Citation Guide

APA (7th ed.): Citation Examples & Essential Rules

   For NPS theses, papers, and publications: to cite properly, follow the citation examples and apply the essential rules.

Citation Examples

Essential Rules

 

If you do not see an example that matches your source type or the rule that you need, consult the Additional Resources for your style.


Citation Examples


Artificial Intelligence (GenAI)

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

GenAI

R: Company. (year). Title of GenAI in sentence case and italics (Version number) [Large language model]. URL

T: (Company, year)

In your text: Per APA's guidance, "provide the prompt you used and then any portion of the relevant text that was generated in response."

R: SandwichAI. (2024). ChatBLT (June 24 version) [Large language model]. https://nocrust.sandwichai.com/

T: (SandwichAI, 2024)

In your text: As part of our methodology, we asked ChatBLT to "Calculate the ratio of mayonnaise to bread as a single (n−1)-dimensional hyperplane using the ham sandwich theorem." It responded with "42."

arXiv

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

arXiv

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work in sentence case and italics. ArXiv. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Barterra, K. (2023). Great grapes throughout history. ArXiv. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.9999.9999999

T: (Barterra, 2023)

Blog

  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the blog name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Post

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. or Screen Name. (Full date). Title of post in sentence case. Title of Blog in Title Case and Italics. URL

T: (Screen Name or Author, year)

R: Dubner, S. J. (2014, June 25). The quality-quantity tradeoff dilemma. Freakonomics. https://freakonomics.com/2014/06/25/the-quality-quantity-tradeoff-dilemma/

T: (Dubner, 2014)

Comment

R: Author, A. A. or Screen Name. (Full date). Re: Title of original blog post in sentence case [Comment on the blog post "Title of blog post in sentence case"]. URL

T: (Screen Name or Author, year)

R: MiddleKid. (2007, January 5). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Comment on the blog post "Has anyone seen my sanity?"]. https://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/22/the-unfortunate-prerequisites/

T: (MiddleKid, 2007)

Book

Audiobook
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author, two editors, with edition number

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics [Audiobook]. Publisher.

T: (Author, year, locator)

R: Thorton, K. (2023). My life in the stacks: A memoir of decimals, decibels, and cold spaghetti [Audiobook]. Silly Triangle Press.

T: (Thorton, 2023, loc. 1:27:23)

Chapter in Edited Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author, two editors, with edition number

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter in sentence case. In B. B. Editor & C. C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book in sentence case and italics (xx ed., pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter). Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Haynes, P. (2009). Al-Qaeda, oil dependence, and US foreign policy. In D. Moran & J. A. Russell (Eds.), Energy security and global politics: The militarization of resource management (2nd ed., pp. 62–74). Routledge.

T: (Haynes, 2009, p. 70)

Three authors, one editor

From the introduction, forward, preface, etc.

Zotero Opens in new window

 

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of chapter in sentence case. In D. D. Editor (Ed.), Title of book in sentence case and italics (pp. starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter).  Publisher.

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Cordesman, A. H., Mausner, A., & Kasten, D. (2009). Introduction. In J. Smith (Ed.), Winning in Afghanistan: Creating effective Afghan security forces (pp. 1–12). Center for Strategic and International Studies.

T (first citation): (Cordesman et al., 2009, pp. 2–3)

Electronic Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or URL, from a book provider or library database

DOI preferred

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. [E-reader version]. DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

T: (Author, year, location information)

DOI or URL  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Bonds, M. E. (2014). Absolute music: The history of an idea. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199343638.003.0004

T: (Bonds, 2014, Chapter 3, para. 1)


From a book provider  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Krishnan, A. (2008). War as business: Technological change and military service contracting [Kindle DX version]. https://www.amazon.com

T: (Krishnan, 2008)


From a library database  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Crabtree, J., & Chaplin, A. (2013). Bolivia: Processes of change. ProQuest

T: (Crabtree & Chaplin, 2013)

Print Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore's dilemma: A natural history of four meals. Penguin.

T: (Pollan, 2006)

Two authors with edition number

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics (edition number). Publisher.

T: (Author A & Author B, year)

R: Strindberg, A., & Wärn, M. (2011). Islamism: Religion, radicalization and resistance (2nd ed.). John Wiley and Sons.

T: (Strindberg & Wärn, 2011)

Three authors

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. Publisher.

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Cordesman, A. H., Mausner, A., & Kasten, D. (2009). Winning in Afghanistan: Creating effective Afghan security forces. Center for Strategic and International Studies.

T(Cordesman et al., 2009, pp. 45–46)

  • When citing a direct quotation from an electronic book without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. The citation might include a chapter number, section heading, location number, or paragraph number within the section.

Class Notes, Slides, Lecture, Presentation, Workshop

  • Class notes include lecture notes, slides, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.
  • If slides, lecture, class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's / lecturer's name and type of medium (e.g., "class notes," "PowerPoint slides").
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Class Notes

Published

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Instructor, A. A. (Year). Title of notes in sentence case and italics [Class notes for/on . . . ]. Department, University. DOI or URL

T: (Instructor, year)

R: Johnson, J. (2017). Python NumPy tutorial [Class notes for CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition]. Department of Computer Science, Stanford University. https://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/

T: (Johnson, 2017)

Lecture

Published

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year of presentation). Title of lecture in sentence case and italics [Lecture] or [Description of lecture in sentence case]. Venue, location. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Horse, B. B. (2020). Horseshoes and hand grenades: On the joys of approximation [Lecture]. Belmont Race Track, Elmont, NY, United States. https://horse.edu/

T: (Horse, 2020)

Class Notes, Lecture, or Slides

Unpublished

R: None

T: (A. Author, class notes, Month and day of class, year)

R: None

T: (D. Bray, PowerPoint slides, March 26, 2017)

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Presentation or Workshop

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title of presentation in sentence case and italics [Presentation or Workshop]. Name of Event, Location. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Randall, L. (2002, July 19). Unification in warped extra dimensions and bulk holography [Presentation]. Holography in Action, Cambridge, MA, United States. https://04.phf-site.com/2016/12/strings-2002-at-cavendish-laboratory.html

T: (Randall, 2002)

Computer Program / Software

  • Cite the software you use in your research if it is not well known in your field.
  • Do not cite the software you use in your research if it is well known in your field. Simply name it in your text.
  • However, a citation is always required if paraphrasing or quoting material from a software program; this includes code, text, images, etc.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Hard copy

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. or Company. (Year). Title in sentence case and italics (Version number) [Computer software]. Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Esolang, A. N. (2014). Obscure reference generator [Computer software]. E & K Press.

T: (Esolang, 2014)

Online

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., & Author, D. D. or Company. (Year). Title in sentence case and italics (Version number) [Computer software]. Publisher. DOI or URL

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2005). Comprehensive meta-analysis (Version 2) [Computer software]. Biostat. https://www.meta-analysis.com/index.html

T: (Borenstein et al., 2005)

Conference Paper / Proceedings

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Conference Proceedings

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., . . . & Author, Z. Z. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics, starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Author A et al., year)


How to cite multiple authors

R: Morentz, J. W., Doyle, C., Wong, Skelly, L. & Adam, N. (2009). Unified Incident Command and Decision Support (UICDS) a Department of Homeland Security initiative in information sharing. 2009 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security, 182–187. https://doi.org/10.1109/THS.2009.5168032

T: (Morentz et al., 2009, p. 185)

Conference Proceedings

(print)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., . . . & Author, Z. Z. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. In A. A. Editor, B. B. Editor, C. C. Editor, . . . & Z. Z. Editor (Eds.), Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics (pp. x–xxx).

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Katz, I., Gabayan, K., & Aghajan, H. (2007). A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras. In J. Blanc-Talon, W. Philips, D. Popescu, & P. Scheunders (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 4678. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (pp. 97–108).

T: (Katz et al., 2007)

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., . . . & Author, Z. Z. (Full date). Title of paper in sentence case and italics [Paper presentation]. Conference Name, Location. DOI or URL

T: (Author A et al., year)

R: Teplin, L. A., McClelland, G. M., Abram, K. M., & Washburn, J. J. (2005, January 7). Early violent death in delinquent youth: A prospective longitudinal study [Paper presentation]. Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA, United States.

T: (Teplin et al., 2005) 

Data Set / Database

  • For information retrieved from a database, provide enough information for your readers to replicate the data. In your text, include the name of the database or the source of the data, along with other descriptive information (such as the unit of observation, the years selected, the sample size, and/or other selection criteria).
  • Data that is unpublished and retrievable is available to your readers if they contact the given source.
  • Data that is unpublished and not retrievable is not available to the general public.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Published

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title in sentence case and italics (Version number) [Data set]. Organization if not listed as the author. DOI or URL

T: (Author or Organization, year)

R: Suro, R. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing culture: A survey of Latinos on news media [Data set]. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/

T: (Suro, 2004)

Unpublished and retrievable

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title in sentence case and italics (Version number) [Unpublished raw data] or [Unpublished raw data on . . . ]. Source of data. DOI or URL

T: (Author or Organization, year)

R: Carotene, B. (2020). Changing chard and crisscrossing cucumbers [Unpublished raw data]. U.S. Department of Vegetable Statistics.

T: (Carotene, 2020)


R: Carotene, B. (2020). [Unpublished raw data on the benefits of eating vegetables that begin with the letter C]. U.S. Department of Vegetable Statistics. https://www.wallcrust.edu/fiberchunks

T: (Carotene, 2020)

Unpublished and not retrievable

An unpublished data set that is not retrievable by readers is treated as a personal communication and therefore not cited in the references.

R: None

T: (Author, A. A., personal communication, full date)

R: None

T: (K. Kanteen, personal communication, December 18, 2019)

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the dictionary or encyclopedia name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Dictionary

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Organization in Title Case. (n.d.). Entry in sentence case. In Reference work in sentence case and italics. Retrieved full date from URL

T: (Organization, n.d.)

R: Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Metamorphosis. In Merriam-Webster dictionary. Retrieved July 6, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metamorphosis

T: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)

Encyclopedia

Zotero Opens in new window

 

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of entry in sentence case. In Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. URL

T: (Author, year)


For an organizational author, format as a dictionary entry (see above).

For a personal author, format as a chapter in an edited book.

R: Stewart, J. I. M. (2019). Rudyard Kipling. In Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Rudyard-Kipling

T: (Stewart, 2019)

Fact Sheet

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Fact Sheet

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Department or Organization Name. (Year). Title of fact sheet in sentence case and italics [Fact sheet]. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Department of Labor. (2008). The construction industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) [Fact sheet]. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/whd/fact-sheets/1-flsa-construction

T (first citation): (Department of Labor [DOL], 2008)

T (subsequent citations): (DOL, 2008)

Government / Military Document

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Directive
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Directive

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Organization. (Full date). Title of instruction in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Department [if different from the authoring organization]. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Department of Defense. (2005, December 19). Information assurance training, certification, and workforce management (DOD Directive 8570.01-M). https://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/issuances/
dodm/857001m.pdf

T (first citation): (Department of Defense [DOD], 2005)

T (subsequent citations): (DOD, 2005)

Doctrine
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Doctrine

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Joint Chiefs of Staff. (Year). Title of joint doctrine in sentence case and italics (document identification number). DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Joint Chiefs of Staff. (2017). Countering air and missile threats (JP 3-01). https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/jp3_01_pa.pdf

T (first citation): (Joint Chiefs of Staff [JCS], 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (JCS, 2017)

Field Manual / Military Regulation
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Field Manual / Military Regulation

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Organization. (Full date). Title of instruction in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Department [if different from the authoring organization]. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Department of the Army. (1994). Sniper training (FM 23-10). https://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf

T (first citation): (Department of the Army [DA], 1994)

T (subsequent citations): (DA, 1994)

Government Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

 

Government Report

CRS Report  

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of report in sentence case and italics (CRS Report No. xxxxxxx). Congressional Research Service. URL

T: (Author, year)

CRS Report  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Erwin, M. C. (2013). Intelligence issues for Congress (CRS Report No. RL33539). Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf

T: (Erwin, 2013)

GAO Report

R: Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title of report in sentence case and italics (GAO-xx-xxx). Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

GAO Report  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Berrick, C. A. (2009). Homeland security: DHS’s progress and challenges in key areas of maritime, aviation, and cybersecurity (GAO-10-106). Government Accountability Office.

T: (Berrick, 2009)

Strategy Document / Other Government Report

R: Author, A. A. or Department. (Year). Title of document in sentence case and italics. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Name of Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

Strategy Document / Other Government Report  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Biden, J. (2022). National security strategy of the United States of America. https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/Biden-Harris-Administrations-National-Security-Strategy-10.2022.pdf

T: (Biden, 2022)

Instruction
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Instruction

Zotero Opens in new window

 

R: Organization. (Full date). Title of instruction in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Department [if different from the authoring organization]. DOI or URL

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym], year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym of Department, year)

R: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. (2019, May 5). Navy Safety and Occupational Health program for forces afloat (OPNAVINST 5100.19F). Department of the Navy. https://www.secnav.navy.mil/doni/Directives/05000%20General%20Management%20Security%20and%20Safety%20Services/05-100%20Safety%20and%20Occupational%20Health%20Services/5100.19F.pdf

T (first citation): (Office of the Chief of Naval Operations [OPNAV], 2019)

T (subsequent citations): (OPNAV, 2019)

Memorandum
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Memorandum

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Full date of issuance). Title of memorandum in sentence case and italics [Memorandum]. Department. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Takai, T. M. (2013, March 28). Adoption of the national information exchange model within the Department of Defense [Memorandum]. Department of Defense. https://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20the%20DoD.pdf

T: (Takai, 2013)

Handbook

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Name of Company. (Year). Title of handbook in sentence case and italics [Handbook]. DOI or URL

T: (Name of Company, year)

R: Western Spud. (1972). Transmission systems for potatoes (168th ed.) [Handbook]. https://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html

T: (Western Spud, 1972)

Print

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Name of Company. (Year). Title of handbook in sentence case and italics [Handbook].

T: (Name of Company, year)

R: Western Electric. (1985). Transmission systems for communications (3rd ed.) [Handbook].

T: (Western Electric, 1985)

Journal Article

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

DOI preferred

R: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

T: (Author A & Author B, year)


How to cite multiple authors

DOI or URL  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Sanico, G. F., & Kakinaka, M. (2008). Terrorism and deterrence policy with transnational support. Defence & Peace Economics, 19(2), 153–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701505419

T: (Sanico & Kakinaka, 2008)


R: Catrantzos, N. (2010). No dark corners: A different answer to insider threats. Homeland Security Affairs, 6(2).  https://www.hsaj.org/articles/83

T: (Catrantzos, 2010)


From a library database  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Giannopoulou, Z. (2014). Prisoners of plot in José Saramago’s The Cave. Philosophy and Literature, 38(2), 332–349. Project MUSE

T: (Giannopoulou, 2014)

Print

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article.

T: (Author, year)

R: Griffin, G. (2009). Managing peacekeeping communications. Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning, 3(4), 317–327.

T: (Griffin, 2009, pp. 324–325)

Legal

Bill / Resolution
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Federal enacted, published in Congressional Record

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, xxx Cong., volume Cong. Rec. page (year) (enacted). DOI or URL

T: (Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, year)

R: S. Res. 438, 114th Cong., 162 Cong. Rec. 2394 (2016) (enacted).

T: (S. Res. 438, 2016)

Federal unenacted

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Bill or Resolution Title in Title Case [if present], Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, xxx Cong. (year). DOI or URL

T: (Bill or Resolution Title in Title Case or Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, year)

or

In your text: Mention title of bill or resolution (Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, year)

R: Managed Competition Act of 1992, H.R. 5936, 102nd Cong. (1992). 
https://www.congress.gov/bill/102nd-congress/house-bill/5936/cosponsors?r=254&overview=closed

T: (H.R. 5936, 1992)


R: Every Vote Counts Amendment, H.J. Res. 4, 110th Cong. (2007).

In your text: In the Every Vote Counts Amendment (H.J. Res. 4, 2007), Congress declared . . . 

Code of Federal Regulations
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Code of Federal Regulations

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Name of Act in Title Case, title number C.F.R. part number or § section number (year compiled). DOI or URL

T: (Name of Act, year)

R: Renewable Energy Production Incentives, 10 C.F.R. 451 (2006). https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2006-title10-vol3/pdf/CFR-2006-title10-vol3.pdf

T: (Renewable Energy Production Incentives, 2006)

Congressional Hearing
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Full Hearing

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Title of hearing in sentence case and italics, xxx Cong. (year). DOI or URL

T: (Shortened Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, year)

R: Long-term sustainability of current defense plans: Hearing before the Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives, 111th Cong. (2009). https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg47035/pdf/CHRG-111hhrg47035.pdf

T: (Long-term Sustainability, 2009)

Testimony within a Hearing

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Title of testimony in sentence case and italics, xxx Cong. (year) (testimony of xxx). DOI or URL

In your text: mention name and credentials/title of testifier.

T: (Shortened Title of Hearing in Title Case and Italics, year)

R: NASA infrastructure: Enabling discovery and ensuring capability, U.S. House Committee on Science, Space, and TechnologySubcommittee on Space, 113th Cong. (2013) (testimony of Paul Martin).  https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-113hhrg85276/html/CHRG-113hhrg85276.htm

In your text: NASA inspector general Paul Martin noted in his statement before the House . . .

T: (NASA Infrastructure, 2013)
Court Case Decision
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Lower court

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Party Names, Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter, first page of decision], pages or paragraphs cited (Court Abbreviation and year). DOI or URL

T: (Party Names in italics, year)

R: Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078, 1092–1104 (E.D. Wis. 1972). https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=16374362071956566586

T: (Lessard v. Schmidt, 1972)

Supreme Court

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Party Names, Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter, first page of decision], pages or paragraphs cited (year). DOI or URL

T: (Party Names in italics, year)

R: Blystone v. Pennsylvania, 494 U.S. 299, 301 (1990). https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/494/299/

T: (Blystone v. Pennsylvania, 1990)
Executive Order
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Executive Order

Basic format

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. page number (year compiled). DOI or URL

T: (Executive Order No. xxxxx, year compiled)

R: Exec. Order No. 13655, 3 C.F.R. 339 (2014). 
https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2014-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title3-vol1.pdf

T: (Executive Order No. 13655, 2014)

Executive Order

Extended format

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. page number (year compiled), reprinted in title number U.S.C. § section number app. at starting page of order–ending page of order (year reprinted).

T: (Executive Order No. xxxxx, year reprinted)

R: Exec. Order No. 11609, 3 C.F.R. 586 (1971–1975), reprinted as amended in 3 U.S.C. § 301 app. at 404–407 (1994).

T: (Executive Order No. 11609, 1994)
Federal Acquisition Regulation
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Federal Acquisition Regulation

Zotero Opens in new window

R: FAR subpart number, Title of Subpart in Title Case (year). URL

T: (FAR subpart, year)

R: FAR 8.5, Acquisition of Helium (2019). https://www.acquisition.gov/content/subpart-85-acquisition-helium

T: (FAR 8.5, 2019)

Public Law
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Code

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Title of Act in Title Case, title number U.S.C. § section number (year). DOI or URL

T: (Title of Act in Title Case, year)

R: National Environmental Policy Act, 42 U.S.C. § 4331 (1969).

T: (first citation): (National Environmental Policy Act [NEPA],1969)

T (subsequent citations): (NEPA, 1969)

Public Law

Published in the U.S. Statutes at Large

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Title of Act in Title Case, Pub. L. No. xxx, volume Source page number (year published). DOI or URL

T: (Title of Act, year published)

R: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–336, 104 Stat. 327 (1990). https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/STATUTE-104/STATUTE-104-Pg327

T: (Americans with Disabilities Act, 1991)

Magazine Article

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the magazine name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

DOI preferred

R: Title of article in sentence case. (Year, Month [and day if weekly or biweekly]). Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

T: ("First Few Words of Article Title in Title Case," year)

DOI or URL, No author  Zotero Opens in new window

R: So long, easy money: Foreign drug firms face a severe profit squeeze. (2014, June 14). The Economist. https://www.economist.com/news/business/21604178-foreign-drug-firms-face-severe-profit-squeeze-so-long-easy-money

T: (“So Long,” 2014)


From a library database  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Katz, F. (2020, January–March). You're grounded for life. Parenting Highlights Quarterly, 112(1), 2227. ProQuest

T: (Katz, 2020, p. 25)

Print

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year, Month [and day if weekly or biweekly]). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number), starting page of article–ending page of article.

T: (Author, year)

R: Beforebad, S. (2017, July 4). Cold spaghetti: To eat or not to eat? Pasta Dynamics, 547(7661), 30–31.

T: (Beforebad, 2017).

 

Map

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Google Map / Earth

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Google. (n.d.). [Description of map]. Retrieved Month and day, year, from URL

T: (Google, n.d.)

R: Google. (n.d.). [Google Map of Monterey Bay]. Retrieved July 6, 2017, from
 https://www.google.com/maps/
place/Monterey+Bay/@36.7896106,-122.0843052,11z/
data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:
0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311

T: (Google, n.d.)

Multimedia

  • If the director is unknown or if it is useful, someone in a similar role can be credited to aid readers in retrieving the work, such as the producer, host, artist, uploader, etc.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Film

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of film in sentence case and italics [Film]. Production Company. DOI or URL

T: (Director, year published)

R: Dick, K. (Director). (2012). The invisible war [Film]. Chain Camera Pictures. https://www.amazon.com/Invisible-War-Helen-Benedict/dp/B009G9YCB4

T: (Dick, 2012)

Podcast

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Host, H. H. (Host) or Executive Producer, E. P. (Executive Producer). (Full date). Title of episode sentence case (No. #) [Audio podcast episode]. In Podcast title in sentence case and italics. Production company. URL

T: (Screen Name or Organization or Author or Producer, year)

R: McBracket, D. (Host). (2020, January 7). Taking the sigh out of citation (No. 846) [Audio podcast episode]. In Team Citation presents. Komodo Studios. https://www.komodo-studios.com/
podcasts/10486/firstnamelastlastnamefirst.html

T: (McBracket, 2020)

Video

News, YouTube, or
any kind of streaming video

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Screen Name or Organization or Author, A. A. or  Producer, A. A. (Full date). Title of video in sentence case and italics [Video]. Platform. URL

T: (Screen Name or Organization or Author or Producer, year)
R: CNN. (2017, August 31). US military sends warships, aircraft to Texas [Video]. https://www.cnn.com/2017/08/30/politics/texas-harvey-flooding-military-response/.

T: (CNN, 2017)

Newspaper Article

  • Use the leading word “the” when referencing newspaper names in list of references (The New York Times, not New York Times).
  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the newspaper name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

DOI preferred

R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics. DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case

T: (Author, year)

DOI or URL, Author given  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brains agile. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11brod.html

T: (Brody, 2007)


DOI or URL, No author  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Toxic algae in San Luis Reservoir prompts warning from state. (2017, June 30). Monterey Herald. https://www.montereyherald.com/environment-and-nature/20170630/toxic-algae-in-san-luis-reservoir-prompts-warning-from-state

T: ("Toxic Algae," 2017)


From a library database  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Gordon, M. R. (2001, December 9). Shifting fronts, rising danger: The Afghanistan War evolves. The New York Times, ProQuest

T: (Gordon, 2001)

Patent

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Patent

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Inventor, A. A. (Year issued). Title of patent in sentence case and italics (U.S. Patent No. xxxxxx). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. DOI or URL

T: (Inventor, year issued)

R: Bell, A. G. (1876). Improvement in telegraphy (U.S. Patent No. 174465A). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://www.google.com/patents/US174465

T: (Bell, 1876)

Personal Communication

  • Cite in text only.
  • Personal communication is material obtained directly from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.
  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email Including attachments, internal documents, documents posted to a listserv or internal server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access.
  • If a personal name is not given, include an occupation or position instead. Example: (lieutenant commander, USN, personal communication, April 11, 2022).
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Email

(including attachments such as presentation slides, data sets, internal documents, etc.)

R: None

T: Include sender's name, email to author, Full date of email)

R: None

T: (Q. Grumbupple, email to author, October 22, 1994)

or

T: According to Quentin Grumbupple (email to author, October 22, 1994) 
No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Interview

R: None

T: Include name and title of interviewee as well as full date of interview.

R: None

T: (S. Jones, Director of . . . , interview with author, June 1, 2012)

or

In your text: According to Sandi Jones, Director of . . . (interview with author, June 1, 2012)

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Personal Communication

R: None

T: Include person's name, personal communication, Full date of communication

R: None

T: (J. Smith, personal communication, September 8, 2009)

or

In your text: According to Rebecca Risotto (personal communication, September 8, 2009)

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Photograph

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Photograph

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Photographer, P. P. (Year). Title of photograph in sentence case and italics or [Description of photograph in sentence case]. Source. URL

T: (Photographer, year)

R: Harrison, T. (2018). [Kenya Defense Force's 1st Canine Regiment]. Military.com. https://www.military.com/off-duty/2018/12/30/best-military-photos-2018.html

T: (Harrison, 2018)

Report

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it is not freestanding, then format it as a webpage.
  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Research Report / Think Tank Report / White Paper
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Research Report / Think Tank Report / White Paper

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., . . . Author, Z. Z. or Organization. (year). Title of report in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Publisher or Organization. DOI or URL

T: (Author et al. or Organization, year)


How to cite multiple authors

R: Dixon, L., Clancy, N., Miller, B. M., Hoegberg, S., Lewis, M. M., Bender, B., . . . Choquette, S. R. (2017). The cost and affordability of flood insurance in New York City (Report No. RR1776-NYCEDC). RAND. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1776.html

T: (Dixon et al., 2017)
Technical Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author given

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of technical report in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Publisher or Organization. URL

T: (Author, year)


How to cite multiple authors

R: Tang, K. L., & Eignor, D. R. (2001). A study in the use of collateral statistical information in attempting to reduce TOEFL IRT item parameter estimation sample sizes (Report Nos. RR-01-11, TOEFL-TR-17). ETS. https://www.ets.org/research/policy_research_reports/
publications/report/2001/hsfb

T: (Tang & Eignor, 2001)

Organization as author

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Organizational Author. (Year). Title of technical report in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Publisher or Parent Organization [if different from organizational author]. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: National Toxicology Program. (2012). Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (technical grade) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice (dermal studies) (Report No. TR-576). National Institutes of Health. https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/tr576abs

T (first citation): (National Toxicology Program [NTP], 2012)

T (subsequent citations): (NTP, 2012)

Author given

(print)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of technical report in sentence case and italics (document identification number). Publisher or Organization.

T: (Author, year)

R: Jones, K. A., & Johnson, F. (2015). The absorption rate of E. coli in cats (Report No. 17-59). Veterinary Studies. 

T: (Jones & Johnson, 2015)

Secondary / Indirect Source

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Secondary / Indirect Source

Zotero Opens in new window

R: List the indirect source that quotes or discusses the material you are referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)


In your text: In your text, identify the primary source using the phrase "as cited in," followed by the indirect source.

or

T: If using a parenthetical citation, cite the primary source first, followed by the phrase "as cited in" and then the indirect source.

R: Nicholson, I. A. M. (2003). Inventing personality: Gordon Allport and the science of selfhood. American Psychological Association.


In your text: We can see this idea in the following passage from Allport’s diary (1926), as cited in Nicholson (2003): " . . . " (p. 36).

or

T:  (Allport, 1926, as cited in Nicholson, 2003, p. 36)

Social Media

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Facebook, Instagram, X, etc.

R: Author, A. A. or Organization or Screen Name [handle]. (Full date). Title of post or up to 20 words of the post in sentence case and italics or [Description of post in sentence case]. [Type of post]. Platform. URL

T: (Author or Organization or Screen Name, year)

Instagram  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Babygiraffe [@babygiraffehaslastlaugh]. (2020, January 7). Mocking those visiting the zoo [Video]. Instagram. https://instagram.com/p/s340[jafmOujejl

T: (Babygiraffe, 2020)


Zotero Opens in new window

R: Enginewarmup [@owl-pellets]. (2020, January 7). Follow the rules when shortening posts [Post]. X. https://x.com/owl-pellets/status/mouse-parts128987899

T: (Enginewarmup, 2020)

Speech

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Speech

Zotero Opens in new window

R: List the source that quotes or reprints the speech you are referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: Include name of speaker.

R: Smith, J. (Ed.). (2009). Well said! Great speeches in American history. E & K Publishing.

In your text: Martin Luther King, Jr. declared, “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed” (Smith, 2009).

Thesis / Dissertation

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

From a commercial database

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case and italics (Identification number) [Type of document, Name of Institution]. Name of Database in Title Case

T: (Author, year)

R: Choi, M. (2008). Contesting imaginaires in death rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty (Publication No. 3300426) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global

T: (Choi, 2008)

From an institutional archive such as the NPS Archive: Calhoun

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis/dissertation in sentence case and italics [Type of document, Name of Institution]. Name of Institutional Archive. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

Dissertation  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Rivera, J. (2010). Software system architecture modeling methodology for naval gun weapon systems [Doctoral dissertation, Naval Postgraduate School]. NPS Archive: Calhoun. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/10504

T: (Rivera, 2010)


Thesis  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Moon, T. D. (2009). Rising dragon: Infrastructure development and Chinese influence in Vietnam [Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School]. NPS Archive: Calhoun. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/4694

T: (Moon, 2009)

Unpublished / Informally Published Work

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
  • Unpublished works include work that is in progress, has been completed but not yet submitted for publication, or has been submitted but not yet accepted for publication.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Work accepted for publication

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (in press). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics, volume in italics(issue number). DOI or URL

T: (Author, in press)

R: Briscoe, R. (in press). Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf

T: (Briscoe, in press)

Work not submitted for publication

(print)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year produced). Title of manuscript in sentence case and italics [Unpublished manuscript].

T: (Author, year)

R: Horse, B. B. (1995). Back in the saddle [Unpublished manuscript].

T: (Horse, 1995)

Work submitted for publication

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year produced). Title of work in sentence case and italics [Manuscript submitted for publication]. DOI or URL

T: (Author, year)

R: Horse, B. B. (1996). Back in the saddle 2: Back in the saddle [Manuscript submitted for publication]. https://horse.com/bits2bits

T: (Horse, 1996)

Website / Webpage

  • The title of a website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
  • Italicize newspaper names, not names of news organizations—for example, The New York Times, not Reuters, Bloomberg, CNN, etc. These news organizations only have an online presence, whereas The New York Times has both an online and print counterpart.
  • If additional information is necessary for identification and retrieval of a reference, it may be included in brackets immediately after the title and any parenthetical information.
  • When citing a direct quotation from a website without page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. A direct quotation might provide chapter number, section heading, and paragraph number within the section only if available.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the organization name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author given, date given

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Full date). Title, section, or page name in sentence case and italics. Website Name in Title Case. URL

T: (Author, year, locator)

R: Roth, R. (2017, April 18). 75 years ago, the Doolittle Raid changed history. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html

T: (Roth, 2017, para. 2)

Organization as author, date given

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Organization. (Full date). Title, section, or page name in sentence case and italics. URL

T: (Organization, year)

R: Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2017, April 6). Forging papers to sell fake art. https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art

T (first citation): (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (FBI, 2017)

No date given

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. or Organization. (n.d.). Title, section, or page name in sentence case and italics. Website Name in Title Case. Retrieved full date, from URL

T: (Author, n.d.)

R: Python, M. (n.d.). Finding a dead parrot on a silly walk. Ministry of Silly Walks. Retrieved January 7, 2020, from https://www.omgitsadeadparrot.com/feathers

T: (Python, n.d.)

Janes example

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Janes. (Full date). Title, section, or page name in sentence case and italics. URL

T: (Janes, year)

R: Janes. (2024, March 19). Mali: Country overview. https://customer.janes.com/CountryIntelligence/Countries/Country_986

T: (Janes, 2024)

Wikipedia

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Wikipedia

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Title of entry in sentence case. (n.d.). In Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Retrieved full date, from URL

T: ("Title of entry," n.d.)

R: Psychology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved May 17, 2011, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology

T: (“Psychology,” n.d.)

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Reference Entry      T = In-text Citation      See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of fact sheet in sentence case and italics [Working paper]. Institution or Company. DOI or URL
 
T: (Last Name, year)
R: Linguine, L. (2019). Anteaters and aardvarks: Power critters [Working paper]. Animal Rights Institute. https://www.aanda.power/careers.html
 
T: (Linguine, 2019)

 


Essential Rules


Author as Publisher

When the author and the publisher are the same, omit the publisher information from the reference entry to avoid repetition.

Author Names: Honorifics

Do not include honorifics (Dr., Col., Professor, etc.) when citing author names. Including these titles in the body of your document is acceptable.

Identifying Authors of Official Documents

For the National Security Strategy, cite the president as the author.

For other official documents, the author is the organization immediately responsible for creating the document. In the example below, the author is the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and the publisher is the Department of the Navy.

Identifying organizational authors

 

In the example above, the author is NOT an umbrella organization, signatory, or any of the following:

  • Chief of Naval Operations
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations
  • W. F. Moran
  • Department of Defense
  • Navy Pentagon
  • R. P. Burke
  • United States of America​

Do not include acronyms for organizations listed as authors in the List of References or footnotes:

  • YES: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.
  • NO: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO or OCNO).
  • NO: CNO or OCNO.

Bibliography vs. List of References

What is the difference between them?

  • A List of References includes all works cited in a text
  • A Bibliography lists all works cited and consulted

The NPS Thesis Processing Office prefers a List of References for the following: 

  • Thesis
  • Capstone project report
  • MBA report
  • Dissertation

For papers, check with your professors for their preference.

Capitalization: Title Case vs. Sentence case

Title Case Sentence case
Love among the Ruins: A Memoir of Life and Love in Hamburg, 1945 Love among the ruins: A memoir of life and love in Hamburg, 1945

Capitalize everything except:

  • conjunctions (and, but, or, etc.)
  • prepositions (to, of, on, among, between, etc.)
  • articles (a, an, the)

Capitalize only:

  • the first words in titles and subtitles
  • proper nouns

 

Note: Always format the information in your citations (titles, author names, etc.) according to the requirements of the citation style you are using, regardless of how it appears in the original source.

Country Names with Government Organizations

When naming government organizations, be consistent: for example, either Department of Defense or U.S. Department of Defense. If citing organizations from multiple countries, ensure that it is clear which organization is associated with which country—for example, Australian Department of Defence, South African Department of Defence, Sri Lanka Ministry of Defence, Singapore Ministry of Defence.

Equations

Every equation that is not field-specific common knowledge needs to be cited. You may weave the source into the narrative:

  • The next step was to apply the X method (Ochoa, 2022), to describe ...
  • Ochoa (2022) summarizes the derivation as follows ...

Here is an example of citing properly before the equation. Note the period at the end. Equations must function grammatically as part of the text:

Boito et al. (2015) address the widely used metric, the cost per flying hours (CPFH). The formula for CPFH is

APA citing an equation

Adapted from Moreau, P. P. (2022). A cost-effectiveness analysis of C-12 variant airborne ISR capabilities in the Marine Corps [Master's thesis, Naval Postgraduate School], NPS Archive: Calhoun. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/69689


And here is an example of how to cite an equation after it is presented:

Cost per Aircraft (PAI) was the next metric we looked at as an alternative. This metric, expressed as

APA citing an equation,

takes the total O&S costs and divides it by the total number of aircraft (Boito et al., 2015).

Adapted from Moreau, P. P. (2022). A cost-effectiveness analysis of C-12 variant airborne ISR capabilities in the Marine Corps [Master's thesis, Naval Postgraduate School], NPS Archive: Calhoun. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/69689

Figures / Images / Graphs

A citation is required if you did not wholly create the figure—i.e., if you used someone else's image or data. A citation is not needed when all elements of the figure are your own creation.

See Figure 1 for placement of the title and the in-text citation.

  • Put a period and a space after the title.
  • If you use the figure exactly as it appears in the source, use
    “Source: ___.”
  • If you alter the original figure or use someone else's image or data to create the figure, use “Adapted from ___.”

Figures image box

Figure 1.    A Figure with a Citation in APA, Chicago Author-Date, or INFORMS Style. Source: Author (2017).

or

Figure 1.    A Figure with a Citation in APA, Chicago Author-Date, or INFORMS Style. Adapted from Author (2017).


For more details, see the Thesis Template.

How Often to Cite?

  • Remember: one citation at the end of a string of sentences or a paragraph cannot “cover” the entire section.
     
  • Cite a source the first time it is used in each paragraph.
     
  • Every sentence thereafter in the paragraph that uses information from this same source must contain either a signal phrase or a citation clearly indicating where the information came from.
     
    • Note: always use a citation (even if you also use a signal phrase) every time you quote material.

In-text Citation Placement & Signal Phrases

Where in the sentence does my in-text citation go?
 

  • If you name your source(s) in a given sentence, a parenthetical citation containing only the year follows immediately after the name(s) of the author(s). Example: In contrast to earlier work by Abbott and Costello (1999), Laurel and Hardy (2008) propose an altogether different model for optimizing hat density.
     
    • If you quote a source that you have named in the sentence, the parenthetical citation gets split, with the page number(s) placed in parentheses immediately after the quoted material. Example: Schartz and Metterklume (2013), however, note that the Laurel–Hardy method produces "less than suboptimal millinerial outcomes" (p. 198) in the case of heavily laden peach-basket hats.
       
      • But compare what happens when the quotation comes first: The "less than suboptimal millinerial outcomes" reported by Schartz and Metterklume (2013, p. 198), however, continue to impede the development of sufficiently dense peach-basket hats.
         
  • If you do not name your source(s) in a given sentence, a single parenthetical citation goes at the end of the sentence or clause it covers (Goffman, 1974), inside the punctuation, like this (Melville, 1851).
     
    • If the sentence ends with a quotation, "close the quote, then place the citation between the quotation marks and the punctuation, like this” (Woolf, 1931, p. 14).
       
  • Do not insert spaces between a parenthetical citation and the punctuation that follows it.

 

In the paragraph below, the  parenthetical in-text citations are highlighted in yellow, and the signal phrases are in blue. Note that the second sentence is common knowledge, whereas the final sentence is clearly the opinion of the author.

In a 2009 Journal of Restaurant Marketing article, restaurateur Shawna Jackson contends that a restaurant’s color scheme influences how hungry its patrons are. Consider popular fast-food restaurants, which often use red and yellow in their advertising and décor. According to a study by Roberta Chen and David Lopez (2016), restaurant customers feel energized in red and yellow environments, which encourages them to order more food. The same study indicates that patrons feel relaxed in blue and purple environments, which encourages them to “spend more time considering the menu options and eat at a slower pace” (p. 29). Although blue décor can give your restaurant a more casual, laid-back feel (Chen & Lopez, 2016), Jackson believes it encourages patrons to linger at their tables without ordering additional food or beverages. Accordingly, it is difficult to identify a popular chain restaurant that decorates with calmer hues.

Missing Info

If any information is missing from a source (a journal with no volume number, for example), simply omit that information. For sources consulted in hardcopy, omit the URL and any additional verbiage that introduces it. Anything retrieved online, however, MUST have a link. The only exception is journals retrieved from a subscription database such as ProQuest. 

Multiple Authors, et al.

# of Authors Signal-phrase format Parenthetical format Reference List

One

Walker (2007) reported that ...

(Walker, 2007)

Walker, V. (2007). [then the remaining reference information]
Two

Walker and Allen (2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

Walker, V., & Allen, R. L. (2004).
More than two First author + et al.* First author + et al.* List all authors up to the first six, then follow the example below, ensuring the last author appears after the ellipsis.
Bradley et al. (2006) (Bradley et al., 2006) Bradley, K. S., Ramirez, H., Soo, T.,  Walsh J., Smith, W., Jones, F. ... Potatohead, M. (2006).

* When this form creates ambiguity (because two sources have the same first author and same year but different remaining authors), write out as many authors as needed to distinguish the sources, followed by "et al.":

  • Curie, Becquerel, et al. (1903)
  • Curie, Lippmann, et al. (1903)

By contrast, for multiple works from the same year by a certain group of authors, see the "Same Authors, Multiple Works" table.

Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). and  American Psychological Association. (2019). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

Multiple Works by the Same Author / Multiple Sources in One Citation

Examples given are for books; follow the appropriate style for the source type you are citing.

Source

Generic Example Actual Example

Multiple Works by Same Author
(same year, different sources)

  • List sources in alphabetical order by title in the List of References (ignoring initial "a," "an," or "the") and append a lowercase letter to the year or to "n.d." (n.d.a, n.d.b)
Source 1

R: Author, A. A. (Year + a). Title of book in sentence case and italics. Publisher.

T: (Author, year + a)

R: Hawthorne, M. (2006a). The cannibal’s dilemma: An unnatural history of four siblings. Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne, 2006a)

Source 2

R: Author, A. A. (Year + b). Title of book in sentence case and italics. Publisher.

T: (Author, year + b)

R: Hawthorne, M. (2006b). Having people for dinner: A guide for the home cook. Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne, 2006b)
Combined

T: (Author year + a, year + b)

T: (Hawthorne 2006a, 2006b)

Multiple Works by Same Author
(different year, different sources)

  • List sources in chronological order.
Source 1

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Hawthorne, M. (2006). Having people for dinner: A guide for the home cook. Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne, 2006)

Source 2

R: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case and italics. Publisher.

T: (Author, year)

R: Hawthorne, M. (2008). Regrets. Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne, 2008)
Combined

T: (Author, year 1, year 2)

T: (Hawthorne, 2006, 2008)

Multiple Sources in One Citation
(different authors, different years)

  • Place references in alphabetical order and separate them with a semicolon. Ensure all sources appear in the list of references.
Combined

T: (Author 1, year; Author 2, year; etc.)

(Hawthorne, n.d.b; Norton, 1998; Stulberg, 2014)

(Nekeip & Nywdlog, 2005; Qaga, 2007; Romato et al., 1995).

Authors with the Same Surname

  • If the authors of different sources share the same surname, include the authors' initials in the in-text citations (even if the year of publication differs). Initials help avoid confusion within the text and help users locate the correct entry in the reference list.
T: (A. A. Author, year; B. B. Author, year) (M. Curie, 1903; P. Curie, 1903)

Online Sources: Links

When listing an online document (for example, a thesis, report, or journal article) in the references, if possible, provide a DOI. If the source does not have a DOI, link to the document itself (PDF, etc.) or to the landing page that directs the reader to the full text. 

  • Do not insert a hard or soft return within the URL string: doing so breaks the link.
  • A DOI or URL does not belong in an in-text citation. Ever.

Page Numbers and Other Locators

In-text Citations

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
  • Example: (Haynes, 2009, p. 70)
  • If a source does not have page numbers, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. Such information might include the following:
Locator Options Example
heading or section name (okay to abbreviate a long heading or section name) Methods section
paragraph or section number para. 2
paras. 4–5
heading or section in combination with a paragraph number Chapter 3, para. 1
table, figure, or slide number Table 1.4
Figure 3
Slide 5
video or podcast time stamp 2:12
appendix number or letter Appendix C
  • Do not use Kindle location numbers with in-text citations. Provide the page numbers, or use one of the options above.
  • In citations especially of shorter electronic works presented as a single, searchable document, such locators may be unnecessary.

See: Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers


List of References/Bibliography

  • For portions of larger documents, such as journal articles and book chapters, include the page range.

    Example: Cordesman, A. H., Mausner, A., & Kasten, D. (2009). Introduction. In J. Smith (Ed.), Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces (pp. 1–12). Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Print vs. Online Sources

When citing a source retrieved online, use the "online" format even when you or someone else printed out the material. For example, if you print out a thesis or your advisor provides you with a printed thesis, it is still categorized as an online document.

Only cite as a print source when the material has been produced by a publisher in hard copy. For example, if you obtain a print journal or book from the library stacks, it is categorized as a printed source.

Retrieval Dates

Only include date retrieved if the source material has no date.

Secondary / Indirect Sources

An indirect source is a source that cites some other work that you discuss in your text.

Whenever possible, consult primary sources and your sources’ sources yourself. Upon investigation of the primary source, you may find you disagree with the indirect source author’s analysis or methods.


How to Incorporate Indirect Sources

The following passage incorporates a properly credited indirect source. The indirect source information is highlighted in yellow; the primary source information is highlighted in blue.

Walker (2008) describes Miguel Roig's 1999 experiment, which correlates inadequate paraphrasing in student writing with poor reading comprehension. Citing Roig’s data, Walker explains that "students do in fact possess skills necessary for paraphrasing but … may be impeded from applying those skills when dealing with rigorous text" (p. 387).

Note: Include only the indirect source (the source you consulted) in your reference list. 


For more information

See the TPO's "Citing Your Sources’ Sources" handout.

Tables

A citation is required if you did not wholly create the table—i.e., if you used someone else's data. A citation is not needed when all elements of the table are your own creation.

See Table 1 for placement of the title and the in-text citation.

  • Put a period and a space after the title.
  • If you use the table exactly as it appears in the source, use
    “Source: ___.”
  • If you alter the original table or if you use someone else's data to create the table, use “Adapted from ___.”

 

Table 1.    A Table with a Citation in APA, Chicago Author-Date, or INFORMS Style. Source: Author (2017).

or

Table 1.     A Table with a Citation in APA, Chicago Author-Date, or INFORMS Style. Adapted from Author (2017).

table


For more details, see the Thesis Template.

Translations and Works Not in English

For works with a translator, follow the format for edited sources but substitute "translated" for "edited" in the list of references. 

R: Manqué, M. Old and rejected poems. (1989). Translated by Hickinson, P. Narrow Fellow Press.


For works in languages other than English, format the title in sentence case, then give the translation, also in sentence case, in square brackets immediately following:

R: Manqué, M. (1992). "L'esthétique de l'échec" [The aesthetics of failure]. In Sweeney H. (Ed.), Éviter les clichés et des autres clichés [Avoiding clichés and other clichés], edited by Sweeney, H. 3–44. Stew & Offspring.

 

 

Additional Resources