Citation Guide

Chicago Author-Date: Citation Examples + Rules

Chicago Author-Date (17th ed.): Citation Examples & Essential Rules

   For NPS theses, papers, and publications: to cite properly, follow the citation examples and apply the essential rules.

Citation Examples

Essential Rules

 

If you do not see an example that matches your source type or the rule that you need, consult the Additional Resources for your style.


Citation Examples


arXiv

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

arXiv

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title of Work in Title Case.” ArXiv. Full date of publication or modification. DOI or URL.
 
T: (Author Last Name year)
 
R: Barterra, Kerner. 2023. “Great Grapes throughout History.” ArXiv. June 21, 2023. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.123456789.
 
T: (Barterra 2023, 16)

Blog

  • If the title does not contain the word "blog," add "(blog)" after the title.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the blog name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Post

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year of post. “Title of Entry in Title Case.” Title of Blog in Title Case and Italics (blog), full date of post. URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Dubner, Stephen J. 2014. “The Quality-Quantity Tradeoff Dilemma.” Freakonomics (blog), June 25, 2014. https://freakonomics.com/2014/06/25/the-quality-quantity-tradeoff-dilemma/.

T: (Dubner 2014)

Book

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
  • For works with a translator, follow the guidance for edited books but substitute "trans." for "ed." in the notes and "translated" for "edited" in the references.
Audiobook
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Audiobook

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Read by [Reader Name]. Place of Publication: Publisher. Audiobook Provider in Title Case, total length.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Thorton, Kany. 2023. My Life in the Stacks: A Memoir of Decimals, Decibels, and Cold Spaghetti. Read by Mattecca Norpiek. Monterey, CA: Silly Triangle Press. Audible, 738:47:33.

T: (Thorton 2023)

Chapter in Edited Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author, two editors

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title of Chapter in Title Case.” In Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edited by Editor1 and Editor2, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author Last Name year, page[s] cited)

R: Haynes, Peter. 2009. “Al-Qaeda, Oil Dependence, and U.S. Foreign Policy.” In Energy Security and Global Politics: The Militarization of Resource Management, edited by Daniel Moran and James A. Russell, 62–74. New York: Routledge.

T: (Haynes 2009, 70)

Three authors, one editor

From the introduction, forward, preface, etc.

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3. Year. “Title of Chapter in Title Case.” In Title of Book in Title Case and Italics, edited by Editor, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Last1, Last2, and Last3 year)

R: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. 2009. Introduction. In Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, edited by John Smith, 1–12. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

T: (Cordesman, Mausner, and Kasten 2009)

  • No quotation marks needed for book sections with generic names, such as Introduction, Foreword, Preface, etc.
Electronic Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

With Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or URL, from a book provider, or from a library database

DOI preferred

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

or

T: (Author Last Name year, loc. xxx)

DOI or URL  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Bonds, Mark Evan. 2014. Absolute Music: The History of an Idea. New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/
9780199343638.003.0002.

T: (Bonds 2014)

or

T: (Bonds 2014, chap. 2)


From a book provider  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Krishnan, Armin. 2008. War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. New York: Routledge. Kindle.

T: (Krishnan 2008, loc. 888)


From a library database  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Crabtree, John, and Ann Chaplin. 2013. Bolivia: Processes of Change. ProQuest.

T: (Crabtree and Chaplin 2013)

or

T: (Crabtree and Chaplin 2013, chap 2)

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Print Book
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

One author

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author year, page)

R: Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.

T: (Pollan 2006, 99–100)

Two authors with edition number

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Last1, First1, and First2 Last2. Year. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Last1 and Last2 year, page)

R: Strindberg, Anders, and Mats Wärn. 2011. Islamism: Religion, Radicalization and Resistance. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

T: (Strindberg and Wärn 2011, 14)

Three authors

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, and First3 Last3. Year. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Last1, Last2, and Last3 year, page)

R: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. 2009. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

T: (Cordesman, Mausner, and Kasten 2009, 50)

Four or more authors

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, First3 Last3, and First4 Last4. Year. Title of Book in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Last1 et al. year, page)

R: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, Eleanor Bermudashorts, and David Kasten. 2009. Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

T: (Cordesman et al. 2009, 50)
  • If the city of publication may be unknown to readers or may be confused with another city of the same name, the abbreviation of the state, province, or (sometimes) country is usually added. Washington is traditionally followed by DC, but other major cities, such as Los Angeles and Baltimore, need no state abbreviation.

Class Notes, Lecture, Presentation, Workshop

  • Class notes include lecture notes, slides, and any other course-related material published by an instructor.
  • If class notes are not available to your readers, format as a personal communication using professor's / lecturer's name and "class notes."
  • Class notes and lectures published to your online course site are considered unpublished.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Class Notes

Published

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Instructor Last Name, Instructor First Name. Year. “Title of Notes in Title Case.” Class notes for Class, Institution, Location of Institution, full date of class. URL or DOI.

T: (Instructor Last Name year)

R: Johnson, Justin. 2017. "Python NumPy Tutorial." Class notes for CS231n: Convolutional Neural Networks for Visual Recognition, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA. https://cs231n.github.io/python-numpy-tutorial/.

T: (Johnson 2017)

Lecture

Published

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Speaker Last Name, Speaker First Name. Year. “Title of Lecture in Title Case.” Lecture at Venue, Location of Venue. DOI or URL.

T: (Speaker Last Name year)

R: Horse, Belmont B. 2017. “Horseshoes and Hand Grenades: On the Joys of Approximation.” Lecture at Barnes Event Center, Derby, KY. https://horse.com/.

T: (Horse 2017)

Lecture

Unpublished

Class notes/unpublished lectures can be referred to in running text and omitted from the List of References.

In your text: See example.

In your text: Emily Potatohead, president of Happy Writers, Inc., gave a lecture titled “How to Write a Thesis” on March 29, 2013, at California State University, Monterey Bay. In her presentation, she described five steps to help streamline the writing process.
No in-text citation or reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Presentation or Workshop

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Presenter Last Name, Presenter First Name. Year of presentation. “Title of Presentation in Title Case.” Type of presentation at Venue, Location of Venue, full date of presentation. DOI or URL.

T: (Presenter Last Name year)

R: Randall, Lisa. 2002. “Unification in Warped Extra Dimensions and Bulk Holography.” Presentation at Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, July 19, 2002. https://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/
events/strings02/avt/randall/.

T: (Randall 2002)

Computer Program / Software

  • Citation is required only if the software is not well known.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Company or Creator Last Name, Creator First Name. Year published. Title of Software in Title Case, version number. Place of Publication. Accessed full date. DOI or URL.

T: (Company or Creator Last Name year)

B: Borenstein, Matthew, Lion Hedges, Jonah Higgins, and Hy Rothstein. 2005. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2. Englewood, NJ. Accessed February 3, 2016. https://www.meta-analysis.com.

T: (Borenstein et al. 2005)

Conference Paper / Proceedings

  • For examples of how to handle volume, issue, and month/season information, see Journal Article (print).
  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Conference Proceedings

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. “Title of Article in Title Case.” In Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics volume number (issue): starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)


How to cite multiple authors

R: Morentz, James W, Christopher Doyle, Lawrence Skelly, and Nabil Adam. 2009. “Unified Incident Command and Decision Support (UICDS) a Department of Homeland Security Initiative in Information Sharing.” In 2009 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security 182–87. https://doi.org/10.1109/THS.2009.5168032.

T: (Morentz et al. 2009)

Conference Proceedings

(print)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, First3 Last3, and First4 Last4. Year. “Title of Chapter in Title Case.” In Title of Proceedings or Collection in Title Case and Italics. Edited by Editor1, Editor2, Editor3, and Editor4, starting page of chapter–ending page of chapter. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Last1 et al. year)

R: Katz, Itai, Kevin Gabayan, Hamid Aghajan, and Daisy Germanshepherdhighness. 2007. “A Multi-touch Surface Using Multiple Cameras.” In Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 9th International Conference, edited by Jacques Blanc-Talon, Wilfried Philips, Dan Popescu, and Paul Scheunders, 97–108. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.

T: (Katz et al. 2007, 97–100)

Paper Presented at Conference

Unpublished

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Last1, First1, First2 Last2, First3 Last3, and First4 Last4. Year of presentation. “Title of Paper in Title Case.” Paper presented at Name of Conference in Title Case, Location of Conference.

T: (Last1 et al. year)

R: Teplin, Linda A., Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, and Jason J. Washburn. 2005. “Early Violent Death in Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, La Jolla, CA.

T: (Teplin et al. 2005)

Data Set / Database

  • Since an unpublished data set is irretrievable, it is treated as a personal communication and therefore not cited in references.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Data Set

Published

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. “Title of Data Set in Title Case.” Organization. DOI or URL.

R: Suro, Roberto. 2004. “Changing Channels and Crisscrossing Culture: A Survey of Latinos on News Media.” Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2004/04/19/changing-channels-and-crisscrossing-cultures/.

T: (Suro 2004)

Data Set

Unpublished

R: None

T: (Author First and Last Name, unpublished data, full date data was received)

R: None

T: (Rebecca Kanteen, unpublished data, May 23, 1955)
No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Database

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Database Name (record locator; accessed full date). DOI or URL.

T: (Database Name year [use n.d. if regularly updated])

R: NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (object name IRAS F00400+4059; accessed October 6, 2009). https://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/.

T: (NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database, n.d.)

R: GenBank (for RP11-322N14 BAC [accession number AC017046]; accessed October 6, 2020). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank/.

T: (GenBank, n.d.)

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

  • Repeat the year with the month and day to avoid any confusion.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the dictionary or encyclopedia name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Author given

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. S.v. “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun.” Accessed or modified full date. URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Bowhead, Beau. 2023. "Whale Cheese." In Cheese, Pleese: The Encyclopedia of Obscure and Unusual Cheeses. Curd Your Enthusiasm Co. Last modified December 20, 2023. https://www.cheesepleese.com/pleese/whalecheese.

T: (Bowhead 2023)

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Organization as author

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Title of Reference Work in Title Case and Italics. Year. S.v. “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun.” Accessed or modified full date. URL.

T: (Reference Work year)

R: Merriam-Webster. 2017. S.v. “metamorphosis.” Accessed July 6, 2017. https://www.merriam-webster.com/
dictionary/metamorphosis.

T: (Merriam-Webster 2017)

Fact Sheet

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Fact Sheet

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Department. Year. “Title of Fact Sheet in Title Case.” DOI or URL.

T: (Department year)

R: Department of Labor. 2008. “The Construction Industry under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).” https://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs1.htm.

T: (Department of Labor 2008)

Government / Military Document

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Directive
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Directive

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Department. Year. Title of Directive in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher = Department. DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Department of Defense. 2005. Information Assurance Training, Certification, and Workforce Management. DOD Directive 8570.01-M. Washington, DC: Department of Defense. https://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/
Documents/DD/issuances/dodm/857001m.pdf.

T (first citation): (Department of Defense [DOD] 2005)

T (subsequent citations): (DOD 2005)

Doctrine
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Doctrine

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Department. Year. Title of Joint Doctrine in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher = Department. DOI or URL.

T: (Department year)

R: Joint Chiefs of Staff. 2017. Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States. JP 1. Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff. https://fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp1.pdf.

T: (Joint Chiefs of Staff 2017, 33)

Field Manual / Military Regulation
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Field Manual / Military Regulation

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Department. Year. Title of Field Manual in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher = Department. DOI or URL.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Department of the Army. 1994. Sniper Training. FM 23-10. Washington, DC: Department of the Army. https://www.bits.de/NRANEU/
others/amd-us-archive/fm_23-10%2894%29.pdf.

T (first citation): (Department of the Army [DA] 1994)

T (subsequent citations): (DA 1994, 6)

Government Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

 

Government Report

CRS Report  

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

CRS Report  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Erwin, Marshall C. 2013. Intelligence Issues for Congress. CRS Report No. RL33539. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf.

T: (Erwin 2013, 16)

GAO Report

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author Last Name year)

GAO Report  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Berrick, Cathleen A. 2009. Homeland Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity. GAO-10-106. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office.

T: (Berrick 2009, 22)

Strategy Document / Other Government Report

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name or Department. Year. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher. DOI or URL. 

T: (Last Name or Department year)

Strategy Document / Other Government Report  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Biden, Joseph R., Jr. 2022. National Security Strategy of the United States of America. Washington, DC: White House. https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/Biden-Harris-Administrations-National-Security-Strategy-10.2022.pdf.

T: (Biden 2022, 12)

Instruction
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Instruction

Zotero Opens in new window

 

R: Department. Year. Title of Instruction in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher = Department.

T (first citation): (Department [Acronym] year)

T (subsequent citations): (Acronym year)

R: Department of Defense. 2012. Identification (ID) Cards Required by the Geneva Convention. DOD Instruction 1000.01. Washington, DC: Department of Defense.

T (first citation): (Department of Defense [DOD] 2012, 95)

T (subsequent citations): (DOD 2012, 8)

Memorandum
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Memorandum

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title of Memo in Title Case.” Official memorandum. Place of Publication: Department. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Takai, Teresa M. 2013. “Adoption of the National Information Exchange Model within the Department of Defense.” Official memorandum. Washington, DC: Department of Defense. https://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/
2013-03-28%20Adoption%20of%20the%20NIEM%20within%20the%20DoD.pdf.

T: (Takai 2013, 18)

Handbook

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Name of Company. Year. Title of Handbook in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication. DOI or URL.

T: (Name of Company year)

R: Western Spud. 1972. Transmission Systems for Potatoes. 168th ed. Kinston-Slalom, ID. https://www.spud.org/potato/transmission/grease.html.

T: (Western Spud 1972, 954)

Print

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Western Electric. 1985. Transmission Systems for Communications. 3rd ed. Winston-Salem, NC.

T: (Western Electric 1985, 2)

Journal Article

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

DOI preferred

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number (xx) (Month or Season): starting page of article–ending page of article. DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case.

T: (Author Last Name year, page[s])


How to cite multiple authors

DOI or URL  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Long, Janice R., and Cat Dragon. 2024. “Happy on a Monday: This and Other Signs You're Retired.” Python Dreams 19 (2) (April): 2007–2024. https://doi.org/10.0000/123456789000.

T: (Long and Dragon 2024)


From a library database  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Giannopoulou, Zina. 2014. “Prisoners of Plot in José Saramago’s The Cave.” Philosophy and Literature 38 (2) (October): 332–49. Project MUSE.

T: (Giannopoulou 2014, 338)

Print

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics volume number (xx) (Month or Season): starting page of article–ending page of article.

T: (Author Last Name year, page[s])

R: Liu, Jui-Ch'i. 2015. “Beholding the Feminine Sublime: Lee Miller’s War Photography.” Signs 40 (2) (Winter): 308–19.

T: (Liu 2015, 312)

Legal

  • Legal publications use notes for documentation; few include bibliographies. Any work using the author-date style that needs to do more than mention the occasional source in the text should therefore use supplementary Chicago Notes & Bibliography footnotes formatting. For a full discussion of legal and public documents, including examples, see CMOS 14.269–305.
Bill / Resolution
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Federal unenacted

R: None

T: None

In your text: (Abbreviated Bill or Resolution Chamber and Number, xxx Cong. (year))

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: The Managed Competition Act (H.R. 5936, 102nd Cong. (1992)) noted that potatoes are smarter than E. coli–laden cats . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

No in-text citation or reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.
Code of Federal Regulations
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Code of Federal Regulations

R: None

T: None

In your text: Include name of act, C.F.R. title number and section number (title number C.F.R. § xxx), and year published.

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In 2006, the Department of Energy introduced the Renewable Energy Production Incentives (10 C.F.R. § 451), which . . .

or

In 10 C.F.R. § 451 (2006), the Department of Energy establishes guidelines on Renewable Energy Production Incentives, which . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

No in-text citation or reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.
Congressional Hearing / Testimony within a Hearing
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Congressional Hearing 

Full hearing

R: None

T: None

In your text: Include title of hearing, date, and any other useful identifying information.

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In 2009, the House Committee on the Budget held a hearing on the Long-term Sustainability of Current Defense Plans to ascertain . . . 

Footnote: See header notes.

No in-text citation or reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Testimony within a Hearing

R: None

T: None

In your text: Include name of testifier, title of hearing, date, and any other useful identifying information.

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In his 2015 testimony during the NASA Infrastructure–Enabling Discovery, Enabling Durability hearing, NASA lead scientist Paul K. Martin remarked that . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

No in-text citation or reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.
Court Case Decision
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Lower court

R: None

T: None

In your text: Party Names (Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter, first page of decision, abbreviated name of the court (if not indicated by the reporter) and the date together in parentheses])

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In the case Lessard v. Schmidt (349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972)), the court ruled that . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

No in-text citation or reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Supreme Court

R: None

T: None

In your text: Party Names (Case ID [includes volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter(s), first page of the decision, and the date in parentheses)

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In the case Winter v. NRDC, Inc. (129 S. Ct. 365 (2008)), the court ruled that . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

No in-text citation or reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.
Executive Order
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Executive Order

R: None

T: None

In your text: Include "Title of Executive Order in Title Case," executive order number, and year.

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: In 2013, Executive Order 13655, "Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay," established that . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

No in-text citation or reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.
Public Law
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Public Law

R: None

T: None

In your text: Include the title and year of the act.

Note: if the year is included in the title of the act, there is no need to repeat it.

Footnote: See header notes.

R: None

T: None

In your text: The 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act established . . .

Footnote: See header notes.

No in-text citation or reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Magazine Article

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the magazine name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online
 

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, full date of publication. DOI or URL or  Name of Database in Title Case.

T: (Last Name year)

DOI or URL  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Preposterous, Geronimo. 2017. "Mai Tais and Milkshakes: A Fast Ride to the ER." Libation Incidents Monthly, February 1, 2017. https://pollock.trashcan.com/2017/02/22/mtmer.

T: (Preposterous 2017, 456)


From a library database  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Preposterous, Geronimo. 2020. "Mojitos and Mussels: New Frontiers in Smoothie Formulation." Libation Incidents Monthly, January 1, 2020. EBSCO.

T: (Preposterous 2020, 201)

Print

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title of Article in Title Case,” Title of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, full date of publication.

T: (Last Name year)

R: Preposterous, Geronimo. 2017. "Martinis and Mackerel: From Seafood to See Food." Libation Incidents Monthly, March 1, 2017.

T: (Preposterous 2017)

Map

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Google Map

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Google Maps. Year accessed. “Title of Map in Title Case.” Accessed full date. URL.

T: (Google Maps year)

R: Google Maps. 2017. “Monterey Bay.” Accessed January 4, 2017.
 https://www.google.com/maps/place/Monterey+Bay/
@36.7896106,-122.0843052,11z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x808e0ccfc5859dfd:
0x124654a608855d43!8m2!3d36.8007413!4d-121.947311.

T: (Google Maps 2017)

Cartographer given

R: Map Source or Maker in Title Case. Year. “Title of Map in Title Case.” Accessed full date. DOI or URL.

T: (Map Source or Maker in Title Case year)

R: Lewis County Geographic Information Services. 2014. “Population Density, 2000 U.S. Census.” Accessed January 4, 2017. https://maps.lewiscountywa.gov/maps/Demographics/census-popdens_2000.pdf.

T: (Lewis County Geographic Information Services 2014)

Multimedia

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Film

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Director Last Name, Director First Name, dir. Year originally released. Title of Film in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher, year published of the copy you are using. Medium or DOI or URL.

T: (Director Last Name, year originally released)

R: Hitchcock, Alfred, dir. 1959. North by Northwest. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000. DVD. 

T: (Hitchcock 1959)

Podcast

or

Video

News, YouTube, or any kind of streaming video

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name or Organization or Screen Name. Year. “Title of Video in Title Case.” Media type, length of podcast or video. Full date of posting. URL.

T: (Author or Organization or Screen Name year)

R: CNN. 2017. “US Military Sends Warships, Aircraft to Texas.” Video, August 31, 2017. 1:31. https://www.cnn.com/2017/08/30/politics/texas-harvey-flooding-military-response/.

T: (CNN 2017)


R: BellaFolletti. 2009. “Possible Ghost Caught on Surveillance Camera.” YouTube video, April 8, 2009, 1:19. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dq1ms2JhYBI.

T: (BellaFolletti 2009)

Newspaper Article

  • Do not use the leading word “the” when referencing newspaper names in list of references (New York Times, not The New York Times).
  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the newspaper name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Online

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, full date of publication. DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case.

T: (Author Last Name year)

DOI or URL, Author given  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Brody, Jane E. 2007. “Mental Reserves Keep Brains Agile.” New York Times, December 11, 2007. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11brod.html.

T: (Brody 2007, 5)


From a library database  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Brady, Joan. 2020. “Mental Reserves Keep Brains Delicious.” New Pork Times, January 24, 2020. Lexis Advance.

T: (Brady 2020, 65)

Print

No author given

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Title of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics. Year. “Title of Article in Title Case,” full date of publication. DOI or URL.

T: (Title of Newspaper year)

R: Monterey Gerald. 2014. “Local Otters Find Tourists 'Incredibly Cute,'” April 5, 2014.

T: (Monterey Gerald 2014, 8)

Patent

  • If a patent has more than one date, use the year of issuance.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Patent

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Rightsholder Last Name, Rightsholder First Name. Year issued. Title of patent in sentence case. U.S. Patent xxxxxxx, filed full date, and issued full date. DOI or URL.

T: (Rightsholder Last Name year issued)

R: Bell, Alexander Graham. 1876. Improvement in telegraphy. U.S. Patent 174465A, filed February 14, 1876, and issued March 7, 1876. https://www.google.com/patents/US174465.

T: (Bell 1876)

Personal Communication: Email, Interview, Personal Communication

  • Cite in-text only.
  • Personal communication is material obtained directly from a person, organization, or other source that your typical readers will be unable to access.
  • A source should be cited as a personal communication when there is no direct, reliable path for your readers to retrieve the information. Examples include phone calls, conversations, letters, emails, files attached to an email, internal documents, documents posted to a listserv or internal server, or any unpublished source to which your readers have no access.
  • If a personal name is not given, include an occupation or position instead. Example: (lieutenant commander, USN, personal communication, April 11, 2022).
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Email

(including attachments such as presentation slides, data sets, internal documents, etc.)

R: None

T: (Sender, email message to author, full date of email)

or

In your text: (email message to author, full date of email)

R: None

T: (Q. Grumbupple, email to author, October 22, 1994)

or

In your text: According to Quentin Grumbupple (email to author, October 22, 1994) 
No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Interview

R: None

In your text: Interviewee Name (interviewee title), in discussion with the author, full date of interview.

R: None

In your text: . . . as claimed by Osiris Jones (professor of octopus kinesiology, University of Headfoot), in discussion with the author, June 1, 2012.

No in-text citation or reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Personal Communication

R: None

T: (Interlocutor Name, type of communication, full date)

R: None

T: (Sandi Lopez, personal communication, September 8, 2009)

No reference entry is needed. Zotero will not be used to cite.

Report

  • An official report is freestanding and should have publisher and/or copyright information. If it is not freestanding, then format it as a webpage.
  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Research Report / Think Tank Report / White Paper
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author 1 Last Name, Author 1 First Name, Author 2 First and Last Name, . . . Author 7 First and Last Name et al. Year. Title of Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher. DOI or URL or Name of Database.

T: (Author 1 Last Name et al. Year)


How to cite multiple authors

R: Dixon, Lloyd, Noreen Clancy, Benjamin M. Miller, Sue Hoegberg, Michael M. Lewis, Bruce Bender, Samara Ebinger et al. 2017. The Cost and Affordability of Flood Insurance in New York City. RR-1776-NYCEDC. Santa Monica, CA: RAND. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1776.html.

T: (Dixon et al. 2017, 5)

Technical Report
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Agency as author

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Agency Name. Year. Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. DOI or URL.

T: (Agency year)

R: National Toxicology Program. 2012. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate (Technical Grade) (CASRN 15625-89-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice (Dermal Studies). Report No. TR-576. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23385646/.

T: (National Toxicology Program 2012, 18)

Author given

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. DOI or URL or Name of Database in Title Case.

T: (Author year)


How to cite multiple authors

R: Tang, K. Linda, and Daniel R. Eignor. 2001. A Study in the Use of Collateral Statistical Information in Attempting to Reduce TOEFL IRT Item Parameter Estimation Sample Sizes. Report Numbers RR-01-11, TOEFL-TR-17. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, https://www.ets.org/research/policy_
research_reports/publications/report/2001/hsfb.

T: (Tang and Eignor 2001, 22)

Author given

(print)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. Title of Technical Report in Title Case and Italics. Document identification number. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author year)

R: Jones, Larry, and Florence Johnson. 2015. The Absorption Rate of E. coli in Cats. Report No. 17-59. Madison, WI: Veterinary Studies.

T: (Jones and Johnson 2015, 6)

Secondary / Indirect Source

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Secondary / Indirect Source

Zotero Opens in new window

R: List the indirect source that quotes or discusses the material you are referring to (cite using the appropriate format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.)

In your text: Mention the primary source, then cite the indirect source using the appropriate in-text format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.

R: Nicholson, Ian A. M. 2003. Inventing Personality: Gordon Allport and the Science of Selfhood. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

In your text: We can see this principle at work in the following passage from Allport’s diary, quoted in Nicholson: “ . . . ” (2003, 59).

Social Media

Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc.

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author or Organization (handle if not Facebook). Year. "Title of post or shortened tweet text in sentence case." Platform, full date, timestamp for tweets only. URL.

T: (Author or Organization year)

R: Babygiraffe (@babygiraffehaslastlaugh). 2016. "I'm cuter than any stupid potato. They don't even have necks." Twitter, April 3, 2016, 5:02 a.m. https://twitter.com/babygiraffehaslastlaugh/status/53645653465436354.

T: (Babygiraffe 2016)

Speech

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Speech

R: List the source that quotes or reprints the speech you are referring to (cite using the appropriate reference-list format for the source type—book, journal article, etc.).


In your text: Include the name of the speaker and cite the source.

R: Smith, Jacob, ed. 2009. Well Said! Great Speeches in American History. Washington, DC: E & K Publishing.

In your text: Martin Luther King, Jr. declared, “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed” (Smith 2009, 18).

Thesis / Dissertation

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

From a commercial database

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case.” Type of document, Institution. Name of Database in Title Case (document identification number).

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago. ProQuest (AAT 3300426).

T: (Choi 2008, 22)

From an institutional archive such as the NPS Archive: Calhoun

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title of Thesis/Dissertation in Title Case.” Type of document, Institution. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

Dissertation  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Rivera, Joey. 2010. “Software System Architecture Modeling Methodology for Naval Gun Weapon Systems.” PhD diss., Naval Postgraduate School. https://hdl.handle.net/10945/10504.

T: (Rivera 2010, 15)


Thesis  Zotero Opens in new window

R: Moon, Thomas D. 2009. “Rising Dragon: Infrastructure Development and Chinese Influence in Vietnam.” Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/4694.

T: (Moon 2009)

Unpublished / Informally Published Work

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Unpublished Work

(print)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year viewed. “Title of Work in Title Case.” Unpublished [type of work], Full date viewed.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Horse, Belmont B. 1995. “Back in the Saddle.” Unpublished manuscript, May 3, 1995.

T: (Horse 1995)

Unpublished Work

Accepted for publication

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Forthcoming. “Title of Article in Title Case.” Title of Journal in Title Case and Italics. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name, forthcoming)

R: Briscoe, Robert. Forthcoming. “Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf.

T: (Briscoe, forthcoming)

Unpublished Work

Submitted for publication

(online)

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year modified. “Title of Work in Title Case.” Unpublished, last modified full date. DOI or URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Horse, Belmont B. 1996. “Back in the Saddle 2: Back in the Saddle.” Unpublished, last modified December 24, 1996. https://horse.com/bits2bits.

T: (Horse 1996)

Website / Webpage

  • The title of a website rarely includes ".com"—for example, BBC online is "BBC," not "BBC.com."
  • Italicize newspaper names but not names of news organizations—for example, New York Times but not Reuters, Bloomberg, CNN, etc. These news organizations only have an online presence, whereas the New York Times also has a print counterpart.
  • Follow the guidance in the Essential Rules for including page numbers.
  • Do not use "Staff Writer" or "Editors" as the author; if no author name is listed, use the organization name.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Author and publication date given

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Organization. Full date of publication or modification. URL.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Roth, Richard. 2017. “75 Years Ago, the Doolittle Raid Changed History.” CNN. Last modified April 18, 2017. https://www.cnn.com/2017/04/18/us/75th-anniversary-doolittle-raid/index.html.

T: (Roth 2017)

No author given

Organization as author

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Organization. Year. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Full date of publication or last modification. URL.

T: (Organization year)

R: Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2017. “Forging Papers to Sell Fake Art.” April 6, 2017. https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/forging-papers-to-sell-fake-art.

T (first citation): (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI] 2017)

T (subsequent citations): (FBI 2017) 

No date given

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Organization. n.d. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Accessed full date. URL.

T: (Organization, n.d.)

R: Department of Defense. n.d. “About the Department of Defense (DOD).” Accessed April 18, 2017. https://www.defense.gov/About/.

T (first citation): (Department of Defense [DOD], n.d.) 

T (subsequent citations): (DOD, n.d.) 

Janes example

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Janes. Year. “Title, Section, or Page Name in Title Case.” Full date of publication or last modification.

T: (Janes 2017)

R: Janes. 2024. “Mali: Country Overview.” Last modified March 19, 2024. https://customer.janes.com/CountryIntelligence/Countries/Country_986.

T: (Janes 2024)

Wikipedia

  • Wikipedia is not normally an accepted source in academia; please ask your instructor or advisor.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Wikipedia

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Wikipedia. Year. S.v. “title of entry in lowercase unless proper noun.” Full date of access or last modification. URL.

T: (Wikipedia year)

R: Wikipedia. 2017. S.v. “Kurt Vonnegut.” Last modified July 8, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Vonnegut.

T: (Wikipedia 2017)

Working Paper / Occasional Paper

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
Source Type Generic Example Actual Example
R = Bibliography / List of References entry       T = In-text Citation       See also Capitalization (Title Case / Sentence case)

Working Paper /
Occasional Paper

Zotero Opens in new window

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. “Title of Working Paper in Title Case.” Working paper, Institution or Company. DOI or URL.
 
T: (Author Last Name year)
 
R: Linguine, Lila. 2014. “Anteaters and Aardvarks: Power Critters.” Working paper, Animal Rights Institute. www.aanda.power/careers.html.
 
T: (Linguine 2014, 8)

 


Essential Rules


Accessed Dates

Only include date accessed if the source material has no date.

Author Names: Honorifics

Do not include honorifics (Dr., Col., Professor, etc.) when citing author names. Including these titles in the body of your document is acceptable.

Identifying Authors of Official Documents

For the National Security Strategy, cite the president as the author.

For other official documents, the author is the organization immediately responsible for creating the document. In the example below, the author is the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and the publisher is the Department of the Navy.

Identifying organizational authors

 

In the example above, the author is NOT an umbrella organization, signatory, or any of the following:

  • Chief of Naval Operations
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations
  • W. F. Moran
  • Department of Defense
  • Navy Pentagon
  • R. P. Burke
  • United States of America​

Do not include acronyms for organizations listed as authors in the List of References or footnotes:

  • YES: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.
  • NO: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO or OCNO).
  • NO: CNO or OCNO.

Bibliography vs. List of References

What is the difference between them?

  • A List of References includes all works cited in a text
  • A Bibliography lists all works cited and consulted

The NPS Thesis Processing Office prefers a List of References for the following: 

  • Thesis
  • Capstone project report
  • MBA report
  • Dissertation

For papers, check with your professors for their preference.

Capitalization: Title Case vs. Sentence case

Title Case Sentence case
Love among the Ruins: A Memoir of Life and Love in Hamburg, 1945 Love among the ruins: A memoir of life and love in Hamburg, 1945

Capitalize everything except:

  • conjunctions (and, but, or, etc.)
  • prepositions (to, of, on, among, between, etc.)
  • articles (a, an, the)

Capitalize only:

  • the first words in titles and subtitles
  • proper nouns

 

Note: Always format the information in your citations (titles, author names, etc.) according to the requirements of the citation style you are using, regardless of how it appears in the original source.

Country Names with Government Organizations

When naming government organizations, be consistent: for example, either Department of Defense or U.S. Department of Defense. If citing organizations from multiple countries, ensure that it is clear which organization is associated with which country—for example, Australian Department of Defence, South African Department of Defence, Sri Lanka Ministry of Defence, Singapore Ministry of Defence.

Figures / Images / Graphs

A citation is required if you did not wholly create the figure—i.e., if you used someone else's image or data. A citation is not needed when all elements of the figure are your own creation.

See Figure 1 for placement of the title and the in-text citation.

  • Put a period and a space after the title.
  • If you use the figure exactly as it appears in the source, use
    “Source: ___.”
  • If you alter the original figure or use someone else's image or data to create the figure, use “Adapted from ___.”

Figures image box

Figure 1.    A Figure with a Citation in APA, Chicago Author-Date, or INFORMS Style. Source: Author (2017).

or

Figure 1.    A Figure with a Citation in APA, Chicago Author-Date, or INFORMS Style. Adapted from Author (2017).


For more details, see the Thesis Template.

How Often to Cite?

  • Remember: one citation at the end of a string of sentences or a paragraph cannot “cover” the entire section.
     
  • Cite a source the first time it is used in each paragraph.
     
  • Every sentence thereafter in the paragraph that uses information from this same source must contain either a signal phrase or a citation clearly indicating where the information came from.
     
    • Note: always use a citation (even if you also use a signal phrase) every time you quote material.

In-text Citation Placement & Signal Phrases

Where in the sentence does my in-text citation go?

 

  • If you name your source(s) in a given sentence, a parenthetical citation containing only the year always follows immediately after the name(s) of the author(s). Example: In contrast to earlier work by Abbott and Costello (1999), Laurel and Hardy (2008) propose an altogether different model for optimizing hat density.
     
  • If you do not explicitly name your source(s) in a given sentence, a single parenthetical citation goes at the end of the sentence or clause it covers (Goffman 1974), inside the punctuation, like this (Melville 1851).
    • “If the sentence ends with a quotation, close the quote, then place the citation between the quotation marks and the punctuation, like this” (Woolf 1931, 14).
       
  • Do not insert spaces between a parenthetical citation and the punctuation that follows it.

In the paragraph below, the  parenthetical in-text citations are highlighted in yellow, and the signal phrases are in blue. Note that the second sentence is common knowledge, whereas the final sentence is clearly the opinion of the author.

In a 2009 Journal of Restaurant Marketing article, restaurateur Shawna Jackson contends that a restaurant’s color scheme influences how hungry its patrons are. Consider popular fast-food restaurants, which often use red and yellow in their advertising and décor. According to a study by Roberta Chen and David Lopez (2016), restaurant customers feel energized in red and yellow environments, which encourages them to order more food. The same study indicates that patrons feel relaxed in blue and purple environments, which encourages them to “spend more time considering the menu options and eat at a slower pace” (29). Although blue décor can give your restaurant a more casual, laid-back feel (Chen and Lopez 2016), Jackson believes it encourages patrons to linger at their tables without ordering additional food or beverages. Accordingly, it is difficult to identify a popular chain restaurant that decorates with calmer hues.

Missing Info

If any information is missing from a source (a journal with no volume number, for example), simply omit that information. For sources consulted in hardcopy, omit the URL and any additional verbiage that introduces it. Anything retrieved online, however, MUST have a link. The only exception is journals retrieved from a subscription database such as ProQuest. 

Multiple Authors, et al.

  • Up to three authors:
    • In the reference list, include all of them
    • In the text, include all of them
       
  • Four to ten authors:
    • In the reference list, include all of them
    • In the text, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”)
       
  • More than ten authors:
    • In the reference list, include only the first seven, followed by et al.
    • In the text, list only the first author, followed by et al.

Multiple Works by the Same Author / Multiple Sources in One Citation

Examples given are for books; follow the appropriate style for the source type you are citing.

Source Generic Example Actual Example

Multiple Works by Same Author
(same year, different sources)

  • List sources in alphabetical order by title in the List of References (ignoring initial "a," "an," or "the") and append a lowercase letter to the year.
Source 1

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published + a. Title of Book 1 in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author Last Name year + a)

R: Hawthorne, Pat. 2006a.The Cannibal’s Dilemma: An Unnatural History of Four Siblings. New York: Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne 2006a)

Source 2

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published + b. Title of Book 2 in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author Last Name year + b)

R: Hawthorne, Pat. 2006b. Having People for Dinner: A Guide for the Home Cook. New York: Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne 2006b)

Combined T (both sources): (Author Last Name year + a, year + b) T (both sources): (Hawthorne 2006a, 2006b)

Multiple Works by Same Author
(different year, different sources)

  • List sources in chronological order.
Source 1

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. Title of Book 1 in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author Last Name year, page)

R: Hawthorne, Pat. 2006. Having People for Dinner: A Guide for the Home Cook. New York: Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne 2006, 99–100)

Source 2

R: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year published. Title of Book 2 in Title Case and Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

T: (Author Last Name year)

R: Hawthorne, Pat. 2008. Regrets. New York: Penguin.

T: (Hawthorne 2008)
Combined T (both sources): (Author Last Name year 1, year 2) T (both sources): (Hawthorne 2006, 2008)

Multiple Sources in One Citation
(different authors, different years)

  • Place references in alphabetical order and separate them with a semicolon. Ensure all authors appear in the list of references.
  • "Where two or more works by different authors with the same last name are listed in a reference list, the text citation must include an initial (or two initials or a given name if necessary)." CMOS 15.22
Combined

T: (Author 1 Last Name year; Author 2 Last Name year)

T: (Fiddleywink and Snort 2005; Munglesnee, Grumpernickel, and Smith 1995; Otatop 2007).

T: (Q. Fiddleywink 1975; Z. Fiddleywink 1982)

No Date Given

To cite an undated document, use n.d. (no date). Ensure a comma separates the author or organization name and the year in parenthetical citations. For example: (Househill, n.d.).

Online Sources: Links

When listing an online document (for example, a thesis, report, or journal article) in the references, if possible, provide a DOI. If the source does not have a DOI, link to the document itself (PDF, etc.) or to the landing page that directs the reader to the full text. 

  • Do not insert a hard or soft return within the URL string: doing so breaks the link.
  • A DOI or URL does not belong in an in-text citation. Ever.

Page Numbers and Other Locators

In-text Citations

  • Include page numbers in in-text citations when citing quoted material.
  • Example: (Haynes 2009, 70)
  • No page number is needed in an in-text citation when you are referring to the source as a whole. For example: “George W. Bush’s Decision Points recounts pivotal moments during his time in office.”

If the source does not contain page numbers, often with electronic formats, include as much information as needed for the reader to locate the material. In citations especially of shorter electronic works presented as a single, searchable document, such locators may be unnecessary.

Locator Options Example
heading or section name (okay to abbreviate a long heading or section name) Methods section
paragraph or section number para. 2
sec. 24
chap, heading, or section in combination with a paragraph number chap. 3, para. 1
descriptive phrase under "The Battleground"
location numbers loc. 444 of 3023, Kindle
table, figure, or slide number

table 1.4
fig. 3
slide 5

video or podcast time stamp 2:12
appendix number or letter Appendix C

See CMOS 15.23: Page and volume numbers or other specific locators in text citations.
 

In the list of references/bibliography
For portions of larger documents, such as journal articles and book chapters, include the page range.

Example

R: Cordesman, Anthony H., Adam Mausner, and David Kasten. 2009. Introduction. In Winning in Afghanistan: Creating Effective Afghan Security Forces, edited by John Smith, 1–12. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Print vs. Online Sources

When citing a source retrieved online, use the "online" format even when you or someone else printed out the material. For example, if you print out a thesis or your advisor provides you with a printed thesis, it is still categorized as an online document.

Only cite as a print source when the material has been produced by a publisher in hard copy. For example, if you obtain a print journal or book from the library stacks, it is categorized as a printed source.

Secondary / Indirect Sources

An indirect source is a source that cites some other work that you discuss in your text.

Whenever possible, consult primary sources and your sources’ sources yourself. Upon investigation of the primary source, you may find you disagree with the indirect source author’s analysis or methods.


How to Incorporate Indirect Sources

The following passage incorporates a properly credited indirect source. The indirect source information is highlighted in yellow; the primary source information is highlighted in blue.

Walker (2008) describes Miguel Roig's 1999 experiment, which correlates inadequate paraphrasing in student writing with poor reading comprehension. Citing Roig’s data, Walker explains that "students do in fact possess skills necessary for paraphrasing but … may be impeded from applying those skills when dealing with rigorous text" (387).

Note: Include only the indirect source (the source you consulted) in your reference list. 


For more information

See the TPO's "Citing Your Sources’ Sources" handout.

Tables

A citation is required if you did not wholly create the table—i.e., if you used someone else's data. A citation is not needed when all elements of the table are your own creation.

See Table 1 for placement of the title and the in-text citation.

  • Put a period and a space after the title.
  • If you use the table exactly as it appears in the source, use
    “Source: ___.”
  • If you alter the original table or if you use someone else's data to create the table, use “Adapted from ___.”

 

Table 1.    A Table with a Citation in APA, Chicago Author-Date, or INFORMS Style. Source: Author (2017).

or

Table 1.     A Table with a Citation in APA, Chicago Author-Date, or INFORMS Style. Adapted from Author (2017).

table


For more details, see the Thesis Template.

Additional Resources