved, 32. short citation indicating that the information comes from two sources already cited in full (a shorter citation, which leaves out the title(s), would be ambiguous and therefore insufficient)
22 Morrison, Beloved, 33. short citation indicating which of the two Morrison sources the information is from
23 Morrison, 34. shorter citation continuing to refer only to Beloved
24 FBI, “Stolen Memories.” short citation reintroducing an online source already cited in full (not shown here)
25 FBI. shorter citation indicating continued use of the FBI source
26 Hawthorne and Nekeip, "A Shortening of Citations," 23. short citation reintroducing a source already cited in full (not shown here)
27 Hawthorne and Nekeip, 564. shorter citation indicating continued use of Hawthorne and Nekeip

Missing Info

If any information is missing from a source (a journal with no volume number, for example), simply omit that information. For sources consulted in hardcopy, omit the URL and any additional verbiage that introduces it. Anything retrieved online, however, MUST have a link. The only exception is journals retrieved from a subscription database such as ProQuest. 

Multiple Authors, et al.

  • Up to three authors:
    • In the Bibliography / List of References, include all of them
    • In the footnote, include all of them
    • In the text, include all of them
       
  • Four to ten authors:
    • In the Bibliography / List of References, include all of them
    • In the footnote, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”)
    • In the text, list only the first author, followed by et al.
       
  • More than ten authors:
    • In the Bibliography / List of References, include only the first seven, followed by et al.
    • In the footnote, list only the first author, followed by et al.
    • In the text, list only the first author, followed by et al.

Online Sources: Links

When citing an online document (for example, a thesis, report, or journal article) in a full note or listing it in the references, if possible, provide a DOI. If the source does not have a DOI, link to the document itself (PDF, etc.) or to the landing page that directs the reader to the full text.

Do not insert a hard or soft return within the URL string: doing so breaks the link.

Page Numbers & Other Locators

In footnotes, the page number(s) is needed when

Example

N: Michael Pollan and Daisy Potatohead, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

S: Pollan and Potatohead, The Omnivore’s Dilemma, 100.

  • If unsure, include the page number(s).
  • No page number is needed in a footnote when you are referring to the source as a whole. For example: “George W. Bush’s Decision Points recounts pivotal moments during his time in office.”

If the source does not contain page numbers, often with electronic formats, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. In citations especially of shorter electronic works presented as a single, searchable document, such locators may be unnecessary.

Locator Options Examples
chapter number chap. 2
paragraph number para. 3
section heading

sec. 24

descriptive phrase under "The Battleground"
location numbers loc. 444 of 3023, Kindle
page numbers check against—and cite to—the printed version if possible
table, figure, or slide number table 1.4
fig. 3
slide 5

See CMOS 14.22: Page numbers and other locators.
See also 14.160: Page or location numbers in electronic formats.

 

In the list of references/bibliography
For portions of larger documents, such as journal articles and book chapters, include the page range.

Example

B: Haynes, Peter. “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy.” In Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, edited by Daniel Moran and James A. Russell, 62–74. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Print vs. Online Sources

When citing a source retrieved online, use the "online" format even when you or someone else printed out the material. For example, if you print out a thesis or your advisor provides you with a printed thesis, it is still categorized as an online document.

Only cite as a print source when the material has been produced by a publisher in hard copy. For example, if you obtain a print journal or book from the library stacks, it is categorized as a printed source.

Secondary / Indirect Sources

An indirect source is a source that cites some other work that you discuss in your text.

Whenever possible, consult primary sources and your sources’ sources yourself. Upon investigation of the primary source, you may find you disagree with the indirect source author’s analysis or methods.


How to Incorporate Indirect Sources

The following passage incorporates a properly credited indirect source. The indirect source information is highlighted in yellow; the primary source information is highlighted in blue.

Walker describes Miguel Roig’s 1999 experiment, which correlates inadequate paraphrasing in student writing with poor reading comprehension.1 Citing Roig’s data, Walker explains that “students do in fact possess skills necessary for paraphrasing but … may be impeded from applying those skills when dealing with rigorous text.”2

Note: Footnotes for indirect sources must cite both the primary and the indirect source; in the references list, include only the indirect source (the source you consulted—see example).


For more information

See the TPO's "Citing Your Sources’ Sources" handout.

Tables

A citation is required if you did not wholly create the table—i.e., if you used someone else's data. A citation is not needed when all elements of the table are your own creation.

  • If you use the table exactly as it appears in the source, use
    “Source: ___.”
  • If you alter the original table or if you use someone else's data to create the table, use “Adapted from ___.”

 

Table 1.    A Table with a Citation in Chicago Notes and Bibliography Style1

table


Footnote Examples

Source: Roberto Suro, “Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture: A Survey of Latinos on News Media,” Pew Research Center, April 19, 2004, https://www.pewhispanic.org/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/.

or

Adapted from Roberto Suro, “Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture: A Survey of Latinos on News Media,” Pew Research Center, April 19, 2004, https://www.pewhispanic.org/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/.


Translations and Works Not in English

For works with a translator, follow the format for edited books but substitute "trans." for "ed." in the notes and "translated" for "edited" in the references:
 

N: Maxence Manqué, Old and Rejected Poems, trans. Pemily Hickinson (Scituate, MA: Narrow Fellow Press, 1989), 472.

S: Manqué, Old and Rejected Poems, 889.

B: Manqué, Maxence. Old and Rejected Poems. Translated by Pemily Hickinson. Scituate, MA: Narrow Fellow Press, 1989.
 

If you provide the translation to a non-English work, format the original title in sentence case, then give your translated title, also in sentence case, in square brackets immediately following. Note that the other formatting rules for titles—italics and quotation marks—remain the same:

N: Maxence Manqué, "L'esthétique de l'échec" [The aesthetics of failure], in Éviter les clichés et des autres clichés [Avoiding clichés and other clichés], ed. Hamish Sweeney (New Brunswick: Stew & Offspring, 1992), 5.

S: Manqué, "L'esthétique de l'échec," 11.

B: Manqué, Maxence. "L'esthétique de l'échec" [The aesthetics of failure]. In Éviter les clichés et des autres clichés [Avoiding clichés and other clichés], edited by Hamish Sweeney, 3–44. New Brunswick: Stew & Offspring, 1992.

Additional Resources